Presidency of George W. Bush

Presidency of George W. Bush

Infobox President
name = Presidency of George W. Bush

order = 43rd
office = President of the United States
term_start = January 20 2001
term_end = January 20 2009
vicepresident = Dick Cheney
predecessor = Bill Clinton
successor = Incumbent
birth_date = birth date and age|1946|07|6
birth_place =New Haven, Connecticut
party = Republican
spouse = Laura Bush
occupation=Businessman (Oil, Baseball), President of the United States
residence = Crawford, Texas
religion = United Methodist

footnotes =|

The Presidency of George W. Bush began on his inauguration on January 20, 2001 as the 43rd and current President of the United States of America. The oldest son of former United States President George H. W. Bush, George W. Bush was elected president in the 2000 general election. Bush was re-elected in 2004 as president.

Bush's term is scheduled to end January 20 2009.


Although losing the national popular vote, the Supreme Court decision in "Bush v. Gore" awarded Bush the required number of electoral votes with a 537-vote margin in the state of Florida in a highly debated election. As President, Bush pushed through a $1.3 trillion tax cut program and the No Child Left Behind Act, and has also pushed for socially conservative efforts such as the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act and faith-based welfare initiatives. After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, Bush declared a global "War on Terrorism" and ordered an invasion of Afghanistan to overthrow the Taliban, destroy Al-Qaeda and to capture Osama bin Laden in October 2001. In March 2003, Bush received a mandate from the U.S. Congress to lead an invasion of Iraq, asserting that Iraq was in violation of UN Security Council Resolution 1441. [cite web| url=| date=February 5, 2003| title=U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell Addresses the U.N. Security Council|first=Colin| last=Powell|| accessdate=2006-05-25]

Running as a self-described "war president" in the midst of the Iraq War,cite web| url =| title = Transcript for Feb. 8th| accessdate = 2006-09-09|date= 2004-02-08| publisher = MSNBC] Bush won re-election in 2004 [ [ 2004 Presidential Election Results] ] and his presidential campaign against Senator John Kerry was successful despite controversy over Bush's prosecution of the Iraq War and his handling of the economy. [ [ 13 October 2004 "The Third Bush-Kerry Presidential Debate" transcript] ] [CNN's exit poll showed Terrorism (19%) and Iraq (15%) as the third and fourth most important issues behind Moral Values (22%) and the Economy (20%) [ "CNN - U.S. President / National / Exit Poll / Election 2004"] ] After his re-election, Bush received increasingly heated criticism, even from former allies. His domestic popularity decreased [ [ - PRESIDENT BUSH – Overall Job Rating in recent national polls] ] due to the war and other issues such as the federal response to Hurricane Katrina, the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy record budget deficits affecting the administration, and the 2008 subprime mortgage crisis.

Major issues of Presidency

tate of the Union Addresses

* (20 January 2001)
* (20 January 2005)
* (27 February 2001)
* (29 January 2002)
* (28 January 2003)
* (20 January 2004)
* (2 February 2005)
* (31 January 2006)
* (23 January 2007)
* (28 January 2008)

Major treaties signed

* SORT (2002) - better known as the "Moscow Treaty", the United States and Russia agreed to limit their nuclear arsenal to 1700–2200 operationally deployed warheads each

Major acts as President

* Responding to the September 11, 2001 attacks
* Waging the Afghanistan War against the Taliban and Al Qaeda
* Waging the Iraq War
* Establishing the United States Department of Homeland Security
* Establishing the Office of the Director of National Intelligence
* $1.3 trillion tax cut, tax rebates in 2001
* Establishing prison for terrorism suspects at Guantanamo Bay
* No Child Left Behind Act
* Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act
* Hurricane Katrina relief effort

Major treaties withdrawn

*ABM Treaty (2002) - limited anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against missile-delivered nuclear weapons between the United States and Russia
*United Nations Population Fund (2002) - promoted the human right of "reproductive health", that is physical, mental, and social health in matters related to reproduction and the reproductive system.

