List of people considered father or mother of a field

List of people considered father or mother of a field

The following is a list of significant men and women known for being the father, mother, or considered the founders mostly in Western socities in a field, listed by category. In most non-science fields, the title of being the "father" is debatable.




Subject Father/Mother Reason
Miniature wargaming H.G. Wells[1]
Modern video game Shigeru Miyamoto[2] Creator of many successful Nintendo franchises
PlayStation Ken Kutaragi[3][4] Creator of the Sony PlayStation consoles, including the best-selling console of all time.
Role-playing game Gary Gygax[5] Creator of Dungeons & Dragons
Stealth game Hideo Kojima[6] Creator of the Metal Gear stealth-action games
Video game Ralph H. Baer[7] Inventor of the video game console
Wargaming Charles S. Roberts[8]



Subject Father/Mother Reason
Aerial warfare Oswald Boelcke[9] The first to formalize rules of air fighting, which he presented as the Dicta Boelcke, also credited as being the first pilot to shoot down an aircraft.
Atomic bomb Robert Oppenheimer[10]
Leó Szilárd[11]
Enrico Fermi[12]
Blitzkrieg Heinz Guderian[13][14]
The West's Hydrogen bomb Edward Teller[15]
Atomic submarine and "nuclear navy" Hyman G. Rickover[16][17][18]
Fourth Generation Warfare William S. Lind[citation needed]
French sailing navy Jean-Baptiste Colbert[19] Built on the fleet of France inherited from Cardinal Richelieu.
Naval Special Warfare Phil H. Bucklew[20] US Naval Officer and First Commanding Officer of Navy SEAL Team One
Naval tactical studies Paul Hoste[21] Jesuit Professor of Mathematics at the Royal College of the Marine in Toulon; wrote L'Art des Armées Navales (1697)
Luftwaffe and Luftstreitkräfte Oswald Boelcke[22]
The Soviet Union's Hydrogen Bomb Andrei Sakharov[23]
United States Airborne William C. Lee[24] First commander of the parachute school at Fort Benning, Georgia.
United States Cavalry Kazimierz Pułaski[25] Brigadier-general and commander of the cavalry of the Continental Army (1770s).
United States Navy Commodore John Barry[26]
Captain John Paul Jones[27]


Natural and social sciences


Subject Father/Mother Reason
American football Walter Camp[28]
American motocross Edison Dye[29] Introduced motorcross to American riders.
American road racing Cameron Argetsinger[30] Introduced the first US auto race that was dedicated to road courses at Watkins Glen.
American soccer Steve Ross[31] Godfather, created the New York Cosmos soccer team and imported a number of well known international footballers to the team in an attempt to bring interest to soccer in the US.
Angling Izaak Walton[32] Author of The Compleat Angler.
Argentine football Alexander Watson Hutton[33]
Argentine professional golf José Jurado[34]
Argentine winter sports Otto Meiling[35]
Association football Ebenezer Cobb Morley[36]
Baseball Henry Chadwick[37][38][39][40]
Basketball James Naismith Left many diaries and interviews that explain how and when he created basketball.
BMX Scot Breithaupt[41]
Brazilian football Charles William Miller[42]
Camel Lights Jim Downing Built a racecar a season before it became the basis of a new lightweight prototype class in


Canadian rodeo O. Raymond Knight[44] Coined the rodeo term "stampede" and was world's first rodeo producer, rodeo stock contractor, and rodeo champion in 1902.
Drag racing Wally Parks[45] Founder of the NHRA and organized the first legitimate drag race.
Don Garlits[46] Considered to be one of the innovators of drag racing safety.
Eddie Hill[47] Regarded as the forefather of drag racing.
Drifting Kunimitsu Takahashi[48] Introduced an aggressive high speed cornering technique that became widely used for illicit purposes which eventually became a sport.
East Coast skateboarding Vinny Raffa[49]
Florida skateboarding Bruce Walker[50]
Freestyle BMX Bob Haro[51][52]
Freestyle Motocross Mike Metzger[53] Godfather.
Funny Car Dick Landy[54]
Italian football James Richardson Spensley[55] Given due to his association with Genoa CFC and his contribution to the modern day variation of the game in Italy.
William Garbutt[56] Laying the foundations of skilled coaching in Italian football.
Japanese baseball Horace Wilson[57] Credited for introducing baseball in Japan.
Hiroshi Hiraoka[58] Credited for establishing the first baseball team.
Jogging Jim Fixx[59] Founding father.
Kart racing Art Ingels[60] Developed the world's first kart (1956).
Lacrosse William George Beers[61][62][63][64] Codified the sport.
Mixed martial arts Bruce Lee[65] Called so by Dana White, president of the Ultimate Fighting Championship. For his experimentation into other styles and invention of Jeet Kune Do.
Modern bodybuilding Eugen Sandow[66]
Harold Zinkin[67] Called so by Arnold Schwarzenegger during a press statement on his passing in 2004. Inventor of the modern exercise machines.
Modern boxing James Figg[68]
James J. Corbett[citation needed]
Modern figure skating Jackson Haines[69]
Modern sabre fencing Italo Santelli[70]
Modern surfing Duke Kahanamoku[71]
NASCAR Bill France, Sr.[72] Foundation of the sanctioning body for stock car racing.
Rugby union A. G. Guillemard[73]
William Webb Ellis[74] "Who with a fine disregard for the rules of football as played in his time first took the ball in his arms and ran with it thus originating the distinctive feature of the rugby game".
Scuba diving Jacques Cousteau[75] Developed the aqua-lung jointly with Émile Gagnan; popularized scuba diving as a research diver, writer, and film and television producer and personality.
Skateboarding Skip Engblom[76]
Tony Hawk[77]
Snowboarding Jake Burton Carpenter[78]
Supercross Mike Goodwin[79] Organized the first supercross race.
Televised golf Frank Chirkinian[80][81] Personally responsible for much of the production conventions of modern golf broadcasting.
The Football Association Ebenezer Cobb Morley[36] Founder.



Subject Father/Mother Reason
Aerodynamics (modern) Sir George Cayley [82][83] Founding father of modern Aerodynamics. The first to identify the four aerodynamic forces of flight—weight, lift, drag, and thrust. Modern airplane design is based on those discoveries.
Architecture Imhotep[84] Built the first pyramid
Astronautics Konstantin Tsiolkovsky[85]

Robert H. Goddard[86]
Hermann Oberth[87]

Aviation Father Francesco Lana-Terzi[88] Book: Prodromo alla Arte Maestra (1670). First to describe the geometry and physics of a flying vessel.
British watchmaking Thomas Tompion[89]
Clinical trials James Lind[90] Conducted the first controlled clinical trial in the modern era of medicine, an investigation on using citrus food as a treatment for scurvy aboard HMS Salisbury in 1747
Computing Charles Babbage[91] Inventor of the Analytical Engine which was never constructed in his lifetime.
Cybernetics Norbert Wiener[92][93]
Modern Bladesmithing William F. Moran Founder of the American Bladesmith Society
Modern Knifemaking Bob Loveless Founder of the Knifemakers' Guild
Photography Louis Daguerre[94]
Nicéphore Niépce[95]
William Henry Fox Talbot[96]
Thomas Wedgwood[97]


Subject Father/Mother Reason
Air conditioning Willis Carrier [98]
Chronograph George Graham[89][99] Referred so by Bernard Humbert of the Horology School of Bienne on his 1990 book he Chronograph as Graham was the first to construct a horological mechanism
Compact Disc Kees Immink[100]
Compiler Grace Hopper
Computer Konrad Zuse[101] Invented world's first functional program-controlled computer.
Alan Turing[102][103] Was a secret code breaker during WWII and invented the Turing machine (1936).
John von Neumann[104] Became "intrigued" with Turing's universal machine and later emphasised the importance of the stored-program concept for electronic computing (1945), including the possibility of allowing the machine to modify its own program in useful ways while running.
John V. Atanasoff[105] Invented the digital computer in the 1930s
Computer Program Ada Lovelace[106] Recognized by historians as the writer of the world's first computer program which was for the Charles Babbage Analytical Engine, but was never complete within either her or his lifetime.
Ekranoplan Rostislav Alexeev
Helicopter Igor Sikorsky [107] Invented the first successful helicopter, upon which further designs were based.
Internet Vint Cerf[108][109]
Bob Kahn[110]
Co-invented Internet protocol (IP) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) in 1973, the two original protocols of the Internet protocol suite.[112]
Instant noodle Momofuku Ando[113] Inventor of the instant noodle, also founder of Nissin Foods to produce and market them.
Japanese television Kenjiro Takayanagi[114][115]
Jet engine Frank Whittle[116][117]
Karaoke Daisuke Inoue[118] Inventor of the machine as a means of allowing people to sing without the need of a live back-up.
Laser Charles Hard Townes
Lightning prediction system Alexander Stepanovich Popov The first lightning prediction system, the Lightning detector, was invented in 1894 by Alexander Stepanovich Popov.
Marine chronometer John Harrison[119]
Microprocessor Marcian Hoff[120]
Masatoshi Shima[121]
Mobile phone Martin Cooper[122] He is the main brainchild of hand-held phone and with the help of Motorola team he developed the first handset in 1973 weighing in at two kilos.
Pentium microprocessor Vinod Dham[123][124] The original Pentium (P5) was developed by a team of engineers, including John H. Crawford, chief architect of the original 386,[125] and Donald Alpert, who managed the architectural team. Dror Avnon managed the design of the FPU.[126] Dham was general manager of the P5 group.[127] Some media sources have called him the "father of the Pentium".
Personal computer Chuck Peddle[128] Developed the 6502 microprocessor, the KIM-1 and the Commodore PET
Henry Edward "Ed" Roberts[129]
André Truong Trong Thi[130]
Programmable logic controller Dick Morley[citation needed]
Radio Alexander Stepanovich Popov [131]
Lee De Forest[132][133][134]
Guglielmo Marconi[135]
Jagdish Chandra Bose[136]
Nikola Tesla[137]
The research of these pioneers led to the development of the radio
Radio (Radio broadcasting) Reginald Fessenden[citation needed]
David Sarnoff[citation needed]
Fessenden is credited as the first to broadcast radio signals on Christmas Eve, 1906. Sarnoff proposed a chain of radio stations to Marconi's associates in 1915.
Radio (FM radio) Edwin H. Armstrong[citation needed] Obtained the first Federal Communications Commission (FCC) license to operate an FM station in Alpine, New Jersey at approximately 50 megahertz (1939)
Radiotelephony Reginald Fessenden[138][139]
Search Engine Alan Emtage[140][141][142] Created Archie, a pre-Web search engine which pioneered many of the techniques used by subsequent search engines
SGML Charles Goldfarb[143]
Telephone Antonio Meucci[144]

Alexander Graham Bell[145]

See Invention of the telephone
Television Philo T. Farnsworth[146]

Vladimir Zworykin[147][148]

John Logie Baird[149][150]

Co-Inventors of the Electronic Television. Farnsworth invented the Image dissector while Zworykin created the Iconoscope, both fully electronic forms of television. Logie Baird invented the world's first working television system, also the first electronic color television system.
Tokamak Lev Artsimovich
Tube structure Fazlur Khan[151] Invented the tube structural system and first employed it in his designs for the DeWitt-Chestnut Apartments, John Hancock Center and Sears Tower.
World Wide Web Tim Berners-Lee[152]
Visual Basic Alan Cooper[153]
XML Jon Bosak[154]

Towns, cities and regions

Subject Father/Mother Reason
British Columbia James Douglas[155] Fur trader and manager for the North West Company and Hudson's Bay Company, Governor of the Colony of Vancouver Island and first Governor of the Colony of British Columbia.
Lan Kwai Fong Allan Zeman[156] Noted for turning a small square of streets in Central, into a thriving bar and night life districts in Hong Kong.


Subject Father/Mother Reason
20th century American car industry Henry Ford[157] Noted for introducing a simple and affordable car for the ordinary American masses.
American Interstate Highway System Dwight D. Eisenhower[158]
High-performance VW industry Gene Berg[159]
Hot rod Ed Winfield[160]
Import Car Culture RJ DeVera[161] Influential for popularising the import car scene in the mid-1990s.
Kustom Kulture Von Dutch[162]
Monster truck Bob Chandler[163] Famed for building Bigfoot, which was the first to be capable of driving over cars and subsequently became one of the most famous monster truck in history
Mountain bike Gary Fisher[164]
Rotary engine Felix Wankel[165][166]
Route 66 Cyrus Avery[167]
Tailfin Harley Earl[168][169][170]
Traffic safety William Phelps Eno[171]
Yellow school bus Frank W. Cyr[172]

See also


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  2. ^ "Nintendo's Shigeru Miyamoto, 'The Father of Modern Video Games,' Receives The Jim". Reuters. 2009-01-15. 
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  5. ^ Rausch, Allen (August 15, 2004). "Gary Gygax Interview - Part I". GameSpy. Retrieved 2005-01-03. 
  6. ^ "Hideo Kojima 'GDC 2009 Keynote' video Part 2 of 4". March 26, 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-01. 
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  8. ^ "Charles S. Roberts: The Founding Father"
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  11. ^ Bernstein, Barton J: "Introduction" to The Voice of the Dolphins and Other Stories (expanded edition), by Leo Szilard. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992, p.5: "Its author, Leo Szilard, now dead nearly three decades, was a Hungarian émigré scientist and one of many putative fathers of the A-bomb."
  12. ^ Lichello, R. (1971). Enrico Fermi: Father of the Atomic Bomb. SamHar Press. ISBN 978-0871570116. 
  13. ^ Chris Trueman. "Heinz Guderian". Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
  14. ^ Chris Shimp (March 1, 2001). "General Heinz Guderian: The Father of Blitzkrieg". Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
  15. ^ "'Father of H-Bomb' Agrees to Rally Scientific Talent." The New York Times, December 31, 1965, p.19. Story opens: "Albany, Dec. 30—Governor Rockefeller will make an intensified attack on air pollution with the help of Dr. Edward Teller, the 'father of the hydrogen bomb.'"
  16. ^ Jeffries, John (2001). Justice Lewis F. Powell, Jr. Fordham Univ Press. ISBN 0-8232-2110-5. , p.162: "'Admiral Rickover', said Powell, '"father of the atomic submarine", is a great naval officer... It is not equally clear that he is a careful and thorough student of American education.'"
  17. ^ "Submarine Range Called Unlimited; Rickover Says Atomic Craft Can Cruise Under Ice To North Pole and Beyond," The New York Times, December 6, 1957, p.33: "The admiral, who is often called the 'Father of the Atomic Submarine'..."
  18. ^ Galantin, I. J. (1997). Submarine Admiral: From Battlewagons to Ballistic Missiles. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-06675-8. , p. 217: "Chet Holifield... member of the JCAE... said 'Of all the men I dealt with in public service, at least one will go down in history: Admiral Hyman G. Rickover, the father of the nuclear Navy.'"
  19. ^ Warner, Oliver (1973). Great Battle Fleets. Hamlyn. p. 98. ISBN 0-600-33913-0 ISBN 978-0-600-33913-7. 
  20. ^ Lanning, Col. Michael Lee (October 29, 2002). Blood Warriors: American Military Elites. New York: Ballantine. pp. 368. ISBN 978-0345448910. 
  21. ^ Warner, Oliver (1973). Great Battle Fleets. Hamlyn. p. 96. ISBN 0-600-33913-0 ISBN 978-0-600-33913-7. 
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  23. ^ "Andrei Sakharov: Soviet Physics, Nuclear Weapons, and Human Rights". Center for the History of Physics. American Institute of Physics. Retrieved 2007-03-03. 
  24. ^ "General William C. Lee: Father of the Airborne". Archived from the original on 2008-06-12. Retrieved 2008-07-12. 
  25. ^ Yale Richmond (1995). From Da to Yes: understanding the East Europeans. Intercultural Press. p. 72. ISBN 1-877864-30-7, ISBN 978-1-877864-30-8. 
  26. ^ John Barry Kelly. "Commodore Barry". Retrieved 2007-06-16. 
  27. ^ Hoover Library, "Revolutionary America! Where Did We Go From There? The Continental Navy -- John Paul Jones"
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  32. ^ New International Encyclopedia. New York City: Dodd, Mead and Company. 1914. pp. Fathers. 
  33. ^ "32". International Federation of Football History & Statistics. Retrieved November 9, 2011. "Arnoldo Pencliffe Watson Hutton (20.8.1886-29.7.1951), popularly known as "El Fantástico", was the son of Scotsman Alexander (Alejandro) Watson Hutton, who was a football pioneer and is considered the father of Argentine football." 
  34. ^ "Pro Shop & Clubhouse". Algodon Wine Estates. InvestProperty Group, LLC. Retrieved November 9, 2011. "Only at our pro shop can you find unique AWE merchandise, as well as memorabilia of the legends who inspire us; José Jurado, "The Father of Argentine Professional Golf", and José Luis Clerc ("Batata"), one of the most important Argentine tennis players in history." 
  35. ^ Mirodan, Seamus (February 14, 2004). "Nazis' Argentine village hide-out pulls in tourists". The Sunday Telegraph. Retrieved November 9, 2011. "Across the road from Priebke's delicatessen is the Club Andino Bariloche, a mountaineering association set up in 1931 by Otto Meiling, the father of Argentine winter sports and a former member of the Hitler Youth." 
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  37. ^ "Henry Chadwick, Chad, The Father of Base Ball [sic]"; National Baseball Hall of Fame bio,[1]. Not a player, but a journalist and organizer, the Hall of Fame credits him as "inventor of the box score" and "author of the first rule-book."
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  39. ^ "Matty" at Harvard; The New York Times, February 16, 1909, p. 7: "Charles H. Ebbets, Chairman of the Chadwick Monument Committee, has announced that the contract has been awarded for a suitable monument to be placed on the plot in Greenwood[sic] Cemetery where the remains of the late Henry Chadwick, 'the Father of Baseball,' repose."
  40. ^ Collins, Glen (2004): "Ground as Hallowed as Cooperstown," The New York Times, April 1, 2004. (Article on baseball notables interred in the Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn) "Among the nearly 600,000 people buried there are no less than four pioneers who were accorded the title 'Father of Baseball' in the popular press: Henry Chadwick, Duncan Curry, William Tucker and William Wheaton....The memorial for Henry Chadwick bears a 'Father of Base Ball' inscription.... [Duncan] Curry, first president of the Knickerbocker Baseball Club, is immortalized with a monument that proudly dubs him 'Father of Baseball' because he headed the club that scholars say first codified many of the game's rules...."
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  43. ^ Goudinoff, Connie (1992). Mazda Motorsports: 20 Victorious Years in America. Motorbooks International. p. 96. ISBN 0879385820. 
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  59. ^ "Fathers (and mothers) of invention: ultimate victims of their own success". The Independent (London). 2004-02-12. Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
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  70. ^ Santelli bio including several references backing up the statement, including a quote from Dr. William Gaugler Dec. 1997: "I am, in fact, only two generations removed from the 'father of modern sabre' [referring to Santelli]".
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  80. ^ Dolch, Craig (March 4, 2011). "Chirkinian's impact on televised golf can't be overstated". Retrieved July 15, 2011. "Bringing sounds to golf is just part of the reason why Chirkinian — who is considered "the father of televised golf" — was elected Feb. 9 into the World Golf Hall of Fame on an emergency vote." 
  81. ^ Goldstein, Richard (March 5, 2011). "Frank Chirkinian, the Father of Televised Golf, Dies at 84". The New York Times. Retrieved July 15, 2011. "Frank is universally regarded as the father of golf television,” Jim Nantz, CBS’s longtime lead golf announcer, told the PGA Tour Web site this year. “He invented it. He took a sport that no one knew how to televise and made it interesting. He brought the Masters tournament to life." 
  82. ^ "Sir George Carley (British Inventor and Scientist)". Britannica. Retrieved 2009-07-26. "English pioneer of aerial navigation and aeronautical engineering and designer of the first successful glider to carry a human being aloft." 
  83. ^ "The Pioneers: Aviation and Airmodelling". Retrieved 2009-07-26. "Sir George Cayley, is sometimes called the 'Father of Aviation'. A pioneer in his field, he is credited with the first major breakthrough in heavier-than-air flight. He was the first to identify the four aerodynamic forces of flight—weight, lift, drag, and thrust—and their relationship and also the first to build a successful human carrying glider." 
  84. ^ Albert Gallatin Mackey, The Builder Magazine, December 1922, Volume VIII, Number 12, Part XVI.
  85. ^ Tsiolkovskiy
  86. ^ Goddard
  87. ^ Oberth
  88. ^ Woods, Thomas. How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization, p 36. (Washington, DC: Regenery, 2005); ISBN 0-89526-038-7.
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  90. ^ Twyman, Richard (22 September 2004). "A brief history of clinical trials". The Human Genome. Wellcome Trust. Retrieved 29 August 2010. 
  91. ^ Lee, J.A.N. (1995). International Biographical Dictionary of Computer Pioneers. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. ISBN 1-884964-47-8. 
  92. ^ Belzer, Belzer (1977). Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology: Volume 7 - Curve Fitting to Early Development.... Marcel Dekker. ISBN 0-262-73009-X. , p. 55: "It is probably not an accident that the 'father of cybernetics,' Norbert Wiener, ..."
  93. ^ Wiener, Norbert (1965) [1948]. Cybernetics, Second Edition: or the Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. MIT Press. ISBN 0-8247-2257-4.  (Wiener is credited with coining the term in its common modern usage)
  94. ^ Barger, M. Susan; William B. White (2000). The Daguerreotype: Nineteenth-Century Technology and Modern Science. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6458-5.  p. 20, "Louis Jacques Monde Daguerre: The second father of photography is Daguerre..."
  95. ^ Barger, M. Susan; William B. White (2000). The Daguerreotype: Nineteenth-Century Technology and Modern Science. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6458-5.  p. 17, "The first father of photography was Nicéphore Niépce...."
  96. ^ Ellis, Roger (2001). Who's Who in Victorian Britain. Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-1640-6. , p. 116: cites book title: "A. H. Booth: William Henry Fox Talbot: father of photography, 1965".
  97. ^ Booth, Martin (1999). Opium: A History. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-20667-4.  p. 30 "Robert Hall, the divine, was addicted [to opium], as was Thomas Wedgwood, the father of photography."
  98. ^ The Father of Cool - Willis Haviland Carrier and Air Conditioning
  99. ^
  100. ^ Untitled Document
  101. ^ Konrad Zuse's versus John von Neumann's Computer Concepts
  102. ^ "Alan Turing - Time 100 People of the Century". Time. Retrieved 2009-06-13. "The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine" 
  103. ^ 'Father of the computer' honoured - BBC News, Monday, 7 June 2004
  104. ^ The Modern History of Computing - Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  105. ^ Bruner, Jeffrey. "Atanasoff, father of the computer, dies at 91". Rebuilding the ABC. Ames Laboratory. Retrieved 2006-07-28. 
  106. ^ Ada Lovelace
  107. ^ Igor Sikorsky is considered to be the "father" of helicopters not because he invented the first. He is called that because he invented the first successful helicopter, upon which further designs were based, an article from by Mary Bellis
  108. ^ Making Televised Emergency Information Accessible from the Gallaudet University website
  109. ^ Although it's a title he objects to (see Interview with Vinton Cerf, from a January 2006 article in Government Computer News), Cerf is willing to call himself one of the Internet's fathers, citing Bob Kahn in particularly as being someone with whom he should share that title.
  110. ^ Kahn do, No (2007). " Father of internet warns against Net Neutrality", The Register, Thursday 18 January
