- Jemaah Islamiyah
:"For the Egyptian organization of the same name, see
Jemaah Islamiyah [Other transliterations and names include Jemaa Islamiyah, Jema'a Islamiyya, Jema'a Islamiyyah, Jema'ah Islamiyah, Jema'ah Islamiyyah, Jemaa Islamiya, Jemaa Islamiyya, Jemaah Islamiyya, Jemaa Islamiyyah, Jemaah Islamiah, Jemaah Islamiyyah, Jemaah Islamiyyah, Jemaah Islamiya, Jamaah Islamiyah, Jamaa Islamiya, Jemaah Islam, Jemahh Islamiyah, Jama'ah Islamiyah and Al-Jama'ah Al Islamiyyah.] ( _ar. الجماعه الإسلاميه [translation: "Islamic Congregation"] , or JI, [cite web|url=http://terrorism.about.com/od/groupsleader1/p/Jemaah_Islamiya.htm|title=Jemaah Islamiyah (JI)|last=Zalman|first=Amy|publisher=
About.com|accessdate=2008-08-01] is a Southeast Asian militant Islamic organization dedicated to the establishment of a Daulah Islamiyahcite web
title=From Counter-Society to Counter-State: Jemaah Islamiyah According to PUPJI, p. 11.
publisher=The Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies
format=PDF] (Islamic State) in
Southeast Asiaincorporating Indonesia, Malaysia, the southern Philippines, Singaporeand BruneiJI is also believed to be linked to the insurgent violence in southern Thailand. [http://www.jamestown.org/terrorism/news/article.php?search=1&articleid=2369684 "Conspiracy of Silence: Who is Behind the Escalating Insurgency in Southern Thailand?"] ] . JI was added to the United Nations1267 Committee's list of terrorist organizations linked to al-Qaedaor the Talibanon 25 October 2002 [cite web|title=UN Press Release SC/7548|url=http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2002/SC7548.doc.htm] under UN Security Council Resolution 1267.
JI has its roots in
Darul Islam(DI, meaning "House of Islam"), a radical movement in Indonesiain the 1940s. JI was formally founded on 1 January 1993 by JI leaders, Abu Bakar Bashirand Abdullah Sungkarcite web
title=Jemaah Islamiyah Dossier
publisher=Center For Policing Terrorism
format=PDF] while hiding in Malaysia from the persecution [cite web
title=Genealogies of Islamic Radicalism in post-Suharto Indonesia
author=Martin van Bruinessen, ISIM and Utrecht University
url= http://www.let.uu.nl/~martin.vanbruinessen/personal/publications/genealogies_islamic_radicalism.htm] of the
SuhartoGovernment. After the fall of the Suhartoregime in 1998, both men returned to Indonesia. [cite web
title=Gauging Jemaah Islamiyah's Threat in Southeast Asia
publisher=The Jamestown Foundation, Terrorism Monitor, Volume 3, Issue 8
url= http://www.jamestown.org/terrorism/news/article.php?issue_id=3307] where it gained a terrorist edge when one of its founders, the late
Abdullah Sungkar, established contact with Osama Bin Laden's al-Qaedanetwork. [ [http://www.borrull.org/e/noticia.php?id=20024|Severed head clue to Jakarta bomb] BBC 2003-08-09]
JI’s violent operations began during the communal conflicts in
Malukuand Poso. [cite web
title=Weakening Indonesia's Mujahidin Networks: Lessons from Maluku and Poso
publisher=International Crisis Group, Asia Report N°103
url=http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=3751&l=1] . It shifted its attention to targeting US and Western interests in Indonesia and the wider Southeast Asian region in response to the US-led war on terror. JI’s terror plans in Southeast Asia were exposed when its plot to set off several bombs in Singapore was foiled by the local authorities.
