Gallaudet University

Gallaudet University
Gallaudet University
Latin: Universitas Gallaudetensis
Motto Ephphatha (Syriac)
a dialect of Aramaic: Be opened
Established April 8, 1864
Type Private
Congressionally chartered
Endowment $136.4 million[1]
President T. Alan Hurwitz
Admin. staff 293
Undergraduates 1,874
Postgraduates 466
Location Washington, D.C.,
United States
Campus Urban
Colors Buff and Blue
Mascot Bison

Gallaudet University (play /ˌɡæləˈdɛt/) is a federally-chartered university for the education of the deaf and hard of hearing, located in the District of Columbia, U.S. It was the first school for the advanced education of the deaf and hard of hearing in the world, and is still the only higher education institution in which all programs and services are specifically designed to accommodate Deaf and hard of hearing students. Hearing students are admitted to the graduate school, and a small number are also admitted as undergraduates each year. The university was named after Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, a notable figure in the advancement of Deaf education.

Gallaudet University is officially bilingual, with American Sign Language (commonly abbreviated ASL) and English used for instruction and by the college community. Although there are not specific ASL proficiency requirements for undergraduate admission, many graduate programs do require varying degrees of knowledge of the language as a prerequisite.[2]




File:Columbia institution for the Deaf circa 1893.jpg
Columbia Institution for the Deaf, circa 1893, shortly before the collegiate department became named after T.H. Gallaudet
  • In 1856, philanthropist and former United States Postmaster General Amos Kendall became aware of several deaf and blind children in Washington, DC who were not receiving proper care. Kendall had the courts declare the children to be his wards, and donated 2 acres (8,100 m2) of his land to establish housing and a school for them.[3]
  • Though Amos Kendall played his contribution, Edward Miner Gallaudet is responsible for founding the college for the Deaf in D.C. He was not alone, however. John Carlin was involved as well. It was Carlin who suggested placing a monument of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet with Alice Cogswell. [4]
  • In 1857, the 34th Congress passed HR 806, which chartered the school as the Columbia Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind and provided funding for the tuition of indigent Deaf, dumb, or blind children belonging to the District.[5]
  • In 1864, the 38th Congress authorized the Institution to grant and confirm college degrees.[6] The collegiate department became known as the National Deaf-Mute College.
Chapel Hall
  • In 1865, the 38th Congress removed the instruction that the Institution was to educate the blind, and renamed it the "Columbia Institution for the instruction of the Deaf and Dumb".
  • In 1954, Congress amended the charter of the Institution and changed the corporate name to "Gallaudet College" to match the name that had been the official name of the collegiate department since 1894.[7]
  • In 1986, Congress again amended the charter of the Institution, and renamed it "Gallaudet University".[8]
  • In September 2000, freshman Eric Plunkett was murdered in Cogswell Hall (later called Ballard North[9]). In February 2001, freshman Benjamin Varner was murdered in Krug Hall (later called Ballard West). Joseph Mesa, also a freshman, was convicted in 2001 of both murders.[10]

The Columbia Institution began as a grammar school in 1857, then added a college department in 1864.

Early history


1857-1858: The school was established with considerable efforts being made by several concerned citizens of Washington, D.C. Two houses were used, one purchased, and one rented.

The First Annual Report was submitted to the Secretary of the Interior on November 1, 1858.

1858-1859: The school's second full year of operation. During the year, 14 deaf students were in attendance, as well as 7 blind students. Superintendent Gallaudet, anticipating the future growth of the school, requests money for more buildings, lamenting the fact that the money wasn't issued in the year prior, due to federal budget problems.

The Second Annual Report was submitted on November 5, 1859.

1859-1860: President Kendall beseeches the federal government for funds to relocate the school to more spacious grounds. Superintendent Gallaudet praises President Kendall for having donated money to construct a new brick building, yet reports that both school buildings are already at capacity. There were 24 deaf students, necessitating the need for a second teacher of the deaf. The teacher of the 6 blind students, Mrs. Eddy, resigned due to health concerns.

The Third Annual Report was submitted on November 5, 1860.

1860-1861: The Civil War had been in progress for over six months, but Superintendent Gallaudet reports that the students are safe and free from fear. There were 35 deaf students and 6 blind students in attendance during the academic year. An art teacher was hired for the first time. A committee inspected the school and gave a report, which is included. Sample essays written by congenitally deaf students are also included.

