- Blessed Virgin Mary (Roman Catholic)
Blessed Virgin Mary
The Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "The Church's devotion to the Blessed Virgin is intrinsic to Christian worship."
Mother of God, Queen of Heaven, Mother of the Church, Mediatrix, Co-Redemptrix, Our Lady Born September 8 (Nativity of Mary) Died August 15 (Assumption of Mary) Honored in Catholicism Canonized Pre-Congregation Major shrine Santa Maria Maggiore, Basilica of Guadalupe (see Shrines to the Virgin Mary) Feast See Marian feast days Attributes Blue mantle, crown of 12 stars, pregnant woman, roses, woman with child Patronage See Patronage of the Blessed Virgin Mary
- This article is about the Roman Catholic venerative views; for doctrines see Roman Catholic Mariology. For a general perspective, see Mary (mother of Jesus). For the religious order BVM, see Sisters of Charity of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
Roman Catholic veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary is based on Holy Scripture: In the fullness of time, God sent his son, born of a virgin. The mystery of the incarnation of the Son of God through Mary thus signifies her honour as Mother of God. From the Council of Ephesus in 431, which dogmatized this belief, to Vatican II and Pope John Paul II's Redemptoris Mater encyclical the Virgin Mary has come to be seen, not only as the Mother of God but also as the Mother of the Church.
As the mother of Jesus Christ, Mary has a central role in the life of the Roman Catholic Church. The Roman Catholic veneration of her as the Blessed Virgin Mary has grown over time both in importance and manifestation, not only in prayer but in art, poetry and music. Popes have encouraged this veneration but from time to time have also taken steps to reform it.[note 1] Overall, there are significantly more titles, feasts and venerative Marian practices among Roman Catholics than any other Christians traditions.
The key role of the Virgin Mary in Roman Catholic beliefs, her veneration, and the growth of Roman Catholic Mariology have not only come about by official statements made in Rome but have often been driven from the ground up, by the Marian writings of the saints and from the masses of believers, and at times via reported Marian apparitions to young and simple children on remote hilltops, which have then influenced the higher levels of the Holy See via sensus fidei. The Holy See continues to approve of Marian apparitions on remote mountains, the latest approval being as recent as May 2008. Some apparitions such as Fatima have given rise to Marian Movements and Societies with millions of members, and many other Marian societies exist around the world.
From Christ to Mary in the Roman Catholic tradition
Theological basis for the veneration of Mary
The Catholic veneration of Mary is based on two aspects: the workings of God who made a virgin the Mother of God, and the biblical view of Mary as the selected maiden of the Lord who is greeted and praisedby both ElisabethLuke 1:28. God's work is further illuminated in the Marian dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church such as the Immaculate Conception and the Assumption, the factual basis of both taking place in apostolic time and are, in the Roman Catholic view, part of the apostolic tradition and divine revelation.
Mysteries of Christ and Mary
In Roman Catholic teachings, the veneration of Mary is a logical and necessary consequence of Christology: Jesus and Mary are son and mother, redeemer and redeemed. This sentiment echoed loudly through Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome on March 25, 1987 as Pope John Paul II delivered his encyclical Redemptoris Mater and said:
- At the centre of this mystery, in the midst of this wonderment of faith, stands Mary. As the loving Mother of the Redeemer, she was the first to experience it: "To the wonderment of nature you bore your Creator"!
In the Roman Catholic tradition Mariology is Christology developed to its full potential. Mary and her son Jesus are very close but not identical in Catholic theology. Mary contributes to a fuller understanding of her Son, who Christ is and what He did. A Christology without Mary is erroneous in the Roman Catholic view, because it is not based on the total revelation of the Bible. Traces of this parallel interpretation go back to the early days of Christianity and numerous saints have since focused on it.
The development of this approach continued into the 20th century, e.g. in his 1946 publication Compendium Mariologiae, the respected Mariologist Gabriel Roschini explained that Mary not only participated in the birth of the physical Jesus, but, with conception, she entered with him into a spiritual union. The divine salvation plan, being not only material, includes a permanent spiritual unity with Christ.  Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) wrote:
It is necessary to go back to Mary if we want to return to that "truth about Jesus Christ," "truth about the Church" and "truth about man".
when he suggested a redirection of the whole Church towards the program of Pope John Paul II in order to ensure an authentic approach to Christology via a return to the "whole truth about Mary".
From veneration to theology
Marian venerative practices predated both the liturgical developments and theological definitions relating to the Virgin Mary. While the venerative practices date back to the 2nd century, the first theological definitions started only in the 5th century. Thereafter, venerative and devotional practices have often preceded formal theological declarations by the Magisterium.
The veneration of the Blessed Virgin takes place in various ways. Marian prayers and hymns usually begin with a praise of her, followed by petitions. The number of Marian titles continued to grow as of the 3rd century, and many titles existed by the 5th century, growing especially during the Middle Ages.
Early veneration in Rome
Early veneration of the Blessed Virgin is documented in Roman Catacombs, underground cemeteries, where Christians hid in times of persecution. In the catacombs paintings show the Blessed Virgin holding the Christ Child. More unusual and indicating the burial ground of Saint Peter excavations in the crypt of St Peter's Basilica discovered a very early fresco of Mary together with Saint Peter.
The Roman Priscilla catacombs depict the oldest Marian paintings from the middle of the 2nd century Mary is shown with Jesus on her lap, a standing man with tunic left hand a book right hand a star over his head symbol of messiahs. Priscilla also has a depiction of the annunciation.
After the edict of Milan in AD 313, Christians were permitted to worship openly. The veneration of Mary became public as well. In the following decades Cathedrals and churches were built for public worship. The first Marian churches in Rome date from the 5th and 6th centuries, Santa Maria in Trastevere, Santa Maria Antiqua and Santa Maria Maggiore. However, the very earliest church dedicated to the Virgin Mary dates to the late 4th century in Syria where an inscription dedicating it to the Theotokos was found among the ruins.
This new freedom also permitted literary development of the Marian mysteries. Hippolytus of Rome being early example. Saint Ambrose, who lived in Rome before going to Milan as its bishop, venerated Mary as example of Christian life, and is credited with starting a Marian cult of virginity in the 4th century.
The first Christians did not celebrate the liturgy and liturgical feast in the same way as later Christians; the feasts of Easter and Christmas were not known, although the Eucharist was celebrated. Liturgical venerations of the saints are believed to have originated in the 2nd century and in the first three centuries, the emphasis was on the veneration of martyrs, as a continuation of the yearly celebrations of their death, e.g. as noted in the early Christian text on the Martyrdom of Polycarp. However, in the early part of the 3rd century, Hippolytus of Rome recorded the first liturgical reference to the Virgin Mary, as part of the ordination rite of a bishop. Marian feasts appeared in the 4th century, and the feast of the "Memory of Mary, Mother of God" was celebrated on August 15 in Jerusalem by the year 350.
Growth of Marian culture
From the middle of the 11th century onwards, more and more churches, including many of Europe's greatest cathedrals (e.g. Notre Dame de Paris and Notre-Dame de Bayeux among others), were dedicated to Mary. Marian pilgrimage developed large popular followings and prayers such as the Regina Coeli were composed. At the height of the pilgrimage movement in the 11th and 12th centuries, hundreds of people were traveling almost constantly from one Marian shrine to the next.
In the 12th century, the book Speculum Virginum (mirror of Virgins in Latin) provided one of the earliest justifications of cloistered religious life, as it sought to strengthen the resolve of women who contemplated a dedicated religious life, and encouraged them to follow the example of the life of the Virgin Mary. By the 14th century, Mary had become greatly popular as a compassionate intercessor and protector of humanity and during the great plagues such as the Black Death, her help was sought against the just judgment of God. The Renaissance witnessed a dramatic growth in venerative Marian art.
By the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation had introduced a tide against Marian venerations in Europe. However, at the same time new Marian devotions were starting in South America based on Saint Juan Diego's 1531 reported vision of Our Lady of Guadalupe which added almost 8 million people to the ranks of Catholics. The ensuing Marian pilgrimages have continued to date and the Marian Basilica on Tepeyac Hill remains the most visited Catholic shrine in the world. In the 17th and 18th centuries writings by the saints, coupled with papal encouragements, increased the growth of Marian devotions, and gave rise to the definition and declaration of new Marian doctrines.