Recruiting, training, indoctrination, financial and operational links between the JI and other militant groups, such as
al-Qaeda, the Abu SayyafGroup (ASG), the Moro Islamic Liberation Front(MILF), the Misuari Renegade/Breakaway Group (MRG/MBG) and the Philippine Raja Solaiman Movement (RSM) have existed for many years, and continue to this day. [cite web|title=Funding Terrorism in Southeast Asia: The Financial Network of Al Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiyah|url=http://www.nbr.org/publications/analysis/pdf/vol14no5.pdf|author=Zachary Abuza|publisher=The National Bureau of Asian Research|date=December, 2003|accessdate=2007-01-28|format=PDF]
Jemaah Islamiyah is known to have killed hundreds of
civilians in the Bali car bombing on October 12, 2002. In the attack, suicide bombers killed 202 people, mostly Australian tourists, and wounded many in two blasts. The first, smaller blast by a suicide bomber using a backpack, killed a small number of persons in a nightcluband drove the survivors into the street, where the vast majority were killed by a massive fertilizer/fuel oil bomb concealed in a parked van. After this attack, the U.S. State Department designated Jemaah Islamiyah as a Foreign Terrorist Organization. Jemaah Islamiyah is also strongly suspected of carrying out the 2003 JW Marriott hotel bombing in Kuningan, Jakarta, the 2004 Australian embassy bombing in Jakarta, and the 2005 Bali terrorist bombing. The JI also has been directly and indirectly involved in dozens of bombings in the southern Philippines, usually in league with the ASG.
The JI was established as a loose confederation of several Islamic groups. Sometime around 1969, two men,
Abu Bakar Bashir,and Abdullah Sungkar, began an operation to propagate the Darul Islammovement, a conservative strain of Islam. Darul Islam was almost eliminated in the 1950s after members belonging to that sectinstigated a rebellionin an effort to create an Islamic state in parts of Indonesia.Fact|date=September 2007
Bashir and his friends created a pirated radio outfit to preach to the poor and oppressed in Indonesia. Bashir created a
boarding schoolin Java. The school's motto was, "Death in the way of Allahis our highest aspiration." Fact|date=September 2007
Bashir and Sungkar were both imprisoned by the New Order administration of Indonesian president
Suhartoas part of a crackdown on radical groups such as Komando Jihad, that were perceived to undermine the government's control over the Indonesian population. The two leaders spent several years in prison. After release, Bashir and his followers moved to Malaysiain 1982. They recruited people from Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines. The group officially named itself Jemaah Islamiyah around that time period.
In the mid and late 1980s, many members of JI, including Sungkar and Hambali (see below) joined the
Mujahideenin the resistance movement against the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan.Fact|date=September 2007 They were joined by radical Muslims from extremist groups worldwide. Many of the connections that define the global network of Islamist groups that exists today, including those between al-Qaeda and JI, were made during the conflict in Afghanistan.
Back in Southeast Asia, the members of JI distributed pamphlets. Bashir preached
jihadbut he would do very little violent action. This changed in the 1990s. Bashir met Riduan Isamuddin, a.k.a. Hambali sometime in the early 1990s at a religious school that Bashir set up. Bashir became the spiritual leader of the organization while Hambali became the military leader. Hambali wanted a large Islamic caliphateto be established across Southeast Asia, incorporating Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, the Philippines, Brunei, and Cambodia.Fact|date=September 2007
JI first formed itself into a group of terrorist cells that provided financial and logistical support when needed, to
Al-Qaidaoperations in Southeast Asia. Hambali formed a front company called Konsojayato help launder money to such plots, including the Operation Bojinkaplot, which was foiled on January 6, 1995.Fact|date=September 2007 The leaders of JI went back to Indonesia in 1998, when Suharto's government was toppled. Hambali went underground while Bashir publicly promoted jihad.Fact|date=September 2007
In January 2000 cleric Hambali, al-Qaeda's key representative in Indonesia Fact|date=September 2007, hosted in Malaysia
Nawaf Alhazmiand Khalid al-Midhar, who would later take part in the September 11, 2001 attacksas hijackers.Fact|date=September 2007 Unlike the Al-Mau'nahgroup, Jemaah Islamiah kept a low profile in Malaysia and their existence was publicized only after the 2002 Bali bombings.