  111. ^ Louis Pouzin
  112. ^ "Fascinating facts about the invention of the Internet by Vinton Cerf in 1973". The Great Idea Finder. 
  113. ^
  114. ^ "Kenjiro Takayanagi: The Father of Japanese Television". NHK Science & Technical Research Laboratories. Retrieved 2006-12-09. 
  115. ^ "Kenjiro Takayanagi, Electrical Engineer, 91 (obituary)". New York Times. 1990-07-25. Retrieved 2006-12-09. 
  116. ^ "Sculpture to jet engine inventor". BBC News. 2005-10-20. Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  117. ^ Aircraft Engine
  118. ^
  119. ^ . 
  120. ^
  121. ^ "Kosaku Inagaki’s Home Page". Kyoto University. Retrieved 2010-04-01. 
  122. ^ "Meet the man who invented the mobile phone". BBC News. 2010-04-23. Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  123. ^ The Technology Trailblazer: Vinod Dham. University of Cincinnati.
  124. ^ Priya Ganapati at Techfest 99, IIT Bombay.
  125. ^ p. 54, "Intel Turns 35: Now What?", David L. Margulius, InfoWorld, July 21, 2003, ISSN 0199-6649.
  126. ^ p. 21, "Architecture of the Pentium microprocessor", D. Alpert and D. Avnon, IEEE Micro, 13, #3 (June 1993), pp. 11–21, doi:10.1109/40.216745.
  127. ^ p. 90, "Inside Intel", Business Week, #3268, June 1, 1992.
  128. ^ Commodore History: Chuck Peddle
  129. ^ "Microsoft founders lead tributes to 'father of the PC'". BBC News. April 2, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  130. ^ A Talk with the Father of Computing, Wired Magazine
  131. ^ The "The First Electronic Church of America" website poses the question: "Russia's Popov: Did he 'invent' radio?" According to this account, Alexander Popov is the "radio man." Among other things, it notes that Popov reported sending and receiving a wireless signal across a 600 yards distance in 1895. Two years later, it says, he set up a shore station at Kronstadt and equipped the Russian navy cruiser Africa with his wireless communications apparatus to provide ship-to-shore communication., an article by Stan Horzepa wondering who is the father of the radio
  132. ^ De Forest, Lee (1950). Father of Radio: The Autobiography of Lee de Forest. Chicago: Wilcox & Follett.  (This book sold fewer than a thousand copies and is accordingly rare and expensive today).
  133. ^ Dennis, Everette E..; Edward Pease (1994). Radio—The Forgotten Medium. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1-56593-873-9. , p. 198: "the egotistical Lee De Forest who discovered, however unwittingly, the audion tube that allowed him to proclaim himself 'the father of radio'"
  134. ^ Shurkin, Joseph (1996). Engines of the Mind: The Evolution of the Computer from the Mainframes to Microprocessors. W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN 0-393-31471-5. , p. 132: "De Forest, who was not a modest man, called himself the 'Father of Radio,' an epithet whose accuracy is debatable."
  135. ^ Guglielmo Marconi - the "father of radio"
  136. ^ A. K. Sen (1997). "Sir J.C. Bose and radio science", Microwave Symposium Digest 2 (8-13), pp. 557-560.
  137. ^ Ask the average person "Who invented radio?" and the average answer will be "Marconi." Ask the same question on the Internet, and the average answer will not likely be "Marconi." Instead, try one of the following on for size: Nikola Tesla, Alexander Popov, Oliver Lodge, Reginald Fessenden, Heinrich Hertz, Mahlon Loomis, Nathan Stubblefield, James Clerk Maxwell and even Thomas Edison, among others, an article by Stan Horzepa wondering who is the father of the radio
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  172. ^ Watson, Rollin J. (2002). The School As a Safe Haven. Bergen Garvey/Greenwood. p. 30. ISBN 0-89789-900-8. "The modern school bus began in a conference in 1939 called by Frank W. Cyr, the 'Father of the Yellow School' bus, who was a professor at Teachers College, Columbia University. At that meeting, Cyr urged the standardization of the school bus. Participants came up with the standard yellow color and some basic construction standards. Cyr had... found that children were riding in all sorts of vehicles—one district, he found, was painting their buses red, white, and blue to instill patriotism." 

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