Marian culture continues to be developed within the Catholic Church. For instance, in 1974, after 4 years of preparation, Pope Paul VI issued the Apostolic Letter Marialis Cultus. In this document, (which was subtitled For the Right Ordering and Development of Devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary) Paul VI not only discussed the history of Marian devotions, but overviewed their rationale and provided suggestions for their future direction, emphasising their theological and pastoral value.
A multitude of views and perspectives
Throughout the centuries, Catholics have viewed the Virgin Mary from a multitude of perspectives, at times derived from specific Marian attributes ranging from queenship to humility, and at times based on cultural preferences of events taking place at specific points in history.
An example of the cultural adaptation of perspective include the view of the Virgin Mary as a mother with humility (rather than a heavenly queen) as the Franciscans began to preach in China, and its similarity to local Chinese motherly and merciful figure of Kuanyin, which was much admired in south China. Another example is the Saint Juan Diego's account of the appearance of the Virgin of Guadalupe in 1531 as a tanned Aztec princess who spoke in his local Nahuatl language. The clothing of the Virgin of Guadalupe image has been identified as that of an Aztec princess.
Other views such as the Virgin Mary as a "miracle worker" have existed for centuries and are still held by many Catholics today. Instances include the Black Madonna of Częstochowa which continues to be venerated today as the Patron of Poland and Our Lady of Lourdes which receives millions of pilgrims per year. However, the Vatican has generally been reluctant to approve of modern miracles, unless they have been subject to extensive analysis and scrunity. 
Development of Marian doctrines
Apart from the title of Mother of God which holds Mary as Theotokos, two specific doctrines relate to the birth of Jesus and the virginity of Mary. These are distinct doctrines which were defined and declared as dogmas at different times. 
Since the 4th century, Roman Catholics have believed in the Virgin birth of Jesus, namely that Jesus was miraculously conceived through the action of the Holy Spirit while Mary remained a virgin. This was decided at the First Council of Nicaea in 325. Going beyond the virgin birth of Jesus, the doctrine of Perpetual virginity of Mary holds that before giving birth to Jesus and even thereafter Mary remained a virgin all her life. This dates back to the Council of Constantinople in 533.
Two separate doctrines address the Virgin Mary's conception and death. The doctrine of Immaculate Conception states that Mary was conceived without original sin, namely that she was filled with grace from the very moment of her conception in her mother's womb. The Immaculate Conception was proclaimed a dogma Ex Cathedra by Pope Pius IX in 1854, as the first exercise of papal infallibility. The dogma of the Assumption of Mary states that she was assumed into Heaven body and soul. This was also defined by Pope Pius XII in 1950.
Lumen Gentium, the Dogmatic Constitution derived from Vatican II in 1964, declared that the Lord had consecrated Mary as "Queen of the universe", reflecting the contemporary expansion of knowledge regarding outer space.
Mary's protection and intercession
Roman Catholic views of the Virgin Mary place emphasis on her roles as a mediatrix of men to God, refuge and advocate of sinners, protector from dangers and most powerful intercessor with her Son, Jesus, who is God. These views are expressed in prayers and artistic depictions, theology, popular and devotional writings, as well as in the use of Marian Sacramentals and images.
The earliest known prayer to Mary, the Sub tuum praesidium, (Latin for under your protection) begins with the words: "Beneath your compassion, we take refuge." The artistic depictions of the Virgin of Mercy portray the role of Mary as the protector of Christians, as she shelters them under her mantle. The Virgin of Mercy depictions sometimes include arrows raining from above, with the Virgin's cloak protecting the people.
The Catechism of the Catholic Church (item 971) echoes this protective sentiment, stating that:
From the most ancient times the Blessed Virgin has been honoured with the title of 'Mother of God,' to whose protection the faithful fly in all their dangers and needs.
Catholics have continued to seek the protection of Mary as the Mother of Sorrows (who understands and shows compassion) and relied on her intercession as the Queen of Heaven since the Middle Ages. Building on that sentiment, popes have entrusted specific causes to the protection of the Virgin Mary. For instance, pope Benedict XV entrusted the protection of the world through the intercession of Mary Queen of Peace during the first world war .
For many centuries, Catholics have used Marian Sacramentals. Since the Middle Ages the wearing of the Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel (Brown Scapular) by Catholics has been a sign of their seeking her protection. Pope John Paul II wore a Brown Scapular since childhood and as he momentarily gained consciousness when he was shot on 13 May 1981 he asked to keep his scapular during the operation to remove the bullet.
The depictions of Our Lady of Navigators arose from the prayers and devotions of Portuguese navigators, who saw the Virgin Mary as their protector during storms and other hazards. Prayers to Our Lady of Navigators are well known in South America, specially Brazil, where its February 2 feast is an official holiday. The Virgin of the Navigators (a variant of the Virgin of Mercy), depicting ships under her mantle, is the earliest known painting whose subject is the discovery of the Americas.
Both Miguel Hidalgo and Emiliano Zapata flew flags of Our Lady of Guadalupe as their protector, and Zapata's men wore the Guadalupan image around their necks and on their sombreros. In 1979 ceremony Pope John Paul II placed Mexico under the protection of the Virgin of Guadalupe.
The Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mercy, also known as the order of Our Lady of Ransom or Order of Captives began in the 13th century in the Kingdom of Aragon (Spain) to ransom impoverished captive Christians (slaves) held in Muslim hands. The order now focuses on the role of the Virgin Mary as the protector of captives and prisoners. The Sodality of Our Lady founded in 1563 was also placed under her protection.
"Never was it known that anyone who fled to Thy protection, implored Thy help or sought Thy intercession, was left unaided."
Saint Louis de Montfort taught that God appointed Mary as "the dispenser of grace", and to receive grace from God, one can receive it through the hands of the Blessed Virgin, as a child receives from a mother. This concept of Mary as "the mother to us in the order of grace" who can intercede for "the gift of eternal salvation" was restated in the 1960s in Lumen Gentium, one of the principal documents of the Second Vatican Council.
Consecration and entrustment to Mary
For centuries, Marian devotions among Roman Catholics have included many examples of personal or collective acts of consecration and entrustment to the Virgin Mary; the Latin terms oblatio, servitus, commendatio and dedicatio were used in this context.
Consecration is an act by which a person is dedicated to a sacred service, or an act which separates an object, location or region from a common and profane mode to one for sacred use. Consecration to the Virgin Mary has been practiced by Catholics for many centuries, at the personal, societal and papal levels, where individuals, societies, regions and the whole world have been consecrated to her.
The Catholic Church makes it clear that the use of the term "consecration" with regard to Mary is only applied in the "broad and non-technical sense" and is different from "those self-offerings which have God as their object, and which are characterised by totality and perpetuity, which are guaranteed by the Church's intervention and have as their basis the Sacraments of Baptism and Confirmation." Further, "the faithful should be carefully instructed about the practice of consecration to the Blessed Virgin Mary...it is, in reality, only analogously a 'consecration to God,' and should be expressed in a correct liturgical manner: to the Father, through Christ in the Holy Spirit, imploring the intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary, to whom we entrust ourselves completely, so as to keep our baptismal commitments and live as her children. The act of consecration [to Mary] should take place outside of the celebration of the Eucharistic Sacrifice, since it is a devotional act which cannot be assimilated to the Liturgy. It should also be borne in mind that the act of consecration to Mary differs substantially from other forms of liturgical consecration."
Individuals declaring their "entrustment" to Mary make a personal act to show their devotion and dedication to Mary as the Mother of God, who, though holy, is not herself a divine being. Such individuals seek her intercession before God through her son Jesus Christ, for she has no divine power. Devotions to Mary are also commonly directed to Mary herself, to the Immaculate Heart, and/or to the Immaculata; true consecration is only to God.
Consecration to the Virgin Mary by Roman Catholics has taken place from three perspectives, namely personal, societal and regional and with three forms: to the Virgin herself as a whole, to the Immaculate Heart of Mary and to the Immaculata. In Catholic teachings, consecration to Mary does not diminish or substitute the love of God, but enhances it, for all consecration is ultimately made to God. Pope Leo XIII, specially encouraged everyone to make acts of consecration to the Virgin Mary based on the methods of Saint Louis de Montfort (who was beatified by Leo), and granted indulgences for such consecrations. Pope Benedict XV also provided strong support for Marian consecration. Pope John Paul II's motto Totus Tuus (i.e. totally yours) reflected his personal consecration to Mary.
In the 18th century, Saint Louis Marie de Montfort became a tireless advocate of "total consecration to Jesus through Mary." In True Devotion, St. Louis stated, "...the most perfect consecration to Jesus Christ is nothing else than a perfect and entire consecration of ourselves to the Blessed Virgin and this is the devotion I teach; or, in other words, a perfect renewal of the vows and promises of holy Baptism."
