Romanization of Arabic

Romanization of Arabic

Different approaches and methods for the romanization of Arabic exist. They vary in the way that they address the inherent problems of rendering written and spoken Arabic in the Latin alphabet; they also use different symbols for Arabic phonemes that do not exist in English or other European languages.

Romanization issues

Any transliteration system has to make a number of decisions which are dependent on its intended field of application. One basic problem is that written Arabic is normally unvocalized, i.e. many of the vowels are not written out, and must be supplied by a reader familiar with the language. Hence unvocalized Arabic writing does not give a reader unfamiliar with the language sufficient information for accurate pronunciation. An exact equivalent of _ar. قطر would be ArabDIN|qṭr, which is meaningless to an untrained reader. A "full transliteration" adds information not in the text, which has to be supplied by a speaker of Arabic, ArabDIN|qaṭar. Usually, newspapers and popular books do not use a transliteration, but a transcription: Instead of transliterating each written letter, they try to reproduce the sound of the words according to the orthography rules of the target language: "Qatar".

Most issues related to the romanization of Arabic are about transliterating vs. transcribing – others, about what should be romanized:
* transliteration ignores assimilation (sandhi) of the article before the "sun letters", and may be easily misread by non-Arabs. For instance "an-nur" (or "an-nuur", or "an-noor") would be more correctly transliterated along the lines of "alnur". In the transcription "an-nur", a hyphen is added and the unpronounced 'l' removed for the convenience of the uninformed non-Arab reader, who would otherwise pronounce an 'l', probably not understand the word to be "nur", pronounce only one 'n', and be confused by the role of the double 'n'. Alternatively, if the shadda is not transliterated (since it is strictly not a letter), a hypercorrect transliteration would be "alnur", which presents similar problems for the uninformed non-Arab reader.
* a transliteration must render the "closed tā" ("ta marbuta" ة) faithfully, a transcription must render the sound ("a" like any other "a" or "t" like any other "at" — or in a vocalized text nothing vs. t)
**ISO 233 has a unique symbol, Unicode|ẗ, ISO/R 233 uses superscript h, t.
* "shortened alif" ("ArabDIN|alif maqṣura", ى) must be transliterated with a special symbol, but is transcribed like standing alif, when it stands for a long a ("ā")
* Nunation: what is true elsewhere is also true for nunation: transliteration renders what you see, transcription what you hear.

A transcription may reflect the language as spoken, for example, by the people of Baghdad, or the official standard as spoken by a preacher in the mosque or a TV news reader.A transcription is free to add phonological (such as vowels) or morphological (such as word boundaries) information. Transcriptions will also vary depending on the writing conventions of the target language; compare English "Omar Khayyam" with German "Omar Chajjam", both for _ar. عمر خيام (unvocalized ArabDIN|ʿmr ḫyʾm, vocalized ArabDIN|ʿumar ḫayyām).

A transliteration is ideally fully reversible: a machine must be able to transliterate it into Arabic and back. A transliteration can be considered as flawed for any one of the following reasons:
*A "loose" transliteration is ambiguous, rendering several Arabic phonemes with an identical transliteration, or digraphs for a single phoneme (such as "sh") may be confused with two adjacent phonemes;
*Symbols representing phonemes may be considered too similar (e.g., ` and ' or Unicode|ʿ and Unicode|ʾ for ayin and hamza);
*ASCII transliterations using capital letters to disambiguate phonemes are easy to type but may be considered unaesthetic.

A fully accurate transcription may not be necessary for native Arabic speakers as they would be able to pronounce names and sentences correctly anyway, but it can be very useful for those not fully familiar with spoken Arabic and who are familiar with the Roman alphabet. An accurate transliteration serves as a valuable stepping stone for learning, pronouncing correctly, and distinguishing phonemes. It is a useful tool for anyone familiar with the sounds of Arabic but who are not fully conversant in the language.

One criticism is that a fully accurate system would require special learning that most do not have to actually pronounce names correctly, and that with a lack of a universal Romanization system they will not be pronounced correctly by non-native speakers anyway. The precision will be lost if special characters are not replicated and if someone is not familiar with Arabic pronunciation.

Transliteration standards

* Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft (1936): Adopted by the International Convention of Orientalist Scholars in Rome. It is the basis for the very influential Hans Wehr dictionary (ISBN 0-87950-003-4). []
* ISO/R 233 (1961). Replaced by ISO 233 in 1984 but still encountered.
* BS 4280 (1968): Developed by the British Standards Institute. []
* SATTS: One-to-one mapping to Latin Morse equivalents.
* UNGEGN (1972): []
* DIN-31635 (1982): Developed by the Deutsches Institut für Normung (German Institute for Standardization).
* ISO 233 (1984).
* Qalam (1985): A system that focuses upon preserving the spelling, rather than the pronunciation, and uses mixed case. []
* ArabTeX (since 1992) its "native" input is 7-bit ASCII: "has been modelled closely after the transliteration standards ISO/R 233 and DIN 31635"
* ISO 233-2(1993). Simplified transliteration.
* Buckwalter Transliteration (1990s): Developed at Xerox by Tim Buckwalter [] ; doesn't require unusual diacritics. []
* Bikdash Transliteration: A system [] which is a compromise between Qalam and Buckwalter Transilterations. It represents consonants with one letter and possibly the single quotation mark as a modifier, and uses one or several latin vowels to represent short and long Arabic vowels. It strives for minimality as well as phonetic expressiveness. It does not distinguish between the different shapes of the hamza since it assumes that a software implementation can resolve the differences through the standard rules of spelling of Arabic [] .
* ALA-LC (1997). []
* SAS: Spanish Arabists School (José Antonio Conde and others, early 19th century onwards). []

