- Pope Benedict XV
English name=Benedict XV
birth_name=Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa
term_start=September 3 1914
term_end=January 22 1922
birth_date=November 22 1854
death_date= January 22 1922
other=Benedict Pope Benedict XV (Latin: "Benedictus PP. XV"), ( _it. Benedetto XV), ( November 21, 1854 – January 22, 1922), born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa, reigned as
Popefrom September 3, 1914 to January 22, 1922, succeeding Pope Pius X(1903–14). His pontificate was largely overshadowed by World War Oneand its political, social and humanitarian consequences in Europe.
Between 1846 and 1903, the Church experienced its two longest pontificates in history at that time. Together
Pius IXand Leo XIIIruled for fifty-seven years. In 1914, the Cardinals choose Della Chiesa at the age of sixty, indicating their desire for another long-lasting pontificate at the outbreak of World War One, which he labelled "“the suicide of civilized Europe”." [ Franzen 379] The war and its consequences were the main focus of Della Chiesa. He declared the neutrality of the Holy See and attempted from that perspective to mediate peace in 1916 and 1917. Both sides rejected his initiatives. German Protestants rejected any "“Papal Peace”" as insulting. French politician Georges Clemenceauregarded the Vatican initiative as anti-French. [Franzen 380] Having failed with diplomatic initiatives, the Pope focused on humanitarian efforts to lessen the impacts of the war, such as attending prisoners of war, the exchange of wounded soldiers and food deliveries to needy populations in Europe. After the war, he repaired the difficult relations with France, which re-established relations with the Vatican in 1921. During his pontificate, relations with Italyimproved as well, as the Pope now permitted Catholic politicians led by Don Luigi Sturzoto participate in national Italian politics. Benedict issued in 1917 the first ever Canon Lawof the Roman Catholic Church, the creation of which he had prepared with Pietro Gasparriand Eugenio Pacelliduring the pontificate of Pius X. The new Canon law is considered to have stimulated religious life and activities throughout the Church [Franzen 382] He named Pietro Gasparri to be his Cardinal Secretary of Stateand personally consecrated NuncioEugenio Pacelli on May 13, 1917 as Archbishopon the very day of the Marian apparitions in Fatima. World War One caused great damage to Catholic missions throughout the world. Benedict revitalized these activities, asking in "Maximum Illud" for Catholics throughout the world to participate. His last concern was the emerging persecutionof the Church in the Soviet Unionand the faminethere after the revolution. Benedict was an ardent mariologist, devoted to Marian veneration and open to new perspectives of Roman Catholic Mariology. He supported the mediatrixtheology and authorized the Feast of Mary Mediator of all Graces. [AAS 1921, 345] After less than seven years in office, Pope Benedict XV died on 22 January 1922. With his diplomatic skills and his openness towards the modern world, "he gained respect for himself and the papacy" [Franzen 382]
Giacomo della Chiesa was born at
Pegli, a suburb of Genoa, Italy, the son of Marchese Giuseppe della Chiesa and his wife Marchesa Giovanna Migliorati. [George L. Williams, "Papal Genealogy: The Families and Descendants of the Popes" (2004:133), reports that his father's family had produced Pope Callistus II(1119-24) and claimed descent from Berengar II of Italy, and that the Migliorati had produced Innocent VII 1404-06).] His wish to become a priest was rejected early on by his father who insisted on a legal career for his son. [De Waal 7] At the age of twenty-one he acquired a doctorate in Law on August 2, 1875. He had attended the University of Genoa, which after the unification of Italy, was largely dominated by anti-Catholicand anti-clerical politics. With his doctorate in Law and at legal age, he again asked his father for permission to study for the priesthood, which was now reluctantly granted. He insisted however, that his son conduct his theological studies in Romenot in Genoa, in order that he not end up as a village priest or provincial Monsignore[De Waal 14-15]
Della Chiesa entered the
Collegio Capranicaand was there in Rome when, in 1878, Pope Pius IXdied and was followed by Pope Leo XIII. The new pope received the students of the Capranica in private audience only a few days after his investiture. Shortly thereafter, Della Chiesa was ordained a priest by Cardinal Patrizzi on December 21, 1878. [De Waal 19] From 1878 until 1883 he studied at the Papal Academy Pontificia Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiasticiin Rome. It was there, on every Thursday, that students were required to defend a research paper, to which Cardinals and high members of the Roman Curia were invited. Cardinal Mariano Rampollatook note of him and furthered his entry in the diplomatic service of the Vatican in 1882, where he was employed by Mariano Cardinal Rampolla as a secretary and soon to be posted to Madrid. [De Waal 43] When Rampolla subsequently was appointed Cardinal Secretary of State, Della Chiesa followed him. During these years Della Chiesa helped negotiate the resolution of a dispute between Germanyand Spainover the Caroline Islandsas well as organising relief during a choleraepidemic. Still, his ambitious mother, Marchesa Della Chiesa, is said to have been discontent with the career of her son, cornering Rampolla with the words, that in her opinion, Giacomo was not properly recognized in the Vatican. Rampolla allegedly replied, "Signora, your son will take only a few steps, but they will be gigantic ones." [Pollard 15] When Rampolla left his post with the election of Pope Pius X, and was succeeded by Rafael Cardinal Merry del Val, Della Chiesa was retained in his post.