Major legislation

Legislation signed


*June 7: Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001
*September 18: Authorization for Use of Military Force
*September 28: United States-Jordan Free Trade Area Implementation Act
*October 26: USA PATRIOT Act
*November 28: Internet Tax Nondiscrimination Act


*January 8: No Child Left Behind Act
*March 9: Job Creation and Worker Assistance Act of 2002
*March 27: Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002
*May 13: Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 [cite news
last = Bush
first = George W.
coauthors =
title = President Signs Farm Bill
work =
pages =
language =
publisher = White House
date = 2002-05-14
url =
accessdate = 2006-09-10
*July 30: Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
*October 16: Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq
*November 25: Homeland Security Act of 2002


*March 11: Do-Not-Call Implementation Act
*April 30: PROTECT Act of 2003 (Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to end the Exploitation of Children Today Act) (see also Age of consent)
*May 27: United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria Act of 2003
*May 28: Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003
*September 3: United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act
*September 3: United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act
*November 5: Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003
*December 3: Healthy Forests Restoration Act of 2003
*December 8: Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003
*December 16: Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act (CAN-SPAM)


*April 1: Unborn Victims of Violence Act (Laci and Conner’s Law)
*July 17: United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act
*August 3: United States-Australia Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act


*February 18: Class Action Fairness Act of 2005
*April 20: Bankruptcy Reform Act of 2005
*August 2: Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act
*August 8: Energy Policy Act of 2005
*August 10: (SAFETEA)
*October 26: Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act


* January 11: United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act
* March 9: USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act
* July 27: Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act
* August 17: The Pension Protection Act of 2006 [cite news
last = Bush
first = George W.
coauthors =
title = President Bush Signs H.R. 4, the Pension Protection Act of 2006
work =
pages =
language =
publisher = White House
date = 2002-08-17
url =
accessdate = 2006-09-10
* September 30: Iran Freedom and Support Act
* October 4: Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2007 [cite news|last=Bush|first=George W.|coauthors=|title=President's Statement on H.R. 5441, the "Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2007"|work=|pages=|language=|publisher=White House|date=2006-10-04|url=|accessdate=2006-10-04]
* October 17: Military Commissions Act of 2006
* October 26: Secure Fence Act of 2006

Legislation vetoed

President Bush has vetoed four pieces of legislation to date:
*July 19, 2006: Stem Cell Research Enactment Act of 2006
*May 1, 2007: [ H.R. 1591] , U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans' Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act of 2007
*June 20, 2007: Stem Cell Research Enactment Act of 2007
*October 3, 2007: State Children's Health Insurance Program Expansion [ H.R. 976]

=Administration and Cabinet=

Bush's cabinet has included figures that were prominent in past administrations, notably former Secretary of State Colin Powell who had served as United States National Security Advisor under Ronald Reagan. Former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld had served as White House Chief of Staff and Secretary of Defense under Gerald Ford; Rumsfeld's successor, Robert Gates, served as Director of Central Intelligence under George H.W. Bush. Vice President Dick Cheney served as Secretary of Defense under George H. W. Bush.

Bush places a high value on personal loyalty and, as a result, his administration has high message discipline. He maintains a "hands-off" style of management that he believes prevents him from being tangled by intricacies that hinder sound decision-making. "I'm confident in my management style. I'm a delegator because I trust the people I've asked to join the team. I'm willing to delegate. That makes it easier to be President," he said in an interview with Diane Sawyer on ABC in December of 2003. Critics allege, however, that Bush is willing to overlook mistakes [cite web | title = Gen. Sanchez Gets Promoted | url = | author = Eleanor | date = 2004-05-28 | accessdate = 2007-04-07 ] made by loyal subordinates.GW Bush cabinet infobox

There has been only one non-Republican present in Bush's cabinet: Secretary of Transportation Norman Mineta, the first Asian American cabinet secretary, who had previously served as Secretary of Commerce under Bill Clinton, is a Democrat. Mineta resigned from Bush's cabinet on July 7, 2006 to pursue "other challenges". [cite news |url= |title=Lone Democrat in Bush Cabinet Is Departing |last=Wilber |first=Del Quentin |work=Washington Post |date=2006-06-24 |accessdate=2006-11-20] Mary Peters, a Republican, was nominated and confirmed to succeed him as Transportation Secretary.