A table comparing romanizations using DIN 31635, ISO 233, ISO/R 233, UN, ALA-LC, and Encyclopaedia of Islam systems is available here: [] .

Comparison table


Online communication is sometimes restricted to an ASCII environment in which not only the Arabic letters themselves but also Roman characters with diacritics are unavailable. Even when Arabic letters and Roman characters with diacritics are available, they are often difficult to type. This problem is faced by most speakers of languages that use non-Roman alphabets, or heavily modified ones. An ad hoc solution consists of using Arabic numerals which mirror or resemble the relevant Arabic letters in shape. They appear as follows:

3 represents the Arabic letter ع .

5 or 7' represent the Arabic letter خ .

6 represents the Arabic letter ط .

6' represents the Arabic letter ظ .

7 represents the Arabic letter ح .

8 represents the Arabic letter ق .

9 represents the Arabic letter ص .

9' represents the Arabic letter ض .

2 is sometimes used to represent the أ when it is in the middle of a word

See also

*Arabic alphabet
*Turkish alphabet — a Latin-based alphabet which replaced the Arabic-based Ottoman Turkish alphabet in 1928
*Arabic Chat Alphabet
*Arabic grammar
*Arabic language
*Arabic names
*Glottal stop (letter)
*English exonyms of Arabic speaking places
*Harakat (Arabic vocalisation)
*Maltese alphabet

External links

* [ SATTS: Roman-to-Arabic mappings]
* [ Omniglot: Arabic alphabet, pronunciation and language]
* [ Yamli: Fuzzy real time transliteration system] to type Arabic using English characters phonetically.
* [ J'raxis·Com: The Arabic Script]
* [ Table comparing Romanization systems]
* [ Learn the Arabic Script Online]
* [ eiktub: web-based transliteration pad] allows instantaneous phonetic conversion of Latin ASCII keystrokes to Arabic
* [ Yoolki: Arabic transliteration] Online Arabic transliteration. Web based editor and Arabic search engine

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Arabic language — Arabic redirects here. For other uses, see Arabic (disambiguation). For the literary standard, see Modern Standard Arabic. For vernaculars, see varieties of Arabic. For others, see Arabic languages. Arabic العربية/عربي/عربى al ʿarabiyyah/ʿarabī …   Wikipedia

  • Arabic grammar — Arabic is a Semitic language. See Arabic language for more information on the language in general. This article describes the grammar of Classical Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic. History The identity of the oldest Arabic grammarian is disputed …   Wikipedia

  • Romanization — For other uses, see Romanization (disambiguation). Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization or latinization is the representation of a written word or spoken speech with the …   Wikipedia

  • Romanization of Persian — TransliterationTransliteration (in the strict sense) attempts to be a complete representation of the original writing, so that an informed reader should be able to reconstruct the original spelling of unknown transliterated words.… …   Wikipedia

  • Arabic alphabet — Infobox Writing system name=Arabic abjad type=Abjad languages= Arabic, Persian, Kurdish, Baloch, Urdu, Pashto, Sindhi, Malay (limited usage) and others. time=400 CE to the present fam1=Proto Canaanite fam2=Phoenician fam3=Aramaic fam4=Nabataean… …   Wikipedia

  • Romanization of Mandarin Chinese — National language (國語; Guóyǔ) written in Traditional and Simplified Chinese characters, followed by Hanyu Pinyin, Gwoyeu Romatzyh, Tongyong Pinyin and Wade Giles romanizations. Chinese romanization Mandarin for Stand …   Wikipedia

  • Romanization of Chinese — The romanization of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese. Chinese has been written in Chinese characters since about 1500 B.C. Chinese characters do not represent phonemes directly.There are many uses for Chinese romanization …   Wikipedia

  • Romanization of Hebrew — Hebrew uses the Hebrew alphabet with optional vowel points. The romanization of Hebrew is the use of the Latin alphabet to transliterate Hebrew words.For example, the Hebrew name spelled ישראל ( Israel ) in the Hebrew alphabet can be romanized as …   Wikipedia

  • Romanization of Russian — The romanization of the Russian alphabet is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic alphabet and into the Latin alphabet, such as the English alphabet and other Latin alphabets in particular (and sometimes non Latin… …   Wikipedia

  • Romanization of Chinese in the Republic of China — There are a large number of romanisation systems used in the Republic of China (ROC, Taiwan). Many commonly encountered Taiwanese proper names (places and people) are written in Wade–Giles, a historic system semi official in the ROC. After a long …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”