But Della Chiesa's association with Rampolla, the architect of
Pope Leo XIII's (1878–1903) foreign policy, made his position in the Secretariat of Stateunder the new pontificate somewhat uncomfortable. Italian papers announced that on 15 April 1907, the papal nuncio Aristide Rinaldiniin Madridwould be replaced by Della Chiesa, who had worked there before. Pius Xchuckling over the journalist’s knowledge, commented, "unfortunately, the paper forgot to mention whom I nominated as the next Archbishop of Bologna." [De Waal 68] In the presence of his family, the Diplomatic corps, numerous bishops and cardinals, and his friend Rampolla, on December 18, 1907, he received the episcopal consecration from Pope St. Pius X himself. The Pope donated his own Episcopal ringand crosierto the new bishop and spent much time with the Della Chiesa family on the following day. [De Waal 70] On February 23, 1907, Della Chiesa took possession of his new dioceses, which included 700 000 persons, 750 priests, as well as nineteen male and seventy-eight female religious institutes. In the Episcopal seminar, some twenty-five teachers educated 120 students, preparing for the priesthood. [ De Waal 82]
As bishop he visited all parishes, making a special effort to see the smaller ones in the mountains, which could only be accessed by horse. Della Chiesa always saw preaching as the main obligation of a bishop. He usually gave two or more sermons a day during his visitations. His emphasis was on cleanliness inside all churches and chapels and on saving money wherever possible: "Let us save to give to the poor" [De Waal 102] A meeting of all priests in a
Synodhad to be postponed at the wish of the Vatican in light of ongoing changes in the Canon Law. Numerous churches were built or restored. Della Chiesa personally originated a major reform of the educational orientation of the seminary, adding more science courses and classic education to the curriculum. [De Waal 100] He organized pilgrimages to Marian shrines in Loretoand Lourdes at the fiftieth anniversary of the apparition. [De Waal 121] The unexpected death of his friend, supporter and mentor Rampolla on December 13,  , was a major blow to Giacomo Della Chiesa, who was one of the beneficiaries of his will. [De Waal 121]
It was Roman custom that the
Archbishopof Bolognawould be created in one of the coming consistories. In Bologna this was surely expected of Della Chiesa as well, since, in previous years, either Cardinals were named as archbishops, or archbishops as Cardinals soon thereafter. [De Waal 110] Pius Xdid not follow this tradition and left Della Chiesa waiting for almost seven years. When a delegation from Bologna visited him, to ask for Della Chiesa's promotion to the College of Cardinals, he jokingly replied by making fun of his own family name Sarto( meaning Tailor): "Sorry, but a Sarto" has not been found yet, to make the Cardinal's robe. [De Waal 110] Some suspected, that Pius X or persons close to him did not want to have two Rampolla's in the College of Cardinals. His friend Mariano Rampolladied December 13, 1913. On May 25, 1914 Della Chiesa was created a cardinal, becoming Cardinal Priestof the " titulus" "Ss. Quattuor Coronatorum", which before him was occupied by cardinal Pietro Respighi. When after the consistory in Rome, the new cardinal tried to return to Bologna, an unrelated socialist, anti-monarchic and anti-Catholic uprising began to take place in Central Italy, accompanied by a general strike, the looting and destruction of churches, telephone connections, railway buildings and a proclamation of a secular republic. In Bologna itself, citizens and the Catholic Church opposed such developments successfully. The Socialists overwhelmingly won the following regional elections with great majorities. [De Waal 117]
As World War One approached, the question was hotly discussed in Italy as to which side to be on. Officially, Italy was still in an
alliancewith Germanyand Austria-Hungary. However, an integral part of Austria was Tirol, which was mostly German. The Southern part of which, the province of Trentowas exclusively Italian speaking. The clergy of Bologna was not totally free from nationalistic fervor either. Therefore in his capacity as Archbishop, on the outbreak of World War I, Della Chiesa made a speech on the Church's position and duties, emphasising the need for neutrality, promoting peace and the easing of suffering. [De Waal 124]
The conclave opened at the end of August 1914. The war would clearly be the dominant issue of the new pontificate, so the cardinals' priority was to choose a man with great diplomatic experience. Thus on September 3, 1914 Della Chiesa, despite having been a Cardinal only three months, was elected Pope, taking the name of Benedict XV. [Note on numbering: Pope Benedict X is now considered an
antipope. At the time, however, this status was not recognized and so the man the Roman Catholic church officially considers the tenth true Pope Benedict took the official number XI, rather than X. This has advanced the numbering of all subsequent Popes Benedict by one. Popes Benedict XI-XVI are, from an official point of view, the tenth through fifteenth popes by that name. In other words, there is no legitimate Pope Benedict X.]
Due to the enduring
Roman Question, after the announcement of his election by the Cardinal Protodeacon the new Pope, following in the footsteps of his two predecessors, did not appear at the balcony of St. Peter's basilica to grant the urbi et orbi blessing. Benedict XV was crowned at the Sistine Chapel on September 6, 1914, and, also as a form of protest due to the Roman Question, there was no ceremony for the formal possession of the cathedral of St. John Lateran.
Benedict XV's pontificate was dominated by
World War I, which he termed "the suicide of Europe", and its turbulent aftermath. Benedict's first encyclical extended a heartfelt plea for an end to hostilities. His early call for a Christmas trucein 1914 was ignored.
The war and its consequences were the main focus of Della Chiesa. He declared the neutrality of the Holy See and attempted from that perspective to mediate peace in 1916 and 1917. Both sides rejected his initiatives.