In 2003 Indonesian police confirmed 'the exitence of Mantiqe IV "-the JI regional cell" which covers Irain Jaya and Australia." Indonesian police saya Muklas has identified Mantiqe IV's leader as Abdul Rahim -an Indonesian born Australian'.
Indonesian investigators revealed the JI's establishment of an assassination squad in April 2007, which was established to target top leaders who oppose the group's objectives, as well as other officials, including police officers, government prosecutors and judges handling terrorism-related cases. [cite news | publisher =
The Straits Times| date = 16 April 2007| title = JI forms new shoot-to-kill hit squad in Indonesia ]
In April 2008, the South Jakarta District Court declared JI an illegal organisation when sentencing former leader Zarkasih and military commander Abu Dujana to 15 years on terrorism charges. [ [http://www.smh.com.au/news/world/ji-declared-an-illegal-network/2008/04/21/1208742860846.html Sydney Morning Herald]
August 1, 2000Jemaah Islamiyah attempted to assassinate the Philippine ambassador to Indonesia, Leonides Caday. The bomb detonated as his car entered his official residence in central Jakartakilling two people and injuring 21 including the Ambassador.
September 13, 2000a car bomb explosion tore through a packed parking deck beneath the Jakarta Stock Exchangebuilding killing 15 people and injuring 20.
December 24, 2000JI took part in a major coordinated terror strike, the Christmas Eve 2000 bombings.
March 12, 20023 JI members are arrested in Manilacarrying plastic explosivesin their luggage. One of them is later jailed for 17 years.
June 5, 2002Indonesian authorities arrest Kuwaiti Omar al-Faruq. Handed over to the U.S. authorities, he subsequently confesses he is a senior al-Qaedaoperative sent to Southeast Asiato orchestrate attacks against US interests. He reveals to investigators detailed plans of a new terror spree in Southeast Asia.
* After many warnings by US authorities of a credible terrorist threat in Jakarta, on
September 23, 2002a grenade explodes in a car near the residence of a US embassyofficial in Jakarta, killing one of the attackers.
September 26, 2002the US State Departmentissued a travel warningurging Americans and other Westernersin Indonesia to avoid locations such as bars, restaurants and tourist areas.
October 2, 2002a US Soldierand two Filipinos are killed in a JI nail-bomb attack outside a bar in the southern Philippine city of Zamboanga
October 10, 2002a bomb rips through a bus terminal in the southern Philippine city of Kidapawan, killing six people and injuring 24. On the same day The US ambassador in Jakarta, Ralph Boyce, personally delivers to the Indonesian President a message of growing concern that Americans could become targets of terrorist actions in her country.
October 12, 2002On the second anniversary of the USS Cole bombingin Yemen, a huge car bomb kills more than 202 and injures 300 on the Indonesian resort island of Bali. Most are foreigners, mainly Australian tourists. It is preceded by a blast at the US consulate in nearby Denpasar. The attack known as the 2002 Bali Bombingis the most deadly attack executed by JI to date.
* Bashir was arrested by the Indonesian police and was given a light sentence for
* Hambali was arrested in
Thailandon August 11, 2003and is currently in prison in Jordan, according to Haaretz.
* A bomb manual published by the Jemaah Islamiyah was used in the
2002 Bali terrorist bombingand the 2003 JW Marriott hotel bombing.
* A British-born
Australian named Jack Rocheconfessed to being part of a JI plot to blow up the Israeli Embassy in Canberra, Australia on 28 May 2004. He was sentenced to 9 years in prison on 31 May. The man admitted to meeting figures like Osama bin Ladenin Afghanistan.
* JI are widely suspected of being responsible for the bombing outside the Australian embassy in
Jakartaon 9 Sep 2004which killed 11 Indonesians and wounded over 160 more.
* They are also suspected of committing the October 1st
2005 Bali bombings.
* 5 August 2006, Al-Qaeda's Al Zawahiri appeared on a recorded video announcing that JI and Al-Qaeda had joined forces and that the two groups will form "one line, facing its enemies."