The 1858 messages of Our Lady of Lourdes in which the Virgin Mary was called the Immaculate Conception built significant sensus fidelium among Catholics at large, and consecrations to the Immaculata began to take form. Early in the 20th century, the Saint Maximilian Kolbe, called the Apostle of Consecration to Mary, began a vigorous program of promoting consecration to the Immaculata and published Miles Immaculatae which reached a circulation of 750,000 copies a month.
In modern times, Pope John Paul II clarified consecration to Mary in his 1987 encyclical, Mother of the Redeemer, in which he stated, "Mary's motherhood...is a gift which Christ himself makes personally to every individual." John Paul II suggested Christians could best "entrust" themselves to Mary by becoming her spiritual sons and daughters.
Theologian Garrigou-Lagrange designated personal consecration to Mary as the highest level among Marian devotions. His student, Pope John Paul II made Marian devotions and consecrations a hallmark of his papacy, often referring to John 19:26–27, and heavily relying on the spirituality of Saint Louis de Montfort. He also consecrated the entire world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.
Mary's role in salvation and redemption
One of the components of the Catholic veneration of Mary is the focus on her participation in the processes of salvation and redemption. Entire books have been devoted to the exploration of the Catholic perspectives on Mary's role in salvation and redemption.
The underlying theological issues have been discussed as far back as St. Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century and were intertwined with the discussions of the Immaculate Conception. One of the first scholars to offer theological foundations in this area was the Franciscan Duns Scotus who developed the notion that Mary was preserved from sin by the redemptive virtue of Jesus. Devotions to and the veneration of the Virgin Mary continued to spread, as she came to be seen as the helpful mother of Christians, and by the 15th century these practices had oriented all the Catholic devotions.
As of the 17th century, a common thread in the writings of saints and theologians alike is the role of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary as joint symbols of redemption and coredemption. Saint Veronica Giuliani expressed how Mary's suffering in Calvary united her heart with that of Jesus as she suffered each torment along with him. The joint devotion to the hearts was formalised by Saint Jean Eudes who organised the scriptural and theological foundations and developed its liturgical themes. John Eudes wrote that: "The Virgin Mary began to cooperate in the plan of salvation, from the moment she gave her consent to the Incarnation of the Son of God". The venerative aspects of the united nature of the two hearts continued through the centuries and in 1985 Pope John Paul II coined the term Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary, and in 1986 addressed the international conference on that topic held at Fátima, Portugal.
By the 18th century, the continued growth of Marian veneration had emphasised the role of the Virgin Mary in salvation. In his classic book The Glories of Mary, Saint Alphonsus Liguori explained how God gave Mary to mankind as the "Gate of Heaven", and he quoted Saint Bonaventure, namely "No one can enter Heaven unless by Mary, as though through a door." And he wrote:
Thou art the gate through which all find Jesus; through thee I also hope to find Him."
Saint Louis de Montfort, whose writings later influenced popes, was an ardent supporter of the Virgin Mary's role in salvation. The Catholic focus on the role of Mary in salvation and redemption continued into the 20th century, e.g. Pope John Paul II's 1987 encyclical Redemptoris Mater began with the sentence: "The Mother of the Redeemer has a precise place in the plan of salvation."
Catholic saints and the Blessed Virgin Mary
The Roman Catholic perspective on the Virgin Mary has not simply been shaped by the theological studies by a few scholars, but also by devotional concepts embraced by millions of Catholics who venerate the Blessed Virgin Mary. These devotions have relied on the writings of numerous saints throughout history who have attested to the central role of Mary in God's plan of salvation.
Early saints included Saint Irenaeus of Lyons in the 2nd century who was perhaps the earliest of the Church Fathers to write systematically about the Virgin Mary, and he set out a forthright account of her role in the economy of salvation. Saint Ambrose of Milan (339–397) based the veneration of Mary not only on her virginity but also on her extraordinary courage.
In the Middle Ages, Saint Bernhard of Clairvaux, a Doctor of the Church, was a fervent supporter of Mary. He highlighted her virginity and humility as the basis for her veneration. A particularly significant contribution to Mariology came from John Duns Scotus who in the 13th century defended the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. Scotus identified the key theological foundations which led to the declaration of the dogma of Immaculate Conception centuries later.
In the 16th century, Saint Ignatius of Loyola promulgated an ardent love to the Virgin Mary. Ignatius admired images of the Virgin Mary and before his death his death instructed the Jesuits to preserve Madonna della Strada, was later enshrined in the Church of the Gesu in Rome. Filippo Neri, a contemporary of Ignatius, called Mary "mother and advocate" and is credited with the innovation of daily Marian devotions during the month of May. Saint Peter Canisius is credited with adding the Hail Mary to his catechism of 1555.
In the 18th century, Saint Alphonsus Liguori wrote the classic book The Glories of Mary in which he called Mary the "Gate of Heaven". Saint Louis de Montfort's book True Devotion to Mary synthesized many of the earlier saints' writings and teachings on Mary. His approach of "total consecration to Jesus Christ through Mary" had a strong impact on Marian devotion both in popular piety and in the spirituality of religious orders. One of his well-known followers was Pope John Paul II who said that reading Montfort's book was a "decisive turning point" in his life.
Mary in Roman Catholic liturgy
The Roman Catholic liturgy is one of the most important elements of Marian devotions. Marian feasts are superior to the feast days of the saints. The liturgical texts of the Marian feast days all link Mary to Jesus Christ and keep Marian awareness awake within the Church.
Catholic Marian feast days
The earliest Christian feasts that relate to Mary grew out of the cycle of feasts that celebrated the Nativity of Jesus. By the 7th century a feast dedicated to Mary was celebrated just before Christmas in the Churches of Milan and Ravenna in Italy. Over time, the number of feasts (and the associated Titles of Mary) and the venerative practices that accompany them increased and today Roman Catholics have more Marian feasts, titles and venerative practices than any other Christians. Marian feasts have continued to be developed in the Catholic Church, e.g. the feast of the Queenship of Mary was declared in the 1954 in the papal encyclical Ad Caeli Reginam by pope Pius XII.
Some Marian feasts relate to specific events, e.g. the Feast of Our Lady of Victory (later renamed Feast of Our Lady of the Rosary) was based on the 1571 victory of the Papal States against the Muslims in the Battle of Lepanto. It is now celebrated on the 7th of October. The month of October was then established as the "month of the Rosary" by Pope Leo XIII, who recommended daily Rosary devotions in October.
During the month of May, May devotions to the Blessed Virgin Mary take place in many Catholic regions. These include the singing of Marian anthems, readings from scriptures, a sermon, and or presentation by local choirs. The month is also associated with reflection on the Virgin Mary's role as the ideal disciple who sheds light on the Christian way of life, and theologian Karl Rahner stated:
When we are involved in our May Devotions, we are engaged in a Christian understanding of the human situation.
- December 8 Feast of the Immaculate Conception
- January 1 Mary, Mother of God
- August 15 The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary
- December 12 Our Lady of Guadalupe
- February 11 Our Lady of Lourdes
- May 13 Our Lady of Fátima
- May 31 Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary
- Immaculate Heart of Mary (Saturday after Sacred Heart of Jesus)
- August 22 Queenship of Mary
- September 8 Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Titles of the Blessed Virgin Mary
A large number of titles to honour Mary or ask for her intercession are used by Roman Catholics. While Mater Dei (i.e. "Mother of God" as confirmed by the First Council of Ephesus, 431) is common in Latin, a large number of other titles have been used by Roman Catholics – far more than any other Christians.
Titles used to refer to the Virgin Mary throughout history, at times reflect the changing attitudes towards her. Domina (lady), Regina (queen) and Stella Maris (star of the sea) are some of the early titles of Mary, of which Regina is the earliest. Domina and Sella Maris are found in Jerome who perhaps originated the etymology of Mary as Stella Maris in the 5th century. While the early emphasis in Stella Maris was on Mary as the Star that bore Christ, by the 9th century, the attention had focused on Mary herself, as indicated in the hymn Ave Maris Stella. By the 11th century, Mary herself had emerged as the star that acted as a guiding light. By the 13th century, as Mariology was growing, Saint Anthony of Padua had composed Mary Our Queen. Titles continue to be interpreted, e.g. Queen of Heaven was further elaborated in 1954 in the papal encyclical Ad Caeli Reginam by pope Pius XII.