The national antagonisms between the warring parties were accentuated by religious differences before the war, with
France, Italyand Belgiumbeing largely Catholic. Vatican relations with Great Britainwere good, while neither Prussianor Imperial Germanyhad any official relations with the Vatican. In Protestant circles of Germanythe notion was popular that the Roman Catholic Pope was neutral on paper only, strongly favouring the Allies instead. [ Conrad Gröber, Handbuch der Religiösen Gegenwartsfragen, Herder Freiburg, Germany 1937, 493] Benedict was said to have prompted Austria-Hungaryto go to war, in order to weaken the German war machine. Allegedly, the Papal Nuncio in Paris said in a meeting of the "Institut Catholique," "to fight against France is to fight against God; [ Conrad Gröber, Handbuch der Religiösen Gegenwartsfragen, Herder Freiburg, Germany 1937, 493] " the Pope was said to have exclaimed to be sorry not to be a Frenchman; [ Conrad Gröber, Handbuch der Religiösen Gegenwartsfragen, Herder Freiburg, Germany 1937, 493] The Belgian Cardinal Désiré-Joseph Mercier, known as a brave patriot during German occupation but also famous for his anti-German propaganda, was to have been elevated by Benedict XV, who allegedly praised the Treaty of Versailles, which humiliated the Germans [ Conrad Gröber, Handbuch der Religiösen Gegenwartsfragen, Herder Freiburg, Germany 1937, 493] This view was rejected by the Vatican’s Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri, who wrote on March 4, 1916 that the Holy See is completely impartial and does not favour the Allied side. This was even more important, so Gasparri noted, after the diplomatic representatives of Germany and Austria-Hungary to the Vatican were expelled from Rome by Italian authorities. [Gröber 495] However in light of all this, German Protestants rejected any "“Papal Peace”" as insulting. French politician Georges Clemenceauregarded the Vatican initiative as anti-French. [Franzen 380] Benedict made many unsuccessful attempts to negotiate peace, but these pleas for a negotiated peace made him unpopular, even in Catholic countries like Italy, among many supporters of the war who were determined to accept nothing less than total victory. His best known intervention was the seven-point Papal Peace proposal of August 1917, demanding a cessation of all hostilities, a reduction of armaments, guaranteed freedom of the seas, and international arbitration. Only Woodrow Wilsonresponded directly, stating that a declaration of peace was premature; in Europe each side saw him as biased in favour of the other and were unwilling to accept the terms he proposed. Still, although unsuccessful, his diplomatic efforts during the war are attributed to an increase of papal prestige and served as a model in the 20th century: to the peace efforts of Pius XIIbefore and during World War Two, the policies of Paul VIduring the Vietnam Warand the position of John Paul IIbefore and during the War in Iraq. [Pollard, 136]
Almost from the beginning of the war, November 1914, Benedict negotiated with the warring parties about an exchange of wounded and other prisoners of war who were unable to continue fighting. Tens of thousands of such prisoners were exchanged through the intervention of Benedict XV. [Gröber 495] On January 15, 1915, the Pope proposed an exchange of civilians from the occupied zones, which resulted in 20 000 persons being sent to unoccupied Southern France in one month. [Gröber 495] In 1916, the Pope managed to hammer out an agreement between both sides, by which 29.000 prisoners with lung disease from the gas attacks could be sent into Switzerland [Pollard 114] In May 1918, he also reached agreement that prisoners on both sides with at least eighteen months of captivity and four children at home, would also be sent to neutral Switzerland. [Gröber 495]
He succeeded in 1915 in reaching an agreement by which the warring parties promised not to let POW’s work on Sundays and
Holidays. Several individuals on both sides were spared the death penalty after his intervention. Hostages were exchanged and corpses repatriated [Gröber 495] The Pope founded the "Opera dei Prigionieri" to assist in distributing information on prisoners. By the end of the war, some "600 000" items of correspondence were processed. Almost a third of it concerned missing persons. Some 40.000 people had asked for help in the repatriation of sick POW’s and 50.000 letters were sent from families to their loved ones who were POW’s. [Pollard 113]
Both during and after the war, Benedict was primarily concerned about the fate of the
children, about which he even issued an encyclical. In 1916 he appealed to the people and clergy of the United Statesto help him feed the starving children in German-occupied Belgium. His aid to children was not limited to Belgium but extended to children in Lithuania, Poland, Lebanon, Montenegro, Syriaand Russia. [Pollard 115] Benedict was particularly appalled at the new military invention of aerial warfare and protested several times against it to no avail. [Pollard 116]
In May and June 1915, the
Ottoman Empirewaged a campaign against the Armenian Christianminorities, which by some contemporary accounts looked like genocideor even a holocaustin Anatolia. The Vatican attempted to get Germany and Austria-Hungary involved in protesting to its Turkish ally. The Pope himself sent a personal letter to the Sultan, who was also Caliphof Islam. It had no success “"as over a million Armenians died, either killed outright by the Turks, or as a result of maltreatment or from starvation." [Pollard 116 ]
After the war
At the time however, the anti-Vatican resentment, combined with Italian diplomatic moves to isolate the Vatican in light of the unresolved Roman Question, [Pollard 141 ff] contributed to the exclusion of the Vatican from the Paris Peace conference of 1919 (although it was also part of a historical pattern of political and diplomatic marginalization of the papacy after the loss of the papal states). Despite this, he wrote an
encyclicalpleading for international reconciliation, "Pacem, Dei Munus Pulcherrimum" [ [http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xv/encyclicals/documents/hf_ben-xv_enc_23051920_pacem-dei-munus-pulcherrimum_en.htmlPACEM DEI MUNUS PULCHERRIMUM ENCYCLICAL OF POPE BENEDICT XV ON PEACE AND CHRISTIAN RECONCILIATION TO THE PATRIARCHS, PRIMATES, ARCHBISHOPS, BISHOPS, AND ORDINARIES IN PEACE AND COMMUNION WITH THE HOLY SEE] ] There is a statue in Saint Peter's Basilica of the Pontiff absorbed in prayer, kneeling on a tomb which commemorates a fallen soldier of the war, which he described as a "useless massacre".