Advisors and other officials

*Deputy Secretary of DefensePaul Wolfowitz (2001–2005), Gordon R. England (2005–)
*CIA Director - George Tenet (2001–2004), John E. McLaughlin (acting, 2004), Porter J. Goss (2004–2006), Michael Hayden (2006–)
*FBI Director - Louis Freeh (2001), Thomas J. Pickard (acting, 2001), Robert S. Mueller (2001–)
*NASA Administrator - Sean O'Keefe (2001-2005), Michael D. Griffin (2005-)
*FAA Administrator - Marion Blakey (2002-2007), Robert A. Sturgell (acting) (2007-)
*FDA commissioner - Mark McClellan (2002-2004), Lester Crawford (2005), Andrew von Eschenbach (2005–)
*National Security Advisor - Condoleezza Rice (2001–2005), Stephen Hadley (2005–)
*Deputy National Security Advisor for Iraq and Afghanistan - Meghan O'Sullivan (?–2007), Douglas Lute (2007–)
*Ambassador to the United Nations - John Negroponte (2001–2004), John Danforth (2004); John R. Bolton (2005–2006), Zalmay Khalilzad (2007–)
*FCC Chairman - Michael Powell (2001–2005), Kevin Martin (2005–)
*Deputy White House Chief of Staff - Joe Hagin (2001–), Joshua B. Bolten (2001–2003), Harriet Miers (2003–2004), Karl Rove (2005–2007), Joel Kaplan (2006–)
*Director of National Intelligence - John Negroponte (2005–2007), John Michael McConnell (2007–)
*White House Counsel - Alberto R. Gonzales (2001–2005), Harriet Miers (2005–2007), Fred Fielding (2007–)
*White House Press Secretary - Ari Fleischer (2001–2003), Scott McClellan (2003–2006), Tony Snow (2006–2007), Dana Perino (2007-)
*Assistant to the PresidentLewis Libby (2001–2005)
*Advisor - Karen Hughes (2001–2002) Appointed in 2005 to rank of Ambassador and Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs in the State Department.
*Personal aide (body man) - Blake Gottesman (2000–2006)

Defence force nominations and appointments

*Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of StaffRichard B. Myers (2001 – 2005), Peter Pace (2005 – 2007), Michael Mullen (2007 – )
*Chief of Staff of the United States ArmyPeter Schoomaker (2003-2007), George W. Casey, Jr. (2007 – )
*Chief of Staff of the United States Air ForceJohn P. Jumper (2001-2005), T. Michael Moseley (2005-2008)
*Chief of Naval OperationsMichael Mullen (2005-2007), Gary Roughead (2007-)

upreme Court nominations and appointments

Bush nominated the following people to the Supreme Court of the United States:
*John G. Roberts – 2005, was first nominated for Associate Justice replacing Sandra Day O'Connor; after the death of Chief Justice William Rehnquist, Bush nominated him for the position of Chief Justice. Confirmed: 78-22
*Harriet Miers – 2005, was nominated upon the elevation of John G. Roberts as the Chief Justice. Her nomination was later withdrawn.
*Samuel Alito – 2006, nominated in 2005 upon the withdrawal of Harriet Miers. Confirmed: 58-42

Federal Reserve appointment

On October 24, 2005, Bush nominated Ben Bernanke to succeed Alan Greenspan as Chairman of the Federal Reserve. The Senate Banking Committee recommended Bernanke's confirmation by a 13-1 voice vote on November 16, 2005. With the full Senate's approval on January 31, 2006 by another voice vote, Bernanke was sworn in on February 1, 2006.