The Fourth Annual Report was submitted on November 5, 1861.

1861-1862: Supt. Gallaudet explains that new moneys provided for industrial education were used to rent a nearby shop in order to teach cabinet-making to the boys. Plans were underway to construct a new building using $9000 that Congress appropriated. There were 35 deaf students and 6 blind students. During vacation in August a regiment of troops used the brick building for a hospital, and some of the students who stayed over the summer helped with tending to the sick soldiers. One soldier died.

For the first time, Supt. Gallaudet proposes expanding the school to create a college for deaf students. An examining committee gives a report and student writing samples are included.

The Fifth Annual Report was submitted on November 3, 1862.

1862-1863: Even with new construction completed, the school is still at capacity and more money is needed to purchase 13 acres (53,000 m2) of adjoining land and then build even more buildings. Supt. Gallaudet asks for money to pipe in water from the river, the existing cistern and well being inadequate to the school's needs. President Kendall praises the school's matron, Mrs. Sophia Gallaudet (the superintendent's mother) for the fact that not a single student has died during the entire course of the school's existence.

The Sixth Annual Report was submitted on October 15, 1863.

1863-1864: For the first time, college-level classes are offered, the new collegiate department representing what will later expand to become Gallaudet College and later Gallaudet University. Congress approved of Columbia granting college degrees, and an enabling act for the college was passed and approved by President Lincoln. An elaborate inauguration ceremony was held in June with Laurent Clerc in attendance. A complete transcript of the Gallaudet's and Clerc's addresses is included.

Two students had died, one from illness while on vacation, and another was struck by a train.

Fourteen acres of land was purchased with money supplied by the government. Supt. Gallaudet has been promoted to President of the institution and he presses hard for more money to expand and build new buildings.

President Gallaudet proposes ceasing services for blind students, saying that the small number of blind students would be better served at the school for the blind in Baltimore.

The Seventh Annual Report was submitted on November 17, 1864.

1864-1865: The enrollment numbers are increasing rapidly with more increases on the horizon. President Gallaudet asks the government for money to accomplish several projects, including the construction of an ice house and a gas house, sewer lines, and more. Major construction is continuing. The name of the collegiate department is changed to "National Deaf-Mute College." The blind students are transferred to a school in Baltimore. Passing reference is made to the end of the Civil War, but no mention is made of the assassination of President Lincoln which occurred in April during the school year—the first year of operation of the college department.

The Eighth Annual Report was submitted on November 6, 1865.

1865-1866: President Gallaudet responds to criticism from supporters of the oral method in Massachusetts and explains that oral instruction is usually of little value to congenitally deaf children. He proposes that a representative of the school be sent to Europe to study the methods employed there, in order to determine which types of instructional methods might be added to those methods already being used successfully at the Columbia Institution and other American schools. Combined enrollment of all levels of instruction, including the collegiate level, exceeds 100 for the first time. There are 25 students enrolled in the college, including students from 14 states of all parts of the Union. Sophia Gallaudet, the widow of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and the matron of the school, tendered her resignation. Edward Allen Fay joins the faculty as a professor of history, having learned to sign as a child.

The Ninth Annual Report was submitted on November 6, 1866.

Old Fowler Hall, circa 1866

1866-1867: Two students died while swimming in the Potomac with large group of students. The building for the primary school is extended and sickness is thereby reduced. A mathematics professor is hired for the first time. More money is needed to accommodate additional students expected to swell the ranks of the school.

President Gallaudet gives a lengthy account of his travels to Europe and is very critical in his comments of the extent to which speech is taught to deaf children in European schools for the deaf. Nevertheless, he recommends that a limited amount of speech training be afforded to deaf students in America to those who show they can benefit.

Gallaudet's travels took him to: Doncaster, England; Birmingham, England; Manchester, England; Liverpool, England; Glasgow, Scotland; Belfast, Ireland; Dublin, Ireland; Geneva, Switzerland; Nancy, France, Saint Hypolite Du-Fort, France; Vienna, Austria; Leipsic, Saxony (Leipzig, Germany); Lubec (Lübeck, Germany); Frankfort On-the-Main (Frankfurt am Main, Germany); Brussels, Belgiam; Zürich, Switzerland; Rotterdam, Holland; Paris, France; Weissenfels, Prussia (Weißenfels, Germany); Prague, Bohemia; (Prague, Czech Republic); Berlin, Prussia (Berlin, Germany); Milan, Italy; Genoa, Italy; Turin, Italy; Dresden, Saxony (Dresden, Germany); London, England; Edinburgh, Scotland; Bordeaux, France; Marseilles, France; Munich, Bavaria (Munich, Germany); Bruges, Belgium; St. Petersburg, Russia; Abo, Finland; Stockholm, Sweden; and Copenhagen, Denmark.

The Tenth Annual Report was submitted on October 28, 1867.

1867-1868: The biggest educational conference in the then-history of deaf education was held during the month of May 1868 in Washington, D.C., largely made up of principals of schools for the deaf. Fourteen schools for the deaf were represented from 22 different states. The chief topic of discussion was the recommendations put forth by Edward Gallaudet regarding adding articulation lessons to schools' curricula.

The Eleventh Annual Report was submitted on October 26, 1868.

1868-1869: James Henry Logan, John Burton Hotchkiss, and Joseph Griffin Parkinson became the first three students to complete a full course of college studies, all graduating with bachelor's degrees.

The Twelfth Annual Report was submitted on October 20, 1869.

1869-1870: The esteemed founder of the school, Amos Kendall, died in November 1869. President Gallaudet delivered a eulogy at the board meeting in January. The main central building was partially completed, with rooms in the basement and on the first floor first being used. Plans were being made to purchase Amos Kendall's estate, which adjoined the grounds of the school. President Gallaudet cautioned Congress that Kendall's heirs had plans to subdivide the property if it was not sold to Columbia, and hence the land would never again become available for purchase as a whole.

The Thirteenth Annual Report was submitted on October 29, 1870.

In 1881, Laura Sheridan, a hearing woman, inquired about Gallaudet University accepting women. She was told that deaf women could not enter the institution. In 1887 Gallaudet agreed to allow women to apply with the intent that women would not stay. Temporary living arrangements were made, and the college remained co-education. [11]

Deaf President Now (1988)

Student strikes at Gallaudet University starting March 6, 1988 revolutionized the perception and education of Deaf culture. Deaf students were outraged at the selection of another hearing president, Elisabeth Zinser, after a long line of university presidents who were not deaf. Alumni, faculty, staff, and students demanded that the next president of the university be deaf. After a week of protest and activism, Zinser resigned and was replaced by I. King Jordan. This movement became known as Deaf President Now (DPN).

Unity for Gallaudet Movement (2006)

Student union

Jordan announced his retirement in September 2005. On May 1, 2006, the University's Board of Trustees announced that Jane Fernandes, the University's current provost, would be the University's next president. This was met with protests from the student body, both in person on campus and in internet blogs and forums.

Initially, students cited the lack of racial diversity among finalists, Fernandes's lack of warmth,[12] and her lack of fluency in American Sign Language.[13]

Jordan publicly accused some critics of rejecting Dr. Fernandes because "she is not deaf enough." He described the protest as "identity politics", saying, "We are squabbling about what it means to be deaf."[14]

The Washington Post reported that Fernandes "would like to see the institution become more inclusive of people who might not have grown up using sign language," stating that Gallaudet must embrace "all kinds of deaf people."[15] Those who opposed her said that they feared a "weakening of American Sign Language at an institution that should be its standard-bearer."[16]

Protesters said Fernandes distorted their arguments and that the protest centered on her inability to lead, an unfair selection process and longstanding problems at the school.[17]

In the spring 2006 protest, students blocked entrances to the Gallaudet campus, held rallies, and set up tents near the University's main entrance. Fernandes, appointed to serve as president-designate until Jordan retired, said that she would not step down. On May 8, the faculty gave a vote of no confidence for Dr. Fernandes.

When the fall 2006 academic year resumed, some students, faculty, staff, and alumni continued their protest, calling for Fernandes to step down and for the presidential search to be done again. On October 11, a group of protesting students shut down the campus. On October 16 at a regularly scheduled meeting, faculty members voted 138-24 to block Dr. Fernandes from becoming president of Gallaudet University.