After the war, Benedict focused the Vatican's activities on overcoming famine and misery in Europe and establishing contacts and relations with the many new states which were created as a consequence of the demise of Imperial Russia, Austria-Hungary and Germany. Large food shipments and information about, and contacts with, prisoners of war were to be the first steps for a better understanding of the papacy in Europe. [Franzen 380]
Versailles Peace Conference, the Vatican was of the opinion, that the economic conditions imposed on Germanywere too harsh, threatening the European economic stability as a whole. Pietro Gasparriwas of the opinion, that the peace conditions and the humiliation of the Germans would likely result in another war, as soon as Germany would be militarily in a position to start one. [Pollard 144] The Vatican also rejected the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, seeing in this step an inevitable and eventual strengthening of Germany. [Pollard, 145] The Vatican also had great reservations about the creation of small successor states which, in the view of Gasparri, were not viable economically and therefore condemned to economic misery. [Pollard 145] Benedict rejected the League of Nationsas a secularorganisation that was not built on Christian values. [Pollard 147] On the other hand, he also condemned European nationalism that was rampant in the 1920s and asked for "European Unification" in his 1920 encyclical Pacem Dei Munus. [Pollard 147]
The Pope was also disturbed by the Communist revolution in Russia. The Pope reacted with horror to the strongly anti-religious policies adopted by
Lenin's government and the bloodshed and widespread famine which occurred during the subsequent Russian Civil War. He undertook the greatest efforts trying to help the victims of the Russian famine, raising five million (what currency?) in 1921 alone. [Pollard 147] Following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, concerns were raised in the Vatican about the safety and future of the Catholics in the Holy Land.
In the post-war period Benedict was involved in developing the Church administration to deal with the new international system that had emerged. The papacy was faced with the emergence of numerous new states such as
Poland, Lithuania, Estonia, Yugoslavia, Czecheslovakia, Finland, and others. Germany, France, Italyand Austriawere impoverished from the war. In addition, the traditional social and cultural European order was threatened by right-wing nationalismand fascismand left-wing socialismand communism, all of which potentially threatened the existence and freedom of the Church. To deal with these and related issues, Benedict engaged in what he knew best, a large scale diplomatic offensive to secure the rights of the faithful in all countries.
Leo XIIIalready had agreed to the participation of Catholics in local but not national politics. Relations with Italy improved as well under Benedict XV, who de facto reversed the stiff anti-Italian policy of his predecessors by allowing Catholics to participate in national elections as well. This led to a surgence of the Partito Populare Italiano under Luigi Sturzo. Anti-Catholic politicians were gradually replaced by persons who were neutral or even sympathetic to the Catholic Church. The King of Italy himself gave signals of his desire for better relations, when for example, he sent personal condolences to the Pontiff on the death of his brother. [Pollard 163] The working conditions for Vatican staff greatly improved and feelers were extended on both sides to solve the Roman Question. Benedict XV strongly supported a solution and seemed to have had a fairly pragmatic view of the political and social situation in Italy at this time. Thus, while numerous traditional Catholics opposed voting rights for women, the Pope was in favour, arguing that, unlike the feminist protagonists, most women would vote conservative and thus support traditional Catholic positions. [Pollard 174]
Benedict attempted to improve relations with the anti-clerical Republican government of
France. He canonized the French national heroine Saint Joan of Arc. In the mission territories of the Third World, he emphasized the necessity of training native priests to replace the European missionaries as soon as possible, and founded the Pontifical Oriental Institute of Studies and the Coptic College in the Vatican. In 1921, France re-established diplomatic relations with the Vatican. [Franzen 381,]
The end of the war brought about the revolutionary development, which Benedict XV had foreseen in his first encyclical. With the Russian Revolution, the Vatican was faced with a new, so far unknown, situation. An ideology and government which rejected not only the Catholic Church but religion as a whole. “
The Pope, the Tsar, Metternich, French radicals and German police, are united against communismsaid Karl Marxand Friedrich Engels[Communist Manifesto , 1848] "The Historical Institute of the Soviet Academy of Sciences" wrote, that the “reactionary policies of the Vatican” were an outgrowth of fear of socialism and hate of communism. This fear turned the Vatican into an ally of capitalism. The Catholic Church is seen to have been in a 1000 year alliance with feudalism, just defeated in Russia. [The Historical Institute of the Soviet Academy of Sciences 1953, 461] In the words of Friedrich Engels, “the Church blessed the feudalorder with the glorioleof divine blessings. Her hierarchywas ordered according to feudal principles. She is one of the greatest feudal exploiters." [Engels, die Entwicklung des Sozialismus von der Utopie zur Wissenschaft, ausgewählte Schriften Berlin, 1953, 93]
Communists took their time to get into Church issues, which were not a priority. Lenin"did not want to put the religious question at the forefront, because it does not belong there at all." [Clarkson 571] They did not repeal the Tsarist decrees guaranteeing religious freedom. They even permitted the restorationof the Orthodox Patriarchate, which had been dormant for over 150 years. [Clarkson, 493] But with time, a persecutionof the Churches, including the Catholic Church, began and intensified. All religion, "the opiate of the masses" [Karl Marx] was considered hostile to communism, but most of the revolutionary violencewas oriented against the Russian Orthodox Church. The new regime began to interfere in spheres, so far reserved for the Church, by legalizing divorce, and issuing civil marriagecertificates. Bloody repressionof civilians, carried out under the auspices of the Polish Comrade Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky, [he wrote to his wife, My thinking compels me to be merciless and I have the firm will to follow my thinking to the utmost. Clarkson 492 ] head of the Cheka, led to public protest. The Patriarch Tikhon of Moscowissued a solemn anathemaagainst the Communists "for their frightful and bestial murder of people entirely innocent, even people lying sick in bed, in ruthless cruelty, in full daylight without any trial and in defiance of all justice and legality". [Clarkson 493] The Soviets responded by taking away most Church properties and by nationalizing all Church schools. The Patriarch was arrested. Most monasteries were suppressed, and "counter-revolutionary" religiouswere executed. [Clarkson, 493, 572] During the winter of 1918-1919, some "twenty bishops were murdered together with thousands of priests and religious". [Schmidlin III 308] [Fr. von Lama, Papst und Kurie in ihrer Politik nach dem Weltkrieg, Illertissen, 1925, p.362 ] Some hope developed among the United Orthodox in the Ukraineand Armenia, but many of the representatives there disappeared or were jailed in the following years. Several Orthodox bishops from Omskand Simbirskwrote an open letter to Pope Benedict XV, "as the Father of all Christianity," describing the murder of priests, the destruction of their churches and other persecutions in their areas. [Schmidlin III, 308]
Lithuania and Estonia
The relations with
Russiachanged drastically for a second reason. The Balticstates and Polandgained their independence from Russia after World War One, thus enabling a relatively free Church life in those former Russian countries. Estoniawas the first country to look for Vatican ties. On 11 April 1919, Secretary of State Pietro Gasparriinformed the Estonianauthorities, that the Vatican would agree to have diplomatic relations. A concordatwas agreed upon in principle a year later in June 1920. It was signed on 30 May 1922. It guaranteed freedom for the Catholic Church, established archdioceses, liberated clergy from military service, allowed the creation of seminaries and catholic schools and enshrined church property rights and immunity. The Archbishop swore alliance to Estonia. [Schmidlin III, 305]
Relations with Catholic
Lithuaniawere slightly more complicated because of the Polish occupationof Vilnius, a city and archiepiscopal seat, which Lithuaniaclaimed as as its own. Polish forces had occupied Vilnius and committed acts of brutalityin its Catholic seminarythere. This generated several protests by Lithuania to the Holy See. [Schmidlin III, 306.] Relations with the Holy See were defined during the pontificate of Pope Pius XI(1922-1939)
Before all other heads of State,
Pope Benedict XVin October 1918 congratulated the Polish people on their independence. [Schmidlin III, 306] In a public letter to Archbishop Kakowski of Warsaw, he remembered their loyalty and the many efforts of the Holy See to assist them. He expressed his hopes that Poland would again take its place in the family of nations and continue its history as an educated Christian nation. [Schmidlin III, 306] In March 1919, he nominated ten new bishops and, soon after, Achille Rattias papal nuncio who was already in Warsaw as his representative. [Schmidlin III, 306] He repeatedly cautioned Polish authorities against persecuting against Lithuanian and Ruthenian clergy. [Schmidlin III, 307] Ratti was the only foreign diplomat to stay in the Polish capital. On 11 June 1921, he wrote to the Polish episcopate, warning against political misuses of spiritual power, urging again for peaceful coexistence with neighbouring peoples, stating that “love of country has its limits in justice and obligations” [AAS 1921, 566] He sent nuncio Ratti to Silesia to act against potential political agitations of the Catholic clergy. [Schmidlin III, 307]
Ratti, a scholar, intended to work for
Polandand build bridges to the Soviet Union, hoping even, to shed his blood for Russia. [Stehle 25] Pope Benedict XVneeded him as a diplomatand not as a martyrand forbade any trip into the USSReven though he was the official papal delegate to Russia. [Stehle 25] However, he continued his contacts with Russia. This did not generate much sympathy for him within Poland at the time. He was asked to go. “While he tried honestly to show himself as a friend of Poland, Warsaw forced his departure, after his neutrality in Silesian voting was questioned” [Stehle 26 ] by Germans and Poles. Nationalistic Germans objected to a Polish nuncio supervising elections, and Poles were upset because he curtailed agitating clergy. [Schmidlin IV, 15] On 20 November, when German Cardinal Adolf Bertramannounced a papal ban on all political activities of clergymen, calls for Ratti's expulsion climaxed in Warsaw. [Schmidlin IV, 15] Two years later, Achille Ratti became Pope Pius XI, shaping Vatican policies towards Poland with Pietro Gasparriand Eugenio Pacellifor the following thirty-six years. (1922-1958)
In internal Church affairs, Benedict XV reiterated Pius X's condemnation of "modernist" scholars and the errors in modern philosophical systems in his first encyclical "Ad Beatissimi Apostolorum", and declined to readmit to full communion scholars who had been excommunicated during the previous pontificate. However, he calmed what he saw as the excesses of the anti-modernist campaign within the Church. On July 25, 1920 he wrote the
motu proprio Bonum saneon Saint Josephand against naturalism.
Canon Law reform
In 1917 Benedict XV promulgated the Church's first
Code of Canon Law, the preparation of which had been commissioned by Pope St. Pius X, and which is thus known as the Pio-Benedictine Code. This Code, which entered into force in 1918, was the first consolidation of the Church's Canon Law into a modern Code made up of simple articles. Previously, Canon Law was dispersed in a variety of sources and partial compilations. The new Canon Law is credited with reviving religious life and providing judicial clarity throughout the Church [Franzen 382] In addition, continuing the concerns of Leo XIII, he furthered Eastern Catholic cutlure, theology and liturgy by founding a Oriental Institute for them in Rome. [Franzen 382]
On 30 November 1919, Benedict XV appealed to all Catholics worldwide to sacrifice for Catholic missions, stating at the same time in "Maximum Illud", that these missions should foster local culture and not import European cultures. [Franzen 382] The damages of [World War One] where particularly grave in Africa and Asia, where many missiuonaries were deported and incarcerated if they happened to originate from a hostile nation.
Pope Benedict was an ardent mariologist, devoted to Marian veneration and open new theological perspectives. He personally addressed in numerous letters the pilgrims at Marian sanctuaries. He named Mary, the Patron of Bavaria and permitted in Mexico the Feast of the IC of Guadaloupe. To underline his support for the
mediatrixtheology, he authorized the Feast of Mary Mediator of all Graces. [AAS 1921, 345] He condemned the misuse of Marian statues and pictures, dressed in priestly robes, which he outlawed April 4, 1916. [AAS 1916 146 Baumann in Marienkunde; 673]
World War One, Benedict placed the world under the protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Roman Catholic) and added the invocation " Mary Queen of Peace" to the Litany of Loreto. He promoted Marian veneration throughout the world by elevating twenty well known Marian shrines such as Ettal Abbeyin Bavariainto Basilica Minor's. He also promoted Marian devotions in the month of May in the spirit of Grignon de Montfort [Schmidlin 179-339] The dogmatic constitution on the Church issued by the Second Vatican Councilquotes the Marian theology of Benedict XV. [ C VII, §50]
In his encyclical on
Ephraim the Syrianhe depicts Ephraim as a model of Marian devotion to our mother who uniquely was predestined by God. Pope Benedict did not issue a Marian encyclical but addressed the issue of Co-Redemptrixin his Apostolic Letter, "Inter Soldalica," issued March 22, 1918. [AAS, 1918, 181]
* "As the blessed Virgin Mary does not seem to participate in the public life of Jesus Chist ,and then, suddenly appears at the stations of his cross, she is not there without divine intention. She suffers with her suffering and dying son, almost as if she would have died herself. For the salvation of mankind, she gave up her rights as the mother of her son and sacrificed him for the reconciliation of divine justice, as far as she was permitted to do. Therefore, one can say, she redeemed with Christ the human race." [AAS, 1918, 181]
During his seven-year pontificate, Benedict XV wrote a total of
twelve encyclicals, that is 50% more than the eight encyclicals of John Paul IIin almost twenty-seven years . In addition to the encyclicals mentioned, he issued "In Hac Tanta" On St. Boniface on May 14, 1919; "Paterno Iam Diu " on the Children of Central Europe, November 24,1919; "Pacem, Dei Munus Pulcherrimum " on Peace and Christian Reconciliation May 23, 1920; "Spiritus Paraclitus" On St. Jerome September 1920; "Principi Apostolorum Petro" On St. Ephram the Syrian, on October 5, 1920; "Annus Iam Plenus" Again on Children in Central Europe, on December 1, 1920; "Sacra Propediem" On the Third Order of St. Francis, on January 6, 1921; " In Praeclara Summorum" On Dante, on April 30, 1921; Fausto Appetente Die On St. Dominic, on June 29, 1921.
Apostolic Exhortations include Ubi Primum ( September 8, 1914), Allorché fummo chiamati ( July 28, 1915) and Dès le début ( August 1, 1917) The bullss of Benedict XV include Incruentum Altaris ( August 10, 1915), Providentissima Mater (May 27, 1917) Sedis huius ( May 14, 1919), and Divina disponente ( May 16, 1920). Benedict XV issued nine Breves during his pontificate.Divinum Praeceptum ( December 1915), Romanorum Pontificum (February 1916), Cum Catholicae Ecclesiae ( April 1916), Cum Biblia Sacra ( August 1916), Cum Centesimus (October 1916), Centesimo Hodie (October 1916), Quod Ioannes ( April 1917), In Africam quisnam ( June 1920), and, Quod nobis in condendo (September 1920)
Ad Beatissimi Apostolorum
Ad Beatissimi Apostolorumis a encyclicalof Benedict XV given at St. Peter's, Rome, on the Feast of All Saints on November 1, 1914, in the first year of his Pontificate. The first encyclical written by Pope Benedict XV coincided with the beginning of World War One, which he labelled "The Suicide of Civilized Europe." Benedict described the combatants as the greatest and wealthiest nations of the earth; they are well provided with the most awful weapons modern military science has devised, they strive to destroy one another with refinements of horror. There is no limit to the measure of ruin and of slaughter; day by day the earth is drenched with newly-shed blood, and is covered with the bodies of the wounded and of the slain. [ Ad Beatissimi Apostolorum 3]
In light of the senseless slaughter, the Pope pleads for "peace on earth to men of good will" (Luke ii. 14), insisting that there are other ways and means whereby violated rights can be rectified. [Ad Beatissimi Apostolorum 4]
The origin of the evil is a neglect of the precepts and practices of Christian wisdom, particularly a lack of love and compassion. Jesus Christ came down from Heaven for the very purpose of restoring among men the Kingdom of Peace, "A new commandment I give unto you: That you love one another [(John xiv. 34);] "This is my commandment that you love one another" [(John xv. 12);]
Materialism, nationalism, racismand class warfareare the characteristics of the age instead, so Benedict XV:
* Race hatred has reached its climax; peoples are more divided by jealousies than by frontiers; within one and the same nation, within the same city there rages the burning envy of class against class; and amongst individuals it is self-love which is the supreme law over-ruling everything. [Ad Beatissimi Apostolorum 7]
Humani Generis Redemptionem
Humani Generis Redemptionemfrom June 15, 1917, deals with blatant ineffectivenesss of Christian preaching. There are more preachers of the Word than ever before according to Benedict XV, but in the state of public and private morals, the constitutions and laws of nations, there is a general disregard and forgetfulness of the supernatural, a gradual falling away from the strict standard of Christian virtue, and that men are slipping back into the shameful practices of paganism. [Humani generis redemptionem 2] The Pope squarely put part of the blame on those ministers of the Gospel who do not handle it as they should. It is not the times but the incompetent Christian preachers who are to blame: For no one can maintain that the Apostles were living in better times than ours, that they found minds more readily disposed towards the Gospel or that they met with less opposition to the law of God. [Humani generis redemptionem 3] First in line are the Catholic bishops: The Council of Trenttaught, that preaching "is the paramount duty of Bishops." [ [Sess., xxiv, De. Ref., c.iv] ] And the Apostles, whose successors the bishops are, looked upon it as something peculiarly theirs. St. Paul writes: "For Christ sent us not to baptize, but to preach the Gospel. [ [I Cor. i:17] ] Council of Trent Bishops are required to select for this priestly office those only who are "fit," i.e. those who "can exercise the ministry of preaching with profit to souls." Profit to souls, does not mean eloquently or with popular applause, but with spiritual fruit. [Humani generis redemptionem 7] The Pope requests that all those priests are weeded out, who are incapable of preaching or oh hearing confession. [Humani generis redemptionem 9] Priests have to concentrate on the word on God and not on popularity contests.
Quod Iam Diu
Quod Iam Diuwas an encyclicalgiven at Rome at St. Peter's on December 1, 1918, the fifth year of his Pontificate. It requested after World War Oneall Catholics everywhere in the world, no matter which side they were on, to pray for a lasting peace and for those who are entrusted to make it during the peace negotiations.
The Pope noted that true, peace has not yet arrived but the Armistice has suspended the slaughter and devastation by land, sea and air. [Quod Iam Diu 1] It is now the obligation of all Catholics on all sides to invoke Divine assistance for all who take part in the peace conference. The delegates who are to meet to define peace need all the support they can get for their search of a lasting peace. [Quod Iam Diu 2]
Maximum Illudis an Apostolic Letterof Benedict XV issued on November 30, 1919 in the sixth year of his pontificate. It deals with the Catholic missions after World War One. Benedict XV recalled the great Apostles of the Gospel who contributed much to the Expansion of Missions . He reviewed the recent history of the missions and stated the purpose of the Apostolic letter. [Maximum Illud 5-7] The encyclical first turned to the bishops and superiors in charge of the Catholic missions, noting the need to train local clergy. Catholic missionaries are reminded that their goal is a spiritual one, which must be carried out in a self-less way. [Maximum Illud 19-21]
The Pope underlined the necessity of proper preparation for the work in foreign cultures and the need to acquire language skills before going there. He requests a continued striving for personal sanctity and praises the selfless work of female religious in the missions. [Maximum Illud 30] Mission is not only for missionaries, all Catholics must participate, through their Apostolate of Prayer, by supporting vocations, and by helping financially [Maximum Illud 30-36] The encyclical concludes by pointing out several organizations which organize and supervise mission activities within the Catholic Church [Maximum Illud 37-40]
In physical appearance, Benedict XV was a slight man (the smallest of the three cassocks which had been prepared for whoever the new Pope might be in 1914 was still a good deal too big for him). As a result, he became known as "Il Piccolito" or "The Little Man" He was renowned for his generosity, answering all pleas for help from poor Roman families with large cash gifts from his private revenues. When he was short on money, those who would be admitted to an audience would often be instructed by prelates not to mention their financial woes, as Benedict would inevitably feel bad that he could not help the needy. He also depleted the Vatican's official revenues with large-scale charitable expenditure during World War I. On his death, the Vatican Treasury had been depleted to the equivalent in lire of U.S.$19,000. (Reference: Michael Burleigh, Sacred Causes: The Clash of Religion and Politics from the Great War to the War on Terror, HarperCollins, 2007, p.70).