Among the most prominent Roman Catholic Marian titles are:
- Mary, Mother of God
- Mary, the Immaculate Conception
- Mary, Queen of Heaven
- Queen of the Angels
- Queen of Peace
- Star of the Sea (Stella Maris)
- Mother of All Sorrows
One of the earliest Marian compositions is the popular Salve Regina in Latin from a Benedictine monk, which exists in several Gregorian versions. The liturgy of the hour includes several offices to be sung. At the close of the Office, one of four Marian antiphons is sung. These songs, Alma Redemptoris Mater Ave Regina caelorum, Regina caeli, and Salve Regina, have been described as "among the most beautiful creations of the late Middle Ages."
It is difficult to trace the beginning of non-Gregorian Marian liturgical music. In 1277 Pope Nicholas III prescribed rules for liturgy in Roman churches. In the Graduale Romanum, Kyriale IX and X are both for Marian feasts. Over the centuries, Marian master pieces have continued to appear, e.g. Mozart's Coronation Mass. The list of compositions by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina includes numerous Marian masses: Salve Regina, Alma Redemptoris, Assumpta est Maria, Regina coeli, de beata Virgine, Ave Regina coelorum, Descendit Angelus Domini, and O Virgo simul et Mater. Joseph Haydn wrote several Marian compositions including two famous Marian Masses.
Marian prayers, poems and hymns
- See also Hymns to Mary and Marian litanies
Roman Catholic Mariology
A series of articles on
Alma Redemptoris Mater
As a Child I Loved You
Ave Maris Stella
Ave Regina Caelorum
Hail Mary of Gold
Mary Our Queen
Sub tuum praesidium
Three Hail Marys
Throughout the centuries the veneration of the Virgin Mary has given rise to a number of poems and hymns, as well as prayers. Author Emily Shapcote lists 150 Marian poems and hymns in her book Mary the Perfect Woman. Such prayers and poems go as far back as the 3rd century, but enjoyed a rapid growth during the 11th and 12th centuries. Some of the best poetry written in honor of the Blessed virgin comes from this period of the Middle Ages.
The Catechism of the Catholic Church (item 2679) emphasizes the importance of Marian prayers and states:
Mary is the perfect prayer, a figure of the Church.... We can pray with and to her. The prayer of the Church is sustained by the prayer of Mary and united with it in hope.
The earliest known Marian prayer is the Sub tuum praesidium, or Beneath Thy Protection, a text for which was rediscovered in 1917 on a papyrus in Egypt dated to c. 250. The papyrus contains the prayer in Greek and is the earliest known reference to the title Theotokos (confirmed by the Council of Ephesus in 431):
Beneath your compassion, We take refuge, O Mother of God: do not despise our petitions in time of trouble: but rescue us from dangers, only pure, only blessed one.
While the Regina Coelorum goes back to the 4th century, the Regina Coeli was composed towards the end of the 11th century. The first part of the Hail Mary, based on the salutation of angle Gabriel in the Visitation was introduced in the 11tth century, although its current form can be traced to the 16th century.
During the 11th century, as the number of monasteries grew, so did Marian prayers. In this period the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary was introduced and was modeled after the Divine office but was much shorter. It was adopted not only by monks but by pious people who could read. And the growth of the Tertiary orders helped spread its use. During the First Crusade, Pope Urban II ordered it to be said for the success of the Christians. In this period, Hermannus Contractus (Herman the Cripple) at the abbey of Reichenau composed the Alma Redemptoris Mater and hymns to Mary became part of daily life at monasteries such as the Benedictine Abbey of Cluny in France.
In the 12th century Bernard of Clairvaux gave sermons (De duodecim stellis), from which an extract has been taken by the Roman Catholic Church and used in the Offices of the Compassion and of the Seven Dolours. Saint Bernard wrote:
Take away Mary, this star of the sea, the sea truly great and wide: what is left but enveloping darkness and the shadow of death and the densest blackness?
Stronger evidences are discernible in the pious meditations on the Ave Maria and the Salve Regina, usually attributed either to St. Anselm of Lucca (d. 1080) or St. Bernard; and also in the large book "De laudibus B. Mariae Virginis" (Douai, 1625) by Richard de Saint-Laurent.
Other famous Marian prayers include the Magnificat, the Angelus and the Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Marian hymns include O Mary, we Crown Thee With Blossoms Today, Hail Queen of Heaven, the Regina Coeli, and the Ave Maria.
A Catholic devotion is a willingness and desire for pious dedication and service but is an "external practice" which is not part of the official liturgy of the Catholic Church. A wide range of Marian devotions are followed by Catholics ranging from simple Rosary recitations to formalized, multi-day Novenas to activities which do not involve any prayers, such the wearing of scapulars or maintaining a Mary garden.
Two well known Marian devotions are the Rosary recitation and the wearing of the Brown Scapular. Following their joint growth in the 18th and 19th centuries, by the early 20th century the Rosary and the devotional Scapular had gained such a strong following among Catholics worldwide that the Catholic Encyclopedia of 1914 stated: "Like the Rosary, the Brown Scapular has become the badge of the devout Catholic." In his encyclical Rosarium Virginis Mariae Pope John Paul II emphasized the importance of the Rosary. The Mariological basis of the Scapular devotion is effectively the same as Marian consecration, as discussed in the dogmatic constitution Lumen Gentium of Pope Paul VI, namely the role of the Virgin Mary as "the mother to us in the order of grace" which allows her to intercede for "the gift of eternal salvation".
Roman Catholic tradition includes specific prayers and devotions as Acts of Reparation to the Virgin Mary for insults that she suffers. The Raccolta Roman Catholic prayer book (approved by a Decree of 1854, and published by the Holy See in 1898) includes a number of such prayers. These prayers do not involve a petition for a living or deceased beneficiary, but aim to repair the sins of others against the Virgin Mary.
Catholic view of Marian apparitions
The term Marian apparition is usually used in cases where visions of the Virgin Mary are reported, either with or without a conversation. There are, however, cases (e.g. Saint Padre Pio or Sister Maria Pierina De Micheli) where visions of Jesus and Mary and conversations with both are reported. Well-known apparitions include Our Lady of Lourdes, Our Lady of Guadalupe and Our Lady of Fatima.
The official position of the Holy See is that while the Holy Office has approved a few apparitions of the Virgin Mary, Roman Catholics at large are not required to believe them. However, many Catholics express belief in Marian apparitions. This has included popes, e.g. four popes, i.e. Pope Pius XII, Pope John XXIII, Pope Paul VI and Pope John Paul II have supported the Our Lady of Fátima messages as supernatural. Pope John Paul II was particularly attached to Fátima and credited Our Lady of Fátima with saving his life after he was shot in Rome on the Feast Day of Our Lady of Fátima in May 1981. He donated the bullet that wounded him on that day to the Roman Catholic sanctuary at Fátima Portugal.
As a historical pattern, Vatican approval seems to have followed general acceptance of a vision by well over a century in most cases. According to Father Salvatore M. Perrella of the Mariunum Pontifical Institute in Rome, of the 295 reported apparitions studied by the Holy See through the centuries only 12 have been approved, the latest being in May 2008.
Veneration through Marian art
The tradition of honouring Mary by venerating images of her goes back to 3rd century Christianity. Following the period of iconoclasm, the position of the Church with respect to the veneration of images was formalized at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. A summary of the doctrine is included in the current Catechism of the Catholic Church.
The Christian veneration of images is not contrary to the first commandment which proscribes idols. Indeed, "the honour rendered to an image passes to its prototype," and "whoever venerates an image venerates the person portrayed in it." The honour paid to sacred images is a "respectful veneration," not the adoration due to God alone: Religious worship is not directed to images in themselves, considered as mere things, but under their distinctive aspect as images leading us on to God Incarnate. The movement toward the image does not terminate in it as image, but tends towards that whose image it is.
No image (in either the Western or the Eastern Church) permeates Christian art as the image of Madonna and Child. The images of the Virgin Mary have become central icons of Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox Christianity where Mary remains a central artistic topic. The Virgin Mary has been one of the major subjects of Christian Art, Catholic Art and Western Art since Early Christian art and she has been very widely portrayed in iconic "portraits", often known as Madonnas, with the infant Jesus in the Madonna and Child, and in a number of narrative scenes from her life known as the Life of the Virgin, as well as scenes illustrating particular doctrines or beliefs: from masters such as Michelangelo, Raphael, Murillo and Botticelli to folk art.
Some Marian art subjects include:
- Adoration of the Magi
- Adoration of the shepherds
- The Assumption in Art
- Coronation of the Virgin
- Christ taking leave of his mother
- Immaculate Conception
Marian art enjoys a significant level of diversity, e.g. with distinct styles of statues of the Virgin Mary present on different continents (as depicted in the galleries in Roman Catholic Marian art). These depictions are not restricted to European art, and also appear in South American paintings. The South American tradition of Marian veneration through art dates back to the 16th century, with the Virgin of Copacabana gaining fame in 1582.
Marian movements and societies
Throughout the centuries the devotion to and the veneration of the Virgin Mary by Roman Catholics has both lead to, and been influenced by a number of Roman Catholic Marian Movements and Societies. These societies, form part of the fabric of Roman Catholic Mariology since they contribute to the sensus fidelium, a century-old sense of the faithful, shared by the Magisterium. As early as the 16th century, the Holy See endorsed the Sodality of Our Lady and Pope Gregory XIII issued a Papal Bull commending it and granting it indulgences and establishing it as the mother sodality, and other sodalities were formed thereafter.
The 18th and 19th centuries saw a number of missionary Marian organisations such as Company of Mary, the Marianists, Marist Fathers and Marist Brothers. Some of these missionaries, e.g. Saint Peter Chanel and Saint Marcellin Champagnat were martyred as they travelled to new lands. The 20th century witnessed the formation of Marian organisations with millions of members, e.g. the Legion of Mary and Blue Army of Our Lady of Fatima.
Marian shrines and patronages
Marian shrines account for major veneration centers and pilgrimage sites for Roman Catholics. According to Bishop Francesco Giogia, at the end of the 20th century, the most visited Catholic shrine in the world was that of the Virgin of Guadalupe in Mexico City. In third place was Our Lady of Aparecida in Brazil, with the non-Marian shrine of San Giovanni Rotondo in second place. The visual effect of Marian pilgrimages can be dramatic, e.g. on May 13 and October 13 of each year close to one million Catholic pilgrims walk the country road that leads to the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima. Around 2 million pilgrim journey up Tepeyac hill on December 12 each year to visit the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe. While in 1968 Aparecida had about four million pilgrims, the number has since reached eight million pilgrims per year.
Major Marian shrines include:
- The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lourdes in Lourdes, France
- The Basilica of Guadalupe in Mexico City, Mexico
- Our Lady of Fátima in Fátima, Portugal
- Loreto, Italy
- Black Madonna of Częstochowa in Częstochowa, Poland
- The Basilica of Our Lady, Queen of Ireland in Knock, Ireland
There are other doubtful Marian pilgrimage sites such as Međjugorje, which is not considered a shrine by the Holy See, but yet receives a large number of pilgrims every year. The number of pilgrims who visit some of the approved shrines every year can be significant. E.g. Lourdes with a population of around 15,000 people, receives about 5,000,000 pilgrims every year. In 1881 a French priest, Julien Gouyet, led by the visions of Jesus and Mary of the Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich (Klemens Brentano, 1852) discovered the House of the Virgin Mary near Ephesus in Turkey.
- Mariology (Roman Catholic)
- Marian doctrines of the Catholic Church
- Protestant views on Mary
- Mariology of Petrus Canisius
- Ecumenical views of Mary
- Remigius Bäumer, Leo Scheffczyk (Hrsg.) Marienlexikon Gesamtausgabe, Institutum Marianum Regensburg, 1994, ISBN 3-88096-891-8 (cit. Bäumer)
- ^ For example Pope Paul VI reduced and rearranged the number of feast days March 12, 1969, Sanctitas Clarior. As did several of his predecessors.
- ^ "Item 971 – Devotion to the Blessed Mary". Catechism of the Catholic Church. Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism/p123a9p6.htm. Retrieved 01 Oct 2010.
- ^ Galatians 4:4
- ^ Santa Maria article http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,730158-1,00.html
- ^ Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of world religions by Wendy Doniger, 1999 ISBN 0877790442 page 696 
- ^ Symbolic scores: studies in the music of the Renaissance by Willem Elders 1997 ISBN 9004099700 page 151 
- ^ Maiden and mother: Prayers, hymns, devotions, and songs to the Beloved Virgin Mary Throughout the Year by Margaret M. Miles 2001 ISBN 0860123057 page vii 
- ^ a b c Encyclopedia of Catholicism by Frank K. Flinn, J. Gordon Melton 2007 ISBN 081605455X pages 443–444
- ^ a b "Vatican recognizes Marian apparitions in France". Catholic News Agency. http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/vatican_recognizes_marian_apparitions_in_france/. Retrieved 01 Oct 2010.
- ^ a b "Expert explains Church’s criteria for confirming Marian apparitions.". Catholic News Agency. http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/expert_explains_churchs_criteria_for_confirming_marian_apparitions/. Retrieved 01 Oct 2010.
- ^ a b "University of Dayton on Marian Organisations". Campus.udayton.edu. http://campus.udayton.edu/mary/pastoral.html. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ Galatians 4:4, Luke 1:25, Matthew 1:20
- ^ Luke 1:38
- ^ Luke 11:27
- ^ Luke 1:42 and the angel Gabriel
- ^ McNally, Terrence, What Every Catholic Should Know about Mary ISBN 1441510516 page 132
- ^ Miravalle, Mark Introduction to Mary 1993, ISBN 9781882972067, pages 13–16
- ^ Bäumer, 597
- ^ a b Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi 2004 by Karl Rahner ISBN 0860120066 page 903
- ^ a b c Burke, Raymond L.; et al. (2008). Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons ISBN 9781579183554 page xxi
- ^ a b Pope John Paul II. "On the Blessed Virgin Mary in the life of the Pilgrim Church". Redemptoris Mater. Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_25031987_redemptoris-mater_en.html. Retrieved 01 Oct 2010.
- ^ See Pius XII Mystici corporis Christi; John Henry Newman: Mariology is always christocentric, in Michael Testa, Mary: The Virgin Mary in the Life and Writings of John Henry Newman 2001; Mariology Is Christology in Vittorio Messori, "The Mary Hypothesis"Rome, 2005
- ^ The mystery of Mary by Paul Haffner 2004 ISBN 0852446500 page 17
- ^ a b c d e Miravalle, Mark Introduction to Mary 1993, ISBN 9781882972067, pages 156–163
- ^ Mary for evangelicals: toward an understanding of the mother of our Lord by Tim S. Perry, William J. Abraham 2006 ISBN 083082569X page 303
- ^ Mary's pope by Antoine Nachef 2000 ISBN 1580510779 page 9
- ^ Schmaus, Mariologie, München, 1955, 328
- ^ McNally, Terrence, What Every Catholic Should Know about Mary ISBN 1441510516 page 186
- ^ Baldovin, John and Johnson, Maxwell, Between memory and hope: readings on the liturgical year 2001 ISBN 0814660258 page 386
- ^ Dalmais, Irénée et al. The Church at Prayer: The liturgy and time 1985 ISBN 0814613667 page 130
- ^ a b c d e Maiden and Mother: Prayers, Hymns, Devotions, and Songs to the Beloved Virgin Mary Throughout the Year by Margaret R. Miles 2001 ISBN 0860123057 pages vii–x 
- ^ Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 by André Vauchez et al 2001 ISBN 1579582826 page 919
- ^ a b Vladimir Lossky, 1982 The Meaning of Icons ISBN 9780913836996 page 173
- ^ "Catholic encyclopedia". Newadvent.org. 1912-10-01. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15464b.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ Miravalle, Mark Introduction to Mary 1993, ISBN 9781882972067, page 41-45
- ^ M Guarducci Maria nelle epigrafi paleocristiane di Roma 1963, 248
- ^ I Daoust, Marie dans les catacombes 1983
- ^ a b "Catholic encyclopedia". Newadvent.org. 1912-10-01. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15459a.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ Butler's lives of the saints, Volume 1 by Alban Butler, David Hugh Farmer, Paul Burns 2000 ISBN 0860122506 page 3
- ^ a b c McNally, Terrence, What Every Catholic Should Know about Mary 2009 ISBN 1441510516 pages 68–69
- ^ Bäumer 520
- ^ A new history of ecclesiastical writers, Volumes 1–2' by Louis Ellies Du Pin et al 2010 ISBN 1171186983 page 212
- ^ Handbook for Liturgical Studies by Anscar J. Chupungco 2001 ISBN 0814661653 page vii
- ^ A brief history of saints by Lawrence Cunningham 2005 ISBN 1405114029 pages 16–19
- ^ Adolf Adam, Liturgie, 1985, p.291
- ^ Rome by Yvonne Labande-Mailfert et al, 1961 ASIN: B0007E741C page 115
- ^ Renaissance and Reformation by William Roscoe Estep 1986 ISBN 0802800505 page 7
- ^ Listen daughter: the Speculum virginum and the formation of religious women by Constant J. Mews 2001 ISBN 0312240082 pages vii, 1 and 95
- ^ Daily life during the Black Death by Joseph Patrick Byrne 2006 ISBN 0313332975 page 86
- ^ Mary in Western art by Timothy Verdon, Filippo Rossi 2005 ISBN 097129819X page 203
- ^ Renaissance and Reformation by William Roscoe Estep 1986 ISBN 0802800505 pages 140–144
- ^ Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 087973910X page 219
- ^ Koch, Carl A Popular History of the Catholic Church 1997 ISBN 0884893952 page 194
- ^ a b "Shrine of Gualdalupe Most Popular in World". ZENIT International News Agency. http://www.ewtn.com/library/MARY/ZSHRINE.HTM. Retrieved 01 Oct 2010.
- ^ The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3 by Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley 2003 ISBN 9004126546 pages 406–409
- ^ "Marialis Cultus at the Vatican website". Vatican.va. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/paul_vi/apost_exhortations/documents/hf_p-vi_exh_19740202_marialis-cultus_en.html. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ "University of Dayton". Campus.udayton.edu. http://campus.udayton.edu/mary/resources/documents/MC.html. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ The thousand faces of the Virgin Mary by George Henry Tavard 1996 ISBN 0814659144 pages vii–viii and 81
- ^ Catholic beliefs and traditions: ancient and ever new by John F. O'Grady 2002 ISBN 0809140470 page 183
- ^ Lauren Arnold, 1999 Princely Gifts & Papal Treasures: The Franciscan Mission to China by ISBN 0967062802 page 151
- ^ Lauren Arnold in Atlantic Monthly, September 2007
- ^ The great encounter of China and the West by David E. Mungello 1999 ISBN 0847694399 page 27
- ^ A history of ideas and images in Italian art by James Hall 1983 ISBN 0064333175 page 223
- ^ Iconography of Christian Art by Gertrud Schiller 1971 ASIN: B0023VMZMA page 112
- ^ Renaissance art: a topical dictionary by Irene Earls 1987 ISBN 0313246580 page 174
- ^ Mujer del maiz by Angel Vigil 1994 ISBN 1563081946 pages 16–19
- ^ a b Empire of the Aztecs by Barbara A. Somervill 2009 ISBN 1604131497 page 132
- ^ Our Lady of Guadalupe by Jeanette Rodríguez 1994 ISBN 0292770626 pages 44–46
- ^ "Vatican web site". Vatican.va. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/2002/documents/hf_jp-ii_hom_20020731_canonization-mexico_en.html. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ The image of Guadalupe by Jody Brant Smith 1995 ISBN 0865544212 pages 1–2
- ^ Miracles of Our Lady by Gonzalo de Berceo, Richard Terry Mount, Annette Grant Cash 1997 ISBN 0813120195 page 6-7
- ^ Miracles of the Blessed Virgin Mary by Johannes Herolt, C. C. Swinton Blandpages 2004 ISBN 1419173081 pages 4–6
- ^ Piety and charity in late medieval Florence by John Henderson 1997 ISBN 0226326888 page 196
- ^ Lourdes: A History of Its Apparitions and Cures by Georges Bertrin 2004 ISBN 1417981237 page 181
- ^ The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3 by Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley 2003 ISBN 9004126546 page 339
- ^ David van Biega; Greg Burke (1995-04-10). "Modern Miracles Have Strict Rules". Time.com (Time Magazine). http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,982807,00.html. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ Pilgrimage to images in the fifteenth century by Robert Maniura 2004 ISBN 1843830558 page 104
- ^ Maximilian Kolbe: Saint of Auschwitz by Elaine Murray Stone 1997 ISBN 0809166372 pages 7–8
- ^ a b Miravalle, Mark Introduction to Mary, 1993, ISBN 9781882972067, pages 51–65
- ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: Immaculate Conception". Newadvent.org. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07674d.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-02.
- ^ Miravalle, Mark. Introduction to Mary'’. 1993 Queenship Publishing ISBN 9781882972067 page 51
- ^ Pope Pius XII: "Munificentissimus Deus?Defining the Dogma of the Assumption", par. 44. Vatican, November 1, 1950
- ^ Lumen Gentium, Chapter 8, Section 59.
- ^ A Beginner's Book of Prayer: An Introduction to Traditional Catholic Prayers by William G. Storey 2009 ISBN 0829427929 page 99
- ^ a b Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 087973910X page 365
- ^ Our Sunday Visitor's Catholic Almanac by Matthew Bunson 2009 ISBN 159276441X page 122
- ^ The Catholic Handbook for Visiting the Sick and Homebound by Corinna Laughlin, Sara McGinnis Lee 2010 ISBN 9781568548869 page 4
- ^ a b Burke, Raymond L.; et al. (2008). Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons ISBN 9781579183554 page 178
- ^ a b Mary for evangelicals by Tim S. Perry, William J. Abraham 2006 ISBN 083082569X page 142
- ^ James Hall, 1983, A History of Ideas and Images in Italian Art ISBN 0719539714 page 222
- ^ "Part One Section Two Chapter Three Item 971". Catechism of the Catholic Church. Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism/p123a9p6.htm. Retrieved 07Oct 2010.
- ^ Mary and the Saints: Companions on the Journey by James P. Campbell 2001 ISBN 0829417257 pages 41–45
- ^ Queen Mother: A Biblical Theology of Mary's Queenship by Edward P. Sri, Scott Hahn 2005 ISBN 1931018243 page 13
- ^ Pope John Paul II, 1996, Gift And Mystery, Doubleday Books ISBN 9780385409667 page 28
- ^ Lo Scapolare del Carmelo Published by Shalom, 2005 ISBN 8884040817 page 6
- ^ "HelpFellowship". HelpFellowship. http://www.helpfellowship.org/Pope_John_Paul_II.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ Candice Lee Goucher, 2007 World history: journeys from past to present ISBN 0-415-77137-4 page 102
- ^ Vicente del Rio, 2009 Contemporary urbanism in Brazil ISBN 0-8130-3281-4 page 189
- ^ John Noble, Susan Forsyth, Vesna Maric, Paula Hardy. Andalucía. Lonely Planet, 2007, p. 100
- ^ Silvio Bedini, 1991 The Christopher Columbus encyclopedia ISBN 0131426702 page 318
- ^ Secular ritual by Sally Falk Moore, Barbara G. Myerhoff 1977 ISBN 9023214579 page 174
- ^ Emiliano Zapata by Samuel Brunk 1995 ISBN 0826316204 page 68
- ^ The Roman Catholic Church: an illustrated history by Edward R. Norman ISBN page 127
- ^ Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 087973910X page 525
- ^ Mary's Praise on Every Tongue: A Record of Homage Paid to Our Blessed Lady by Chandlery Peter Joseph 2009 ISBN 111316154X page 181
- ^ "Sodality". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- ^ Catholic Prayerbook: From Downside Abbey by David Foster 2001 ISBN 0567086690 page 153
- ^ a b Spiritual Theology by Jordan Aumann 1980 ISBN 0722085184 pages 62–67
- ^ a b Mark Miravalle, 1993, Introduction to Mary, ISBN 9781882972067, page 173
- ^ a b Vatican website: Lumen Gentium No 61 and No 62 
- ^ The children of Fatima: Blessed Francisco & Blessed Jacinta Marto by Leo Madigan 2003 OSV Press ISBN 1-931709-57-2 page 248
- ^ a b c "Veneration of the Holy Mother of God, item 204". http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/ccdds/documents/rc_con_ccdds_doc_20020513_vers-direttorio_en.html#Chapter%20Five. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- ^ a b "Catholic Encyclopedia: Consecration". http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04276a.htm. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- ^ a b Mary's Immaculate Heart by John F. Murphy 2007 ISBN 1406734098 pages 96–103
- ^ Miravalle, Mark Introduction to Mary 1993, ISBN 9781882972067, page 153
- ^ a b The Catholicism Answer Book by John Trigilio, Kenneth Brighenti 2007 ISBN 1402208065 page 325
- ^ a b Miravalle, Mark Introduction to Mary 1993, ISBN 9781882972067, pp 164–167
- ^ Terrence McNally, 2009 What Every Catholic Should Know about Mary ISBN 1441510516 page 135
- ^ Introduction to Mary: the Heart of Marian Doctrine and Devotion, Mark Miravalle, S.T.D., Queenship Publishing, 1993, pages 110–111
- ^ De Montfort, True Devotion, II, Ch.I. No. 120
- ^ "EWTN". EWTN. http://www.ewtn.com/devotionals/novena/lourdes.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ "Vatican website". Vatican.va. 2002-12-08. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/speeches/2002/december/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_20021208_immacolata_en.html. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ "Agenzia Fides – Congregazione per l'Evangelizzazione dei Popoli". Fides.org. http://www.fides.org/eng/approfondire/totustuus/immacolata02.html. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- ^ The Franciscan Tradition by Regis J. Armstrong, Ingrid J. Peterson, Phyllis Zagano 2010 ISBN 0814630308 page 51