First term (2001-2005)

econd term (2005-Present)

Political philosophy

The guiding political philosophy of the Bush administration has been termed neoconservative. The specific elements of neoconservative leadership have been itemized in policy papers by members of the Project for a New American Century, and is represented in the editorial perspective of the political journal the Weekly Standard. Administration officials chosen from the membership of the Project for a New American Century (PNAC) began with the selection of the candidate for vice president, Dick Cheney. Others included Richard Armitage, Zalmay Khalilzad, Lewis "Scooter" Libby, Richard Perle, former U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, and Paul Wolfowitz.

In 1998, following perceived Iraqi unwillingness to co-operate with UN weapons inspections, members of the PNAC, including former defense secretary Donald Rumsfeld and Paul Wolfowitz, wrote to President Bill Clinton urging him to remove Saddam Hussein from power using US diplomatic, political and military power.

In September 2000, the PNAC issued a report entitled "Rebuilding America's Defenses: Strategies, Forces, and Resources For A New Century", proceeding "from the belief that America should seek to preserve and extend its position of global leadership by maintaining the preeminence of U.S. military forces." The group stated that when diplomacy or sanctions fail, the United States must be prepared to take military action. The PNAC argued that the Cold War deployment of forces was obsolete. Defense spending and force deployment must reflect the post-Cold War duties that US forces are obligated to perform. Constabulary duties such as peacekeeping in the Balkans and the enforcement of the No Fly Zones in Iraq put a strain upon, and reduced the readiness of US forces. The PNAC recommended the forward redeployment of US forces at new strategically placed permanent military bases in Southeast Europe and Southeast Asia. Permanent bases would ease the strain on US forces, allowing readiness to be maintained and the carrier fleet to be reduced. Furthermore, PNAC advocated that the US-globalized military should be enlarged, equipped and restructured for the "constabulary" roles associated with shaping the security in critical regions of the world. [cite web | url = | format = PDF | work = Project for the New American Century | title = Rebuilding America's Defenses: Strategy, Forces and Resources For a New Century | month = September | year = 2000 | accessdate = 2007-04-07 ]

Environmental Record

George W. Bush’s environmental record begins with promises as a presidential candidate to clean up power plants and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In a speech on September 29, 2000 in Saginaw, Michigan, Bush pledged to commit two billion dollars to the funding of clean coal technology research. In the same speech, he also promised to work with Congress, environmental groups and the energy industry to require a reduction of the emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, mercury and carbon dioxide into the environment within a “reasonable period of time.” [ [ George W. Bush for President Official Site: Speeches ] ] He would later reverse his position on that specific campaign pledge in March 2001 in a letter to Nebraska senator Chuck Hagel, stating that carbon dioxide was not considered a pollutant under the Clean Air Act, and that restricting carbon dioxide emissions would lead to higher energy prices. [ [ - Bush reverses position on emissions reductions - March 14, 2001 ] ]

In 2001, President Bush appointed Philip A. Cooney, a former lobbyist for the American Petroleum Institute, to the White House Council on Environmental Equality. Cooney is known to have edited government climate reports in order to minimize the findings of scientific sources tying greenhouse gas emissions to global warming. [ [ Bush Aide Softened Greenhouse Gas Links to Global Warming - New York Times ] ]

In March 2001, the Bush administration announced that it would not implement the Kyoto Protocol, an international treaty signed in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan that would require nations to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, claiming that ratifying the treaty would create economic setbacks in the U.S. and does not put enough pressure to limit emissions from developing nations. [ [ BBC News | SCI/TECH | US blow to Kyoto hopes ] ] In February 2002, Bush announced his alternative to the Kyoto Protocol, by bringing forth a plan to reduce the intensity of greenhouse gasses by 18% over ten years. The intensity of greenhouse gasses specifically is the ratio of greenhouse gas emissions and economic output, meaning that under this plan, emissions would still continue to grow, but at a slower pace. Bush stated that this plan would prevent the release of 500 million metric tons of greenhouse gases, which is about the equivalent of 70 million cars from the road. This target would achieve this goal by providing tax credits to businesses that use renewable energy sources. [ [ - Bush unveils voluntary plan to reduce global warming - February 14, 2002 ] ]

In late November 2002, the Bush Administration released proposed rule changes that would lead to increased logging of federal forests for commercial or recreational activities by giving local forest managers the ability to open up the forests to development without requiring environmental impact assessments and without specific standards to maintain local fish and wildlife populations. The proposed changes would affect roughly convert|192000000|acre|km2 of US forests and grasslands. Administration officials claimed the changes were appropriate because existing rules, which were approved by the Clinton administration two months before Bush took office, were unclear. [ [ Logging rules may be eased ] ]

In November 2004, Bush administration officials asked the United Nations to allow US industries to use an additional 458 tons of methyl bromide, an ozone-destroying pesticide that was slated for elimination by the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The additional increase request brings the US’s total exemption for the year 2005 to 9,400 metric tons of methyl bromide, more than all other nations’ requests combined, and well over the 7,674 metric tons used by US agribusiness in 2002. [ [ ES&T Online News: Methyl bromide phaseout drags ] ]

In January 2004, Interior Secretary Gale Norton approved a move to open nearly convert|9000000|acre|km2 of Alaska's North Slope to oil and gas development, citing claims from the energy industry that nearly convert|13|Goilbbl|m3 of oil could be extracted from the region. The North Slope neighbor's the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, a sanctuary and habitat for migratory birds, whales, seals and other wildlife. Reports from the U.S. Geological Survey, however, estimate that less than one-third of the reported convert|13|Goilbbl|m3 is economically recoverable in the entire convert|23500000|acre|km2|sing=on National Petroleum Reserve. [ [ NRDC: The Bush Record - January 2004 Actions ] ]

In July 2005 the Environmental Protection Agency decided to delay the release of an annual report on fuel economy. The report shows that automakers have taken advantage of loopholes in US fuel economy regulations to manufacture vehicles that are less fuel-efficient than they were in the late 1980s. Fuel-efficiency had on average dropped six percent during that period, from 22.1 miles per gallon to 20.8 mpg. Evidence suggests that the administration’s decision to delay the report’s release was because of its potential to affect Congress’s upcoming final vote on an energy bill six years in the making, which turned a blind eye to fuel economy regulations. [ [ NY Times Advertisement ] ]

In May 2006, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA) allegedly blocked release of a report that suggested global warming had been a contributor to the frequency and strength of hurricanes in recent years. In February, NOAA (part of the Department of Commerce) set up a seven-member panel of climate scientists to compile the report. The panel’s chair, Ants Leema, received an e-mail from a Commerce Department official asking for the report to not be released as it needed to be made “less technical.” [ [ Journal: Agency Blocked Hurricane Report - ] ] NOAA would later go on to say that the report was not released because it “was not complete” and was in reality not a report, but a “two-page fact sheet about the issue.” []


Bush's presidency has been characterized by the unitary executive theory, which is a vigorous defense of "executive privilege", evidenced in such acts as signing Executive Order 13233, which suspends the release of presidential papers, tight control of Congressional inquiries into White House officers such as in the 9/11 Commission's interviews with Condoleezza Rice, Bush and Dick Cheney, and the generally high level of coordination between the White House, Congressional Republicans and Senate Republicans in both of Bush's terms. Many commentators have claimed that deference to executive privilege was one of the principal considerations in Bush's administration, when he proposed his three nominations for the Supreme Court, and appointed John R. Bolton to the United Nations. [cite news |url= |title=Privilege at Stake With Nominees |last=Baker |first=Peter |work=Washington Post |date=2005-08-02 |accessdate=2006-11-20] [cite news |url= |title=Senators look for best angle on Miers |last=Kiely |first=Kathy |work=USA Today |date=2005-10-04 |accessdate=2006-11-20]