Benedict XV was a careful innovator by Vatican standards. He was known to carefully consider all novelties before he ordered their implementation, but then insisting on them to the fullest. He rejected clinging to the past for the past’s sake with the words, "let us live in the present and not in history." [De Waal 122] His relation to secular Italian powers was reserved but positive, avoiding conflict and tacitly supporting the Royal Family of Italy. Yet, like
Pius IXand Leo XIII, he also protested against interventions s of State authorities in internal Church affairs. [De Waal 122] Della Chiesa and later Pope Benedict was not a man of letters. He did not publish educational or devotional books. His encyclicals are pragmatic and down-to earth but intelligent and at times far-sighted. His inn faith allowed him to be above the battles of the "Great War", when almost everybody else was taking sides. But not unlike Pius XIIduring World War Two, his neutrality was doubted by all sides then and even now. [Pollard 86 ff]
Benedict XV personally had a strong devotion to the
Blessed Virgin Mary. He added the title 'Queen of Peace' to her Litany, and gave his support to an understanding of Mary as Mediatrix of All Graces (by approving a Mass and office under this title for the dioceses of Belgium) and affirmed that "together with Christ she redeemed the human race" by her immolationof Christ as his sorrowful mother (in his apostolic letter "Inter sodalicia").
Death and Legacy
Benedict XV fell ill with
pneumoniain early January 1922. He succumbed to pneumonia on January 22, 1922.
Possibly the least remembered pope of the twentieth century, Benedict XV is nevertheless an unsung hero for his valiant efforts to end World War I. In 2005, Pope
Benedict XVIrecognized the significance of his long-ago predecessor's commitment to peace by taking the same name. Benedict XV was unique in his humane approach in the world of 1914–1918, which starkly contrasts with that of the other great monarchs and leaders of the time. His worth is reflected in the tribute engraved at the foot of the statue that the Turks, a non-Catholic, non-Christian people, erected of him in Istanbul: "The great Pope of the world tragedy...the benefactor of all people, irrespective of nationality or religion." This monument stands in the courtyard of the St. Esprit Cathedral.
Views of his successors
Pope Pius XIIshowed high regard for Benedict, who had consecreted him on May 17, 1917, the very day of the reported apparitions of Our Lady of Fatima. While Pius considered another Benedict, Benedict XIVin terms of his sanctity and scholarly contributions to be worthy as Doctor of the Church, [Pio XII, Discorsi, Roma 1939-1958, Vol. VIII, 419] he thought that Benedict XV during his short pontificate was truly a man of God, who worked for peace. [Discorsi, I 300] He helped prisoners of war and many others who needed help in dire times and was extremely generous to Russia. [Discorsi, II 346] He praised him as a Marian Pope who promoted the devotion to Our Lady of Lourdes, [Discosri XIX, 877] for his encyclicals Ad Beatissimi Apostolorum Humani Generis Redemptionem, Quod Iam Diuand "Spiritus Paraclitus," and, for the codification of Canon Law, [Discorsi XIII,133] which under della Chiesa and Pietro Gasparri, he as Eugenio Pacellihad the opportunity to participate in.
Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger showed his own admiration for Benedict XV following his election to the Papacy on April 19, 2005. The election of a new Pope is often accompanied by conjecture over his choice of papal name; it is widely believed that a Pope chooses the name of a predecessor whose teachings and legacy he wishes to continue. Ratzinger's choice of "Benedict" was seen as a signal that Benedict XV's views on humanitarian diplomacy, and his stance against
relativismand modernism, would be emulated during the reign of the new Pope.
During his first
General Audiencein St. Peter's Squareon April 27, 2005, Pope Benedict XVI paid tribute to Benedict XV when explaining his choice: "Filled with sentiments of awe and thanksgiving, I wish to speak of why I chose the name Benedict. Firstly, I remember Pope Benedict XV, that courageous prophet of peace, who guided the Church through turbulent times of war. In his footsteps I place my ministry in the service of reconciliation and harmony between peoples."
List of encyclicals of Pope Benedict XV
*Peters, Walter H. "The Life of Benedict XV". 1959. Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Company.
*Daughters of St. Paul. "Popes of the Twentieth Century". 1983. Pauline Books and Media
*Pollard, John F. "The Unknown Pope". 1999. London: Geoffrey Chapman
* [http://www.damian-hungs.de/ Pope Benedict XVI. (German)]
* [http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xv/index.htm Vatican website:] Benedict XV; texts of encyclicals etc.
* [http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1917/popeace.html Benedict XV's five point peace plan]
* [http://www.saintpetersbasilica.org/Grottoes/Benedict%20XV/Tomb%20of%20Benedict%20XV.htm Tomb of Benedict XV - Vatican Grottoes]
* [http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/ncd01188.htm "New Catholic Dictionary":] Benedict XV
* [http://www.maidofheaven.com/joanofarc_canonization.asp "Canonization of Joan of Arc":] by Benedict XV
* [http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=6000645 Memorial Page for Benedict XV]
* [http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/popebenedict.htm FirstWorldWar.com:] Who's Who
* [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios-d.htm#DellaChiesa The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church:] Giacomo Della Chiesa
date of consecration=22 December 1907
Pope Pius X
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Willem Cardinal van Rossum
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