Fernandes said, "I really don't understand so I have to believe it's not about me. ... I believe it's about evolution and change and growth in the deaf community."[18]

On October 29, the university withdrew the appointment of Fernandes.[19] In an opinion piece in The Washington Post, Jordan defended Fernandes' remarks and denounced the board's decision and the actions of the protesters, saying, "I am convinced that the board made a serious error in acceding to the demands of the protesters by terminating Fernandes's presidency before it began."[20]

On December 10, 2006, the Board of Trustees announced that Robert Davila would serve as interim president for a period of up to two years.[21] He was formally installed on May 9, 2007, during a ceremony that included a speech by D.C. Congressional Delegate Eleanor Holmes Norton, who spoke positively of the 2006 protest.[22] He stepped down on December 31, 2009.

On June 29, 2007, in the aftermath of the controversy over the university's presidency, Gallaudet was temporarily placed on probation by its accreditation organization, the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools.[23] It was also reported that in 2006, the Office of Management and Budget had found that "Gallaudet failed to meet its goals or showed declining performance in key areas, including the number of students who stay in school, graduate and either pursue graduate degrees or find jobs upon graduation."[24] In January 2007, former president Jordan wrote an editorial on the topic that appeared in the Washington Post.[21] The Middle States Commission later reaffirmed Gallaudet's accreditation on June 27, 2008.[25]

On October 18, 2009, the Board of Trustees announced that Gallaudet's tenth president will be Dr. T. Alan Hurwitz. He began his tenure on January 1, 2010.

Congressional charter

The university acknowledges that it "is a congressionally created corporation that serves governmental objectives." [26] The university and the Department of Education explain that Gallaudet has been structured by the Federal Government to take the form of a "federally chartered, private, non-profit educational institution." The federal government plays various roles within the institution:[27]

  • Congress incorporated the Columbia Institution in 1857, significantly amended its charter in 1954 and authorizing permanent congressional appropriations. In 1986, Congress passed the Education of the Deaf Act and amended it in 1992. These Congressional acts are part of "the supreme law of Gallaudet University."[28]
  • Gallaudet must obtain authorization from the Secretary of the US Department of Education in order to sell or transfer title of any of its real property[8]
  • The diplomas of all Gallaudet graduates are signed by the current U.S. President.[29]
  • Three members of Congress are appointed to the university's Board of Trustees as "Public Members."[30]
  • Gallaudet must provide annual reports to the Secretary of Education.[31]
  • "Gallaudet receives the bulk of its income in the form of an annual appropriation from Congress, and the Department of Education oversees the University's appropriation for the Federal government."[32]
  • Gallaudet University (and the National Technical Institute for the Deaf) are authorized to make purchases through the General Services Administration.

Gallaudet's Fifty-Fifth Annual Report[33] contains an appendix that includes the text of 99 Federal Acts related to Gallaudet/Columbia which were enacted between 1857 and 1912.

Presidential visits


Bison, the mascot[35]

The Gallaudet campus has been designated a historic place on a number of registries and surveys:

  • National Register of Historic Places (added in 1974). Gallaudet College Historic District [17][18]
  • District of Columbia Inventory of Historic Sites (listings added in 1964 and 1973).[19]

"...well-preserved romantic landscape campus designed in 1866 by Olmsted, Vaux & Co. (on site of estate named Kendall Green); includes excellent examples of High Victorian Gothic collegiate architecture; monument to founder Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, pioneer educator of the deaf (Daniel Chester French, sculptor); includes approximately 10 buildings c. 1866-1885..." [20]

  • National Historic Landmarks designation (added 1965). [21]
  • Historic American Buildings Survey (added 1933). [22]


Gallaudet baseball team, 1886

Gallaudet is a member of NCAA Division III and the North Eastern Athletic Conference.[36] The teams that play in the North Eastern Athletic Conference are the men's and women's basketball, cross country, soccer teams, along with the baseball, softball and volleyball teams.[36] However, the Gallaudet football team plays in the Eastern Collegiate Football Conference. In addition to the football team, which plays in a different conference than most sports at Gallaudet, the men's and women's swimming teams, as well as the men's and women's track and field teams, compete as independents. The Bison compete in baseball, basketball, cross country running, football, indoor and outdoor track and field, soccer, softball, swimming, tennis, volleyball, and wrestling. Their colors are buff and blue.