Policies of the Bush administration have been criticized for allegedly subverting elements of the Constitution, violating treaty obligations, and obstructing justice. The suspension of habeas corpus for US citizens was reversed by the Supreme Court in "Hamdi v. Rumsfeld", 542 U.S. 507 (2004). Domestic spying has included undercover infiltration of political organizations with no suspected terrorist affiliations, telephone surveillance without a warrant, and the Carnivore program for internet surveillance. The policy of holding enemy combatants in a legal status outside of either due process of criminal prosecution nor the Geneva conventions for prisoners of war created a legal limbo without a process for adjudication or appeal. The extraordinary rendition of an innocent citizen of Canada, to Syria, caused an international incident involving kidnapping, wrongful imprisonment and torture. [cite news |url= |title=Outsourcing Torture: The secret history of America’s “extraordinary rendition” program. |last=Mayer |first=Jane |work=The New Yorker |date=2005-02-14 |accessdate=2007-04-01] The Cato Institute, a libertarian think tank, stated in a white paper that "President Bush's constitutional vision is, in short, sharply at odds with the text, history, and structure of our Constitution, which authorizes a government of limited powers." [cite news |url= |title=Power Surge: The Constitutional Record of George W. Bush. |last=Healy |first=Gene |work=The Cato Institute |date=2006-05-01 |accessdate=2007-04-01]

Ellen Mariani, widow of Louis Neil Mariani, killed in the September 11 attacks, has charged George W. Bush, et al., because "Defendant GWB has not been forthright and honest with regard to his administration's pre-knowledge of the potential of the "911" attacks" ("Mariani v. Bush", Case number 03-5273, United States District Court, Eastern District of Pennsylvania). Former White House chief counter-terrorism advisor Richard A. Clarke has criticized both the failure to prevent the attacks of 9/11, and the response to them in both domestic and foreign policy, in his book Against All Enemies.

The Union of Concerned Scientists published a report, "Scientific Integrity in Policymaking," in March 2004 that criticized the unprecedented "manipulation, suppression, and misrepresentation of science by the Bush administration ... World renowned scientific institutions such as that Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health take decades to build a team of world-class scientific expertise and talent. But they can be severely damaged in short order by the scientifically unethical behavior such as that displayed by the current administration." [cite paper|author=Numerous Prominent Signatories |title=Scientific Integrity in Policymaking |publisher=Union of Concerned Scientists |url=]

Third Way issued a new report on September 5 2006 analyzing the Bush administration’s record on national security. The report was released at a press conference in the Capitol with Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid, retired General Wesley Clark, Assistant Minority Leader Dick Durbin, House Minority Whip Steny Hoyer, Senate Armed Services Committee Ranking Member Carl Levin, and founding Third Way Co-Chair Senator Thomas Carper. In The Neo Con: The Bush Defense Record by the Numbers, Third Way analyzed available data across seven key national security indicators: Iraq, terrorism (broadly defined), Afghanistan, Iran, North Korea, the condition of the American military, and China. The report finds that the numbers lead to an indisputable conclusion that incompetence and a failed strategy have "helped lead us to this dangerous situation". [cite paper|author=Sharon Burke and Harlan Geer |title=The Neo Con: The Bush Defense Record by the Numbers |publisher=Third Way |url=]

Anti-crime tax funds have been appropriated to youth programs based on political connections instead of merit. Current and former Justice Department employees allege that the head of the Justice Department's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention ignored staff rankings in favor of programs that had political, social or religious connections to the Bush White House. [cite news |first=Brian |last=Ross |coauthors=Anna Schecter and Murray Waas |title=Justice Department Official Awards $500,000 Grant to Golf Group |url= |work=Nightline |publisher=ABC News |date=2008-06-09 |accessdate=2008-06-12 ]

Alleged War Crimes culpability

In 2007, Red Cross investigators concluded in a secret report that the Central Intelligence Agency's interrogation methods for high-level Al-Qaeda prisoners constituted torture which could make the Bush administration officials who approved them guilty of war crimes, according to the book "" by Jane Mayer, a journalist for The New Yorker. [New York Times, July 11, 2008, "Book Cites Secret Red Cross Report of C.I.A. Torture of Qaeda Captives" ]

According to the book, the report of the International Committee of the Red Cross found that the methods used on Abu Zubaydah, the first major Qaeda figure captured by the United States, were “categorically” torture, which is illegal under both American and international law. A copy of the report was given to the C.I.A. in 2007. For example, the book states that Abu Zubaydah was confined in a box “so small he said he had to double up his limbs in the fetal position” and was one of several prisoners to be “slammed against the walls,” according to the Red Cross report. The C.I.A. has admitted that Abu Zubaydah and two other prisoners were waterboarded, a practice in which water is poured on the nose and mouth to create the sensation of suffocation and drowning. Lawrence Wilkerson, former army officer and chief of staff to Secretary of State Colin Powell, warned senior Bush Administration officials who formulated the U.S. torture policy that they should never leave the U.S., except perhaps to Israel or Saudi Arabia, because they "broke the law" and could in the future be prosecuted "in a foreign court, or in an international court" for their roles in authorizing torture. [The Guardian (UK), April 19, 2008, "Top Bush aides pushed for Guantánamo torture,"]



ee also

*George W. Bush's first term to second term cabinet reorganization
*Domestic policy of the George W. Bush administration

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • George W. Bush — This article is about the 43rd U.S. president. For his father, the 41st U.S. president, see George H. W. Bush. For other persons of the same name, see George Bush. George W. Bush …   Wikipedia

  • George W. Bush presidential campaign, 2004 — This article is about the presidential campaign of George W. Bush, the incumbent President of the United States and winner of the 2004 Presidential Election. See George W. Bush for a detailed biography and information about his current presidency …   Wikipedia

  • George W. Bush presidential campaign, 2000 — articleissues unreferenced=September 2007 original research=December 2007 cleanup=December 2007This article is about the 2000 presidential campaign of George W. Bush, winner of the 2000 presidential election and re elected in the 2004… …   Wikipedia

  • Criticism of George W. Bush — George W. Bush, the 43rd President of the United States, has drawn significant domestic and international criticism since his election in 2000. His level of popular support has declined from 90 percent (the highest ever recorded by Gallup) [cite… …   Wikipedia

  • George W. Bush's first term as President of the United States — began January 20 2001 and ended January 20 2005, with the beginning of his second term as president. Conservative agendaOn his first day in office, Bush moved to block federal aid to foreign groups that offered counseling or any other assistance… …   Wikipedia

  • George W. Bush's second term as President of the United States — began at noon on January 20, 2005 and is due to expire with the swearing in of the 44th President of the United States at noon, Washington, D.C. time, on January 20, 2009.tated goalsBush s stated goals for his second term: # Major changes to the… …   Wikipedia

  • George W Bush — George W. Bush Pour les articles homonymes, voir George Bush . George W. Bush …   Wikipédia en Français

  • George Walker Bush — George W. Bush Pour les articles homonymes, voir George Bush . George W. Bush …   Wikipédia en Français

  • George W. Bush as Governor of Texas — Infobox President name = George Walker Bush order2 = 46th office2= Governor of Texas term start2 = January 22 1995 term end2 = December 21 2000 lieutenant2 = Bob Bullock (1995–1999) Rick Perry (1999–2000) predecessor2 = Ann Richards successor2 =… …   Wikipedia

  • George W. Bush Supreme Court candidates — Speculation abounded over potential nominations to the Supreme Court of the United States by George W. Bush since before his presidency.In the summer of 2005, this speculation became newsworthy, due to the announcement of the retirement of… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”