- Electronic component
An electronic component is a basic electronic element and may be available in a discrete form having two or more electrical terminals (or leads). These are intended to be connected together, usually by soldering to a printed circuit board, in order to create an electronic circuit with a particular function (for example an amplifier, radio receiver, or oscillator). Basic electronic components may be packaged discretely, as arrays or networks of like components, or integrated inside of packages such as semiconductor integrated circuits or thick film devices. The following list of electronic components focuses on the discrete version of these components, treating such packages as components in their own right.
A component may be classified as passive or active. The strict physics definition treats passive components as ones that cannot supply energy themselves, whereas a battery would be seen as an active component since it truly acts as a source of energy.
However electronic engineers performing circuit analysis use a more restrictive definition of passivity. When we are only concerned with the energy due to signals it is convenient to ignore the so-called DC circuit and pretend that the power supplying components such as transistors or integrated circuits is absent (as if each such component had its own battery built in) although it may in reality be supplied by the DC circuit which we are ignoring. Then the analysis only concerns the so-called AC circuit, an abstraction which ignores the DC voltages and currents (and the power associated with them) present in the real-life circuit. This fiction, for instance, allows us to view an oscillator as "producing energy" even though in reality the oscillator consumes even more energy from a power supply, obtained through the DC circuit which we have chosen to ignore. Under that restriction we define the terms as used in circuit analysis as follows:
- Passive components are ones which cannot introduce net energy into the circuit they are connected to. They also cannot rely on a source of power except for what is available from the (AC) circuit they are connected to. As a consequence they are unable to amplify (increase the power of a signal), although they may well increase a voltage or current such as is done by a transformer or resonant circuit. Among passive components are familiar two-terminal components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, and transformers.
- Active components rely on a source of energy (usually from the DC circuit, which we have chosen to ignore) and are usually able to inject power into a circuit although this is not part of the definition. This includes amplifying components such as transistors, triode vacuum tubes (valves), and tunnel diodes.
Passive components can be further divided into lossless and lossy components:
- Lossless components do not have a net power flow into or out of the component. This would include ideal capacitors, inductors, transformers, and the (theoretical) gyrator.
- Lossