- Sarum Rite
The Sarum Rite was a variant of the
Roman Ritewidely used for the ordering of Christian public worship, including the Mass or Eucharist, in the British Islesbefore the English Reformation.
Various parts of Britain and Ireland developed local variants of the
Pre-Tridentine Mass, and the Sarum Rite was originally the local form used in the Cathedral and Diocese of Salisburyin the west of England, but it later became prevalent throughout the British Isles, particularly in southern England. Although abandoned after the 16th century, it was also a notable influence on the pattern of Anglican liturgyrepresented in the Book of Common Prayer.
William of Normandyappointed St Osmund, a Norman nobleman, as bishop of Salisbury(the modern name of the city known in Latin as "Sarum"). As bishop, Osmund initiated some revisions to the extant Celtic-Anglo-Saxon rite and the local adaptations of the Roman rite, drawing on both Norman and Anglo-Saxon traditions.
19th century liturgists theorized that the liturgical usage of
Rouenin northern Franceserved as an inspiration for the creation of the Sarum liturgical books. Because the Normans deposed the Anglo-Saxon episcopate, replacing them with Norman bishops, of which Osmund was one, and in light of the similarities between the liturgy in Rouen and that of Sarum, it appears the Normans imposed their French liturgical books as well.
The revisions during Osmund's episcopate resulted in the compilation of a new
Missal, Breviary, and other liturgical manuals, which came to be used throughout southern England, Wales, and parts of Ireland.
dioceses issued their own missals, inspired by the Sarum rite, but with their own particular prayers and ceremonies. Some of these are so different that they have been identified as effectively distinct liturgies, such as those of Hereford, York, Bangor, and Aberdeen. Other missals (such as those of Lincoln Cathedralor Westminster Abbey) were more evidently based on the Sarum rite and varied only in details.
Liturgical historians believe the Sarum rite had a distinct influence upon other usages of the
Roman riteoutside England, such as the Nidaros rite in Norwayand the Braga rite in Portugal.
Church of Englandseparated from the Roman Church in the 1530s, it initially retained the Sarum rite, but Protestant pressure for public worship in English resulted in its replacement by successive versions of the Book of Common Prayer, although it was briefly reintroduced to general use in England under Queen Mary. The Sarum rite continued to be used by Roman Catholic recusants until the mid 16th century, when it was gradually replaced by the Tridentine use.
Many of the practices of the Sarum rite - though not the full liturgy itself - were revived in the Anglican Communion in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, as part of the Anglo-Catholic
Oxford Movementin the Church of England. Some Anglo-Catholics wanted to find a traditional formal liturgy that was characteristically "English" rather than "Roman", and they took advantage of the 'Ornaments Rubric' of 1559 which directed that English churches were to be furnished as they had been at the start of Edward VI's reign, which is to say, in Sarum fashion with few concessions to Protestant practice. However, there was a tendency to read back Victorian centralizing tendencies into mediaeval texts, and so a rather rubrical spirit was applied to liturgical discoveries. It was asserted, for instance, that Sarum had a well-developed series of colours of vestmentsfor different feasts. Indeed, there may have been tendencies to use a particular colour for a particular feast (red, for instance, was used on Sundays, as in the Ambrosian rite), but most churches were simply too poor to have several sets of vestments, and so used what they had. There was considerable variation from diocese to diocese, or even church to church, in the details of the rubrics: the place where the Epistlewas sung, for instance, varied enormously; from a lecternat the altar, from a lectern in the quire, or even on the rood screen.
Chief among the proponents of Sarum customs was the Anglican priest
Percy Dearmer, who put these into practice at his parish of St Mary's, Primrose Hill, in London, and explained them at length in " The Parson's Handbook," which ran through several editions. The rite has been retained in use into the present in some Anglican churches and monastic institutions.
The Sarum Mass has occasionally been celebrated within the Roman Catholic Church. A brief resurgence of interest in the 19th century did not lead to a revival. It had been suggested for the opening of
Westminster Cathedralin 1903, but the idea was rejected.
Another notable Roman Catholic use of the Sarum Mass was the celebration organised by
Oxford University Newman Societyon the Feast of Candelmas at Merton College, England, in 1997. It was celebrated recently in April 2000, when Mario Joseph Conti, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Glasgow, celebrated the Sarum Mass in the University of Aberdeen's King's College Chapel to commemorate the quincentenary of the pre-Reformation founding of the chapel by William Elphinstone, Bishop of Aberdeen.
The Sarum Use also is used by Western rite members of the
Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, and in particular by Saint Petroc Monastery and its missions [http://www.orthodoxresurgence.co.uk/Petroc/sarum.htm] .
The ceremonies of the Sarum liturgy are often elaborate, compared to many other Roman rites. The Mass of Sundays and great feasts involved up to four sacred ministers:
priest, deacon, subdeacon, and acolyte. It was customary to visit in procession all the altars of the church and cense them, ending at the great rood screen, where antiphonsand collects would be sung. Finally here at the screen would be read the Bidding Prayers, prayers in the vernacular directing the people to pray for various intentions. The procession then went to vest for Mass. (This vesting would usually have taken place at the altar where Mass was to be celebrated, since vestries and sacristies are, except in the largest churches, largely a modern introduction.)
Some of the prayers of the mass are unique, such as the priest's preparation prayers for Holy Communion. The ceremonies are unique also: the offering of the bread and wine was made by one act; after the Elevation the celebrant stood with his arms outstretched in the form of a cross; the Particle was put into the chalice after the
Agnus Dei. Communion under one kind was followed by a 'rinse' of unconsecrated wine. The Last Gospel(the first chapter of St John's Gospel) was read while the priest made his way back to the sacristy. [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13479a.htm] Two candles on the altar were customary, though others were placed around it and on the rood screen. The Sarum missal suggests that the genuflectionis not used, a low bow being customary, but it is not impossible that by the sixteenth century it had been introduced.
The Sarum rite was the original basis of the liturgy in the
Anglican Book of Common Prayer. This is most evident in its sequence of Major Propers for the Sundays in Advent, which vary considerably from those used in the Roman Tridentine Rite. It also inspired the counting of Sundays after Trinity rather than Pentecost. One may also take note of the marriage rite and the Sarum custom of "plighting troths".
* [http://www.orthodoxwiki.org/Sarum_Rite OrthodoxWiki page on the Sarum Rite]
* " [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13479a.htm Sarum Rite] " on "
Catholic Encyclopedia". 1912.
* [http://www.abdn.ac.uk/mediareleases/archive/2000/pr570.hti Media report on 2000 Sarum Mass]
* [http://anglicansociety.org/corner/sarum_use.html An article from the Rev. Dr. J. Robert Wright on the Sarum Use]
* [http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC04615833&id=3QcNAAAAIAAJ&pg=RA1-PR55&lpg=RA1-PR55&dq=psalterium+sarum&as_brr=1#PRA1-PR15,M1 Monumenta ritualia ecclesiæ Anglicanæ: the occasional offices of the church of England] A discussion of the service books of the Use of Sarum, including texts.
* [http://pagesperso-orange.fr/civitas.dei/sarum_index.htm Fr. Anthony Chadwick, a traditional Anglican priest, discusses the possibility of reviving the Sarum rite]
The Sarum Mass
* [http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/Sarum/English.htm Ordinary of the Sarum Missal from Charles Wohlers]
* [http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/Sarum/Ordinary.htm Ordinarium et Canon Missae Secundum Usum Insignis Et Praeclaerae Ecclesiae Sarum]
* [http://www.chd.dk/cals/perg19kal.html Ordo Kalendar of the feasts of the Sarum Rite c.1503]
* [http://www.archive.org/details/churchofsarum00unknuoft The Liturgy of the Church of Sarum]
* [http://books.google.com/books?vid=08I4RhaJDeU0z2Dt&id=cyUBAAAAQAAJ&pg=RA1-PR7&lpg=RA1-PR7&dq=%22Sarum+Missal#PRA15-PA143,M1 The Sarum Missal, in English (by A.H. Pearson)]
* [http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC45982334&id=_74PAAAAIAAJ&pg=RA34-PA1&lpg=RA34-PA1&dq=sarum+missal&as_brr=1#PRA40-PA96,M1 The ancient liturgy of the Church of England, according tp the uses of Sarum, Bangor, York & Hereford and the modern Roman liturgy arranged in parallel columns (1846)]
* [http://books.google.com/books?vid=0ygsWI-4BjeETB_-&id=ayMDAAAAQAAJ&pg=PP14&lpg=PP14&dq=%22Sarum+Missal#PRA1-PR9,M1 Ordinary and canon of the mass, according to the use of the Church of Sarum]
* [http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC03886437&id=QyZ7UfGi1vwC&printsec=titlepage&dq=usum+sarum#PRA3-PR9,M1 Processionale ad usum insignis ac praeclarae ecclesiae Sarum]
The Sarum Breviary and Antiphonale
* [http://www.humanities.mcmaster.ca/%7Erenwick/sarum-downloads.htm Chants of the Sarum Divine Office]
* [http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/Liturgy/SarumPsalter.html "Sarum Psalter" translated into English]
* [http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/Liturgy/Sarum%20Breviary%20Part%201.pdf Holy Psalter According to the Use of the Illustrious and Most Venerable Church of Sarum]
* [http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC02468473&id=VMHtp2su3c8C&printsec=titlepage&dq=usum+sarum#PPA7,M1 Breviarium ad usum insignis ecclesiae Sarum (The Sarum Breviary in Latin)]
* [http://ia331324.us.archive.org/load_djvu_applet.cgi?file=/3/items/lesserhoursofsar00cathuoft/lesserhoursofsar00cathuoft.djvu The Lesser Hours of the Sarum Breviary]
* [http://books.google.com/books?vid=0vxNxCTr3Nzpf-gw&id=8u8CAAAAQAAJ&pg=RA2-PA1&lpg=RA2-PA1&dq=use+of+sarum#PRA2-PA8,M1 The Order of Compline according the Use of Sarum (in English)]
* [http://www.archive.org/details/theuseofsarum02unknuoft The Use of Sarum: The Sarum Ordinal] [http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC04530007&id=DAYNAAAAIAAJ&pg=RA3-PA658&lpg=RA3-PA658&dq=psalterium+sarum&as_brr=1#PPP15,M1 Another link]
* [http://www.archive.org/details/theuseofsarum00unknuoft The Use of Sarum: The Customs]
* [http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/Liturgy/Culture.html Various mp3s of Sarum Chant]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=21pnAoiGnjs Video of a Sarum-rite Mass celebrated by a Roman Catholic priest at Oxford in 1997]
* [http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-8680531421342899324&q=sarum&total=128&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=6 Video of a Sarum-rite Mass for the Feast of Candlemas]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.