- ^ Redemptoris Mater, No.45
- ^ Introduction to Mary: the Heart of Marian Doctrine and Devotion, Mark Miravalle, S.T.D., Queenship Publishing, 1993, pages 123–124
- ^ Mary Is for Everyone by William McLoughlin, Jill Pinnock 1998 ISBN 085244429X page 79
- ^ With Jesus by Mark Miravalle 1993 ISBN 1579182410 page 131
- ^ The mystery of Mary by Paul Haffner 2004 ISBN 0852446500 page 198
- ^ Mary, mother of the redemption by Edward Schillebeeckx 1964 ASIN B003KW30VG pages 82–84
- ^ Mary in the Redemption by Adrienne von Speyr 2003 ISBN 0898709555 pages 2–7
- ^ Salvation Through Mary by Henry Aloysius Barry 2008 ISBN 1409731723 pages 13–15
- ^ Summa Theologiae: Volume 51, Our Lady: 3a. 27–30 by Thomas Aquinas, Thomas R. Heath 2006 ISBN 0521029597 page 114
- ^ Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi by Karl Rahner 2004 ISBN 0860120066 pages 896–898 
- ^ The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3 by Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley 2003 ISBN 9004126546 page 407 
- ^ Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 by André Vauchez, Richard Barrie Dobson, Adrian Walford, Michael Lapidge 2001 ISBN 1579582826 page 919
- ^ Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons by Raymond Burke et al. 2008 ISBN 9781579183554 pages 372–373
- ^ Heart of the Redeemer by Timothy Terrance O'Donnell, 1992 ISBN 0-89870-396-4 page 272
- ^ Arthur Calkins, The Theology of the Alliance of the Two Hearts, Missio Immaculatae (English Edition) Year III, N° 4 (May to December 2007)
- ^ Pope John Paul II. "Address of his Holiness John Paul II to the Participants of the Study Week of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences". Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/speeches/1986/september/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_19860922_simposio-maria-gesu_en.html. Retrieved 04 Oct 2010.
- ^ Arthur Calkins, The Alliance of the Two Hearts and Consecration, Miles Immaculatae XXXI (July/December 1995) 389–407
- ^ Vatican website: Pope John Paul II Angelus address of September 15, 1985 (Spanish and Italian)
- ^ Proceedings of the International Theological Symposium on the Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary, September 1986, Fatima, Portugal
- ^ Saint Alphonsus Liguori, The Glories of Mary, Liguori Publications, 1868, ISBN 0764806645 page 623
- ^ "Discourse IV of the Dolours of Mary". St. Alphonsus Liguori, of the Dolours of Mary. EWTN. http://www.ewtn.com/library/MARY/7DOLORS.htm. Retrieved 01 Oct 2010.
- ^ Antoine Nachef, 2000 Mary's Pope Rowman & Littlefield Press ISBN 9781580510776 page 4
- ^ Joseph Jaja Rao, 2005, The Mystical Experience and Doctrine of St. Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort Ignatius Press ISBN 9788878390300 page 7
- ^ Butler, Alban Lives of the saints, Volume 1 2007 ISBN 1605063126 page 429
- ^ Eric Francis Osborn Irenaeus of Lyons 2001 ISBN 0521800064 page 112
- ^ Irenaeus of Lyons, Adversus haereses 3:22
- ^ Tertullian, De Carne Christi 17
- ^ The Virgin Mary in the works of Saint Ambrose by Charles William Neumann 1962 ASIN: B0007J9CX0 page 264
- ^ Ambrose, CSEL 32, 505, and De inst. Virginum 49
- ^ (De Virginib. L. ii., c. ii.)
- ^ Mirror of His beauty by Peter Schäfer 2002 ISBN 0691090688 Page 157
- ^ Michael Schmaus, Mariologie, Katholische Dogmatik, München Vol V, 1955207 page 207
- ^ Hom. II super "Missus est", 17; Migne, P. L., CLXXXIII, 70-b, c, d, 71-a. Quoted in Doctor Mellifluus 31
- ^ Allan B Wolter & Blane O'Neill, John Duns Scotus: Mary's Architect, Franciscan Press, Illinois, 1983, p.1
- ^ "Address of John Paul II to the Members of the Scotus Commission". Vatican.va. 16 February 2002. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/speeches/2002/february/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_20020216_frati-minori_en.html. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ Hugo Rahner, Ignatius von Loyola als Mensch und Theologe, Herder 1965, pp 222, 224, 275, 299, 300
- ^ Waldrop, Gregory Object of Devotion: The story of a dramatic restoration America Magazine, October 2010 
- ^ A. Venturoli S. Filippo Neri, Roma, 1988, p. 117
- ^ "Catholic encyclopedia". Newadvent.org. 1911-06-01. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12350a.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ The Catholic Answer Book of Mary by Peter M. J. Stravinskas, 2000 ISBN 0879733470 page 131
- ^ Streicher Catechismi, I, 12
- ^ Saint Alphonsus Liguori, The Glories of Mary, Liguori Publications, 1868 , ISBN 0764806645 page 623
- ^ "EWTN". EWTN. http://www.ewtn.com/library/MARY/7DOLORS.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ Pope John Paul II on Saint Louis de Montfort[dead link]
- ^ "Vatican press office". Vatican.va. http://www.vatican.va/news_services/press/documentazione/documents/sp_ss_scv/insigne/sp_ss_scv_stemma-bandiera-sigillo_en.html. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ The Cult of the Virgin Mary in Anglo-Saxon England by Mary Clayton 2003 ISBN 0521531152 pages 26–37
- ^ a b Pope Pius XII. "Encyclical of Pope Pius XII on Proclaiming the Queenship of Mary". Ad Caeli Reginam. Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/pius_xii/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xii_enc_11101954_ad-caeli-reginam_en.html. Retrieved 04 Oct 2010.
- ^ "Time Magazine". Time.com. 1954-11-08. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,857668,00.html. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ EWTN on Battle of Lepanto (1571) 
- ^ Butler's Lives of the Saints by Alban Butler, Peter Doyle 1999 ISBN 0860122530 page 222
- ^ The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 4 by Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley 2005 ISBN 0802824161 page 575
- ^ Pope Leo XIII. "Encyclical of Pope Leo XIII on the Rosary". Octobri Mense. Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/leo_xiii/encyclicals/documents/hf_l-xiii_enc_22091891_octobri-mense_en.html. Retrieved 04 Oct 2010.
- ^ Maiden and Mother: Prayers, Hymns, Devotions, and Songs to the Beloved Beloved Virgin Mary Throughout the Year by M. M. Miles, Margaret R. Miles 2001 ISBN 0860123057 page
- ^ Handbook of Prayers by James Socías 2006 ISBN 0879735791 page 483
- ^ Truly Our Sister: A Theology of Mary in the Communion of Saints by Elizabeth A. Johnson 2006 ISBN 0826418279 page 97
- ^ a b "National Calendar of the USA on-line" (PDF). http://www.usccb.org/liturgy/current/2010cal.pdf. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ Encyclopedia of Catholicism by Frank K. Flinn, J. Gordon Melton 2007 ISBN 081605455X pages 443–444
- ^ "The Canons of the Two Hundred Holy and Blessed Fathers Who Met at Ephesus". Ccel.org. 2005-06-01. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf214.x.xvi.i.html. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ The Christian theology reader by Alister E. McGrath 2006 ISBN 140515358X page 273
- ^ The Cult of the Virgin Mary in Anglo-Saxon England by Mary Clayton 2003 ISBN 0521531152 pages 249–252
- ^ The greatest Marian prayers: their history, meaning, and usage by Anthony M. Buono 1999 ISBN 0818908610 page 124
- ^ Legends of the Madonna by Anna Jameson 2009 1406853380 page 50
- ^ Willi Apel, Gregorian Chant 1958 ISBN 0253206014 p. 404.
- ^ Music In Western Civilisation by Craig M. Wright, Bryan R. Simm 2005 ISBN 0495008672 page 137
- ^ Harvard dictionary of music by Willi Apel 1944 ISBN 0674375017 pages 355–356
- ^ Bäumer, 652
- ^ Songs of the dove and the nightingale: sacred and secular music c.900-c.1600 by Greta Mary Hair, Robyn E. Smith 1995 ISBN 2884491414 page 63
- ^ Catholic Music Through the Ages by Edward Schaefer 2008 ISBN 1595250204 page 100
- ^ Harvard dictionary of music by Willi Apel 1944 ISBN 0674375017 pages 29 and 66
- ^ Missa in honorem Beatissimae Virginis Mariae, No. 5 in E flat major, also known as the Grosse Orgelmesse (Great Organ Mass) (H. 22/4) (1766) and Missa Cellensis, Mariazellermesse No. 8 in C major, (H. 22/8) (1782)
- ^ Mary the Perfect Woman: One Hundred and Fifty Rhythms in Honor of the Mystical Life of Our Lady by Emily Mary Shapcote 2009 ISBN 1103663887 pages xxii–xxxiii 
- ^ "Part Four Section One Chapter Two Item 2679". Catechism of the Catholic Church. Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism/p4s1c2a2.htm. Retrieved 07Oct 2010.
- ^ The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3 by Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley 2003 ISBN 9004126546 page 406 
- ^ a b :The Tradition of Catholic Prayer by Christian Raab, Harry Hagan 2007 ISBN 0814631843 page 234
- ^ James Socías (2006). Handbook of Prayers. p. 472. ISBN 0879735791. http://books.google.com/?id=AgaDx-NSiMYC&pg=RA4-PA472&dq=Alma+Redemptoris+Mater#v=onepage&q=Alma%20Redemptoris%20Mater&f=false. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ Geoghegan. G.P. A Collection of My Favorite Prayers, 2006 ISBN 1411694570 pages 31, 45, 70, 86, 127
- ^ Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 087973910X page 168
- ^ "Catholic encyclopedia". Newadvent.org. 1911-06-01. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12275b.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ Catholic cults and devotions by Michael P. Carroll 1989 ISBN 0773506934 page 7
- ^ Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 087973910X pages 11 and 341
- ^ "Scapular". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- ^ Mark Miravalle, 1993, Introduction to Mary, Queenship Publishing ISBN 9781882972067, page 173
- ^ Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 087973910X
- ^ "Raccolta". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- ^ Joseph P. Christopher et al., 2003 The Raccolta St Athanasius Press ISBN 978-0970652669
- ^ a b Michael Freze, 1993, Voices, Visions, and Apparitions, OSV Publishing ISBN 087973454X pages 257–265
- ^ Short Biography of Padre Pio http://www.padrepiodevotions.org/index.asp?pagename=biography
- ^ The book Mother Maria Pierina by Maria Rigamonti http://www.cenacle.co.uk/products.asp?partno=B0532
- ^ Habits of Devotion by James M. O'Toole 2005 ISBN 0801472555 page 121
- ^ McNally, Terrence, What Every Catholic Should Know about Mary ISBN 1441510516 page 166
- ^ "NY Times". Reuters. Czestochowa (Poland); Fatima (Portugal): NY Times. 1984-05-16. http://www.nytimes.com/1984/05/16/world/pope-donates-bullet-to-fatima-sanctuary.html. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ Vatican News on Benoite Rencurel http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/avantgo/new.php?n=12546
- ^ Catholic News on Benoite Rencurel http://www.catholic.org/international/international_story.php?id=27848
- ^ Mapping the Catholic cultural landscape by Richard Fossey 2004 ISBN 0742531848 page 78
- ^ Globalizing the sacred: religion across the Americas by Manuel A. Vásquez, Marie F. Marquardt 2003 ISBN 081353285X page 74
- ^ Catholic Customs and Traditions: A Popular Guide by Greg Dues 1993 ISBN 0896225151 page 126 
- ^ "Part Three Section Two Chapter One Item 2132". Catechism of the Catholic Church. Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism/p3s2c1a1.htm. Retrieved 06 Oct 2010.
- ^ The Celebration of Faith: The Virgin Mary by Alexander Schmemann 2001 ISBN 0881411418 page 11 
- ^ Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of world religions by Wendy Doniger, 1999 ISBN 0877790442 page 696
- ^ Grieving with Mary: Finding Comfort and Healing in Devotion to the Mother of God by Mary K. Doyle 2009 ISBN 087946397X page 42
- ^ Mary in Western art by Timothy Verdon, Filippo Rossi 2005 ISBn 097129819X page 11
- ^ The Virgin, saints, and angels: South American paintings 1600–1825 by Suzanne L. Stratton-Pruitt 2006 ISBN 8876246134 pages 34
- ^ Art and architecture of viceregal Latin America, 1521–1821 by Kelly Donahue-Wallace 2008 page ISBN 0826334598 143
- ^ Early modern confraternities in Europe and the Americas by Christopher F. Black, Pamela Gravestock 2006 ISBN 0754651746 page 11
- ^ "Catholic encyclopedia". Newadvent.org. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14120a.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ The Sodality of Our Lady: historical sketches by P.J. Kenedy & sons, 1916 ISBN page 37
- ^ History of the sodalities of the blessed virgin Mary by Louis Delplace 1884 ISBN 1141602288 page 211
- ^ Maiden and Mother: Prayers, Hymns, Devotions, and Songs to the Beloved Virgin Mary Throughout the Year by Margaret M. Miles 2001 ISBN 0860123057 page 125
- ^ "Catholic encyclopedia". Newadvent.org. 1911-02-01. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11769a.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ "Catholic encyclopedia". Newadvent.org. 1910-10-01. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09749d.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- ^ Joan Carroll Cruz, Saintly Men of Modern Times (2003) ISBN 1931709777 pages 117–118
- ^ Thomas McGonigle, 1996, A History of the Christian Tradition Paulist Press ISBN 9780809136483 page 222
- ^ A pilgrim's handbook to Fatima by Leo Madigan 2001 ISBN 0852445326 page 207
- ^ Catholic Dictionary by Peter M. J. Stravinskas 2002 ISBN 087973390X page 141
- ^ London Times[dead link]
- ^ New commentary on the Code of Canon Law by John P. Beal, James A. Coriden, Thomas J. Green 2002 ISBN 0809140667 page 1437 (Canon 1230)
- ^ Trudy Ring, 1996, International Dictionary of Historic Places, ISBN 9781884964022 page 245
- ^ Pilgrimage: from the Ganges to Graceland : an encyclopedia, Volume 1 by Linda Kay Davidson, David Martin Gitlitz 2002 ISBN 1576070042 page 213
- ^ Brazil rediscovered by Roberta C. Wigder 1977 ISBN 0805923284 page 235
- ^ Pilgrimage: from the Ganges to Graceland : an encyclopedia, Volume 1 by Linda Kay Davidson, David Martin Gitlitz 2002 ISBN 1576070042 page 38
- ^ "Medjugorje". EWTN. http://www.ewtn.com/expert/answers/medjugorje.htm. Retrieved 01 Oct 2010.
- ^ Sacred worlds: an introduction to geography and religion by Chris C. Park 1994 ISBN 0415090121 page 283
- ^ The Ancient Traditions of the Virgin Mary's Dormition and Assumption by Stephen J. Shoemaker 2006 ISBN 0199210748 page 76
- ^ Chronicle of the living Christ: the life and ministry of Jesus Christ by Robert A. Powell 1996 ISBN 0880104074 page 12
- ^ Pope Benedict XVI. "Homily of the Holy Father". Mass Before the Shrine of Meryem Ana Evi. Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/homilies/2006/documents/hf_ben-xvi_hom_20061129_ephesus_en.html. Retrieved 04 Oct 2010.
- The Mary Page (The Marian Library/International Marian Research Institute, University of Dayton)
- Memorials of the Blessed Virgin Mary
- "The Blessed Virgin Mary". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- "Immaculate Conception". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- Queenship of Mary
Virgin Mary, Mother of Jesus General Mariology Life in the Bible Life in Tradition Lists Miscellaneous TitlesCategory · Saints Portal
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.