Women's Basketball

Prior to the arrival of Coach Kevin Cook in 2006, the Gallaudet Women's basketball team was nothing more than mediocre. The team had not yet had a full time basketball coach. In 2006, Kevin Cook took over as the head basketball coach after spending 10 years in the WNBA, coaching the Nigerian Women's Basketball team and coaching overseas. Cook became the first ever head Women's Basketball coach at Gallaudet. Cook did not anticipate such a large project in turning around the women's basketball team, but also faced problems with communication. Coach Cook did not know sign language. Since taking over as coach, Cook has learned ASL and signs during practices. Cook uses a translator during games *[23] .

Prior to Cook's arrival, the Gallaudet Women's Basketball team hadn't won a conference game in five years and even lost a game by 75 points in Cook's first year in control *[24] . Cook's persistance on defense and discipline has turned the program around. Gallaudet began the 2010-11 season on a 20 game winning streak and finished the season 24-4 (20-2 in conference play). Cook was named North Eastern Athletic Conference Coach of the Year, and senior Easter Faafiti was voted NEAC Player of the Year. The 2010-11 season ended in the first round of the Division III NCAA Championships with a loss to Juniata *[25] .

After a victory over Penn State-Berks in the 2010-11 season, Penn State guard Corin Bishop "said that she views the Gallaudet team as a great basketball team, not a team of deaf players." Hayes of Gallaudet later said, "I feel like there are people who stereotype us as deaf players, I'm just like everyone else who plays basketball" *[26] . With national media coverage of the Gallaudet Women's Basketball team surrounding the great run throughout the 2010-11 season, it is clear that the accomplishments of Gallaudet's female athletes are transcending the basketball court while giving Gallaudet students the opportunity to show their pride. In an interview with Lydia Lum of "Diverse", he said, "Because of us, there's a growing awareness that there are differences between deaf people, but we're all the same" *[27] .


Football team

The football huddle originated at Gallaudet when the team noticed that their opponents were trying to see and read their signs in order to try to guess their plays.[37]

After an undefeated season in 2005, which was achieved after 122 years, head coach Ed Hottle began his campaign to return to the NCAA ranks. With support from the Gallaudet administration, the Bison played their last season of club football in 2006 and played a full NCAA slate of eight games in 2007.[38]

After the 2009 football season, Coach Hottle left to become the first head coach of the first football team at Stevenson University. He announced his decision in a heart-felt meeting with the football team. Offensive Coordinator Chuck Goldstein was tapped to be the interim head coach of the football team. On December 17, 2009, the interim tag was removed and he is now the permanent head coach of the team.[39]


In 2006, the Gallaudet women's volleyball team ended their season 30-10 after a history-making run to the Sweet Sixteen in the NCAA Division III tournament. Tamijo Foronda, a senior outside hitter, was named to the AVCA All-American Team.

Noted athletes

Gallaudet University, which plays in the NCAA-III division in all sports, has had its share of students that went to notably in a range of sports. Such athletes are:

  • Richard Jacobs, member of the national US Team Handball squad, with several international games to his credit; was one of the last cuts with the US Olympic Team Handball squad
  • Dawn Birley, certified as Olympic-eligible, won several national Canadian TaeKwonDo championships; she didn't make it to the Olympics only because Canada was not one of the invited nations in this event
  • Denny Guinn, also another Canadian, was the nation's top ranked Air Pistol shooter; while representing Gallaudet at the National Collegiate Shooting championship, finished #1 in the nation, despite having to practice at a shooting range, off campus because of safety concerns
  • Marvin Marshall won the Washington, DC local Golden Gloves boxing championship and took part at the national Golden Gloves championship; had over 500 amateur bouts in his boxing career
  • Gillian Hall was a Connecticut state synchronized swimming champion

Greek life

The campus Greek community is relatively small with only 4 fraternities and 4 sororities. The four fraternities are Kappa Gamma, Alpha Sigma Pi, Kappa Sigma, and Delta Sigma Phi. Sororities are Phi Kappa Zeta, Delta Epilson, Alpha Sigma Theta, and Delta Zeta.


The Gallaudet Research Institute (often abbreviated GRI) is internationally recognized for its leadership in deafness-related research. GRI researchers gather and analyze data concerning the social, academic, and perceptual characteristics of deaf and hard of hearing populations, primarily to provide information needed by educators in the field. Staff are skilled in various research methodologies including surveys, test norming and assessment, ethnographic studies, clinical studies, and information management.[40]

Notable alumni


"America does mean opportunity. But it was not until 1864 that that great principle found illustration in a college for the training of the deaf. A German writer, commenting upon American literature, declares that the central note in it, the special characteristic of all our great writers, has been idealism—high and lofty idealism. And he says it is no wonder that Longfellow's poem 'Excelsior' was written by an American, because the excelsior note is the dominant note in American literature. This college, ladies and gentlemen, is 'Excelsior' wrought into an institution. It stands for justice, not charity. This college, and this college alone stands for the principle that a limitation upon one faculty shall not be a limitation upon all faculties, but rather a challenge to all faculties. It stands for the principle that the men and women who enter here shall see before them the same shining goal that beckons to the men and women who enter other colleges. It stands for the principle that the human mind, if compassed by eternal silence, shall be compassed also by eternal truth."[41]

"In an age of improvement like the present, society does not rest satisfied with the achievement of mere essentials. The genius of civilization demands progress until absolute perfection is attained."--Edward Miner Gallaudet, 1867.[42]

"Columbia Institution for the Deaf" was the corporate name for what is now Gallaudet University. In 1954 a law was passed, changing the corporate name to "Gallaudet College." (The collegiate department of the Columbia Institution had gone by the name "Gallaudet College" since 1894.) In 1986 another law was passed, changing the name to "Gallaudet University."[citation needed]

See also


  1. ^ Current as of June 30, 2009. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2009 Endowment Market Value and Percentage Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2008 to FY 2009" (PDF). 2009 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments. National Association of College and University Business Officers. Retrieved March 8, 2010. 
  2. ^ Communication & Culture Issues - Gallaudet University
  3. ^ The history of Kendall Demonstration Elementary School at Gallaudet University's Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center
  4. ^
  5. ^ A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774 - 1875
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^ a b
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^ Marschark, Marc, Lang, Harry G. and Albertini, John A. "Educating Deaf Students". Oxford University Press. 2002. p. 31
  12. ^ The Chronicle of Higher Education: "Student Protests Over Presidential Pick Return to Gallaudet U."
  13. ^ The Washington Post: "Gallaudet Names New President."
  14. ^ Fox News: "Is Gallaudet University's Dean 'Deaf Enough'?"
  15. ^ The Washington Post: "Signs of Change At Gallaudet."
  16. ^ The New York Times: "Protests Continue at University for Deaf."
  17. ^ The Washington Post: "Source of Gallaudet Turmoil Is Up for Debate."
  18. ^ The Washington Post: "Gallaudet Reopens With Protesters Still At Front Gates."
  19. ^ Inside Gallaudet: "Board of Trustees votes to terminate Dr. Jane Fernandes appointment as president"
  20. ^ Gallaudet Chooses Interim President, Washington Post, December 11, 2006
  21. ^ a b Jordan, I. King (January 22, 2007). "Deaf Culture and Gallaudet". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 3, 2010. 
  22. ^
  23. ^ Inside Gallaudet - Gallaudet University
  24. ^ On Probation, Washington Post, July 14, 2007.
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^ Article I - Authority - Gallaudet University
  29. ^ Gallaudet History - Gallaudet University
  30. ^ Board of Trustees - Gallaudet University
  31. ^ Search Results - THOMAS (Library of Congress)
  32. ^ Administration and Finance - Gallaudet University
  33. ^
  34. ^ Gannon, Jack. 1981. Deaf Heritage–A Narrative History of Deaf America, Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf, p. 319 (PDF)
  35. ^
  36. ^ a b
  37. ^
  38. ^ Foster, Brooke (August 19, 2007). "Sound and the Fury". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 3, 2010. 
  39. ^
  40. ^ Gallaudet Research Institute (GRI) Home Page
  41. ^ C. Alphonso Smith, from address given on Presentation Day at Gallaudet, May 6, 1914
  42. ^

External links

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