June 13, 2007Abu Dujana, the head of JI's military operations, is captured by Indonesian police.
June 15, 2007Indonesian Police announced the capture of Zarkasih, who was leading Jemaah Islamiyah since the capture of Hambali. Zarkasih is believe to be the emir of JI. [cite news|title=Indonesia Captures "Emir" of Regional Terrorist Network |url=http://news.monstersandcritics.com/asiapacific/news/article_1317980.php/Indonesia_captures_"Emir"_of_regional_terrorist_network__Roundup_ |publisher=Monsters & Critics |date=June 15, 2007]
February 27, 2008The leader of JI in Singapore, Mas Selamat Kastari, escaped from the Whitley Road Detention Centre at 1605 hours, local time. [cite news | publisher = Channel NewsAsia | date = 27 February2008 | title =JI detainee Mas Selamat Kastari escapes from Singapore detention centre |url=http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/331477/1/.html ] As of July 2008, his current whereabout is unknown.
List of terrorist organisations
2003 Marriott Hotel bombing
2004 Jakarta embassy bombing
2005 Bali bombings
*Abuza, Zachary. "Militant Islam in Southeast Asia: Crucible of Terror". Boulder, Colorado, USA: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2003. ISBN 1-58826-237-5.
*Barton, Greg (2005). "Jemaah Islamiyah: radical Islam in Indonesia". Singapore: Singapore University Press. ISBN 9971-69-323-2.
*Lim, Merlyna. "Islamic Radicalism and Anti-Americanism in Indonesia: The Role of the Internet". Washington: East-West Center, 2005. ISBN 978-1-932728-34-7.
*Reeve, Simon. "The New Jackals: Ramzi Yousef, Osama Bin Laden and the Future of Terrorism". Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1999. ISBN 1-55553-509-7.
*Ressa, Maria. "Seeds of Terror: An Eyewitness Account of Al-Qaeda's Newest Center of Operations in Southeast Asia". New York: Free Press, 2003. ISBN 0-7432-5133-4.thank you
* [http://www.crisisweb.org/home/index.cfm?id=1452&l=1 Jemaah Islamiyah in South East Asia: Damaged but Still Dangerous] -
International Crisis Groupreport dated August 26, 2003
* [http://www.ntu.edu.sg/idss/publications/WorkingPapers/WP71.PDF Constructing” the Jemaah Islamiyah Terrorist: A Preliminary Inquiry] (PDF) - Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, Singapore, report dated October 2004
* [http://www.nbr.org/publications/analysis/pdf/vol14no5.pdf Funding Terrorism in Southeast Asia: The Financial Network of Al Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiyah] (PDF) - National Bureau of Asian Research report dated December 2003
* [http://cfrterrorism.org/groups/jemaah.html cfrterrorism.org page on Jemaah Islamiyah]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/2983612.stm "Jemaah Islamiah still a threat"] - "
BBC News" article dated August 15, 2003
* [http://www.jinsa.org/articles/articles.html/function/view/categoryid/1701/documentid/2720/history/3,2360,655,1701,2720 Jemaah Islamiyah Shown to Have Significant Ties to al Qaeda]
* [http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=cache:ibAPp_72jHsJ:www.currenthistory.com/org_pdf_files/103/672/103_672_171.pdf+al-qaeda+marriott+hotel+bombing+indonesia Learning by Doing:Al Qaeda's Allies in Southeast Asia]
* [http://www.sais-jhu.edu/bwelsh/BYPolicyPaper.pdf Combating JI in Indonesia]
* [http://www.ciaonet.org/olj/cpc/cpc_oct03/cpc_oct03f.pdf Terrorism Perpetrated and Terrorists Apprehended]
* [http://www.cfr.org/publication/8948/ Council on Foreign Relations Backgrounder: Jemaah Islamiyah]
*cite news | first= | last=International Crisis Group | coauthors= | title=Jemaah Islamiyah’s Current Status | date=May 3, 2007. | publisher= | url =http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=4792&l=1 | work = | pages = | accessdate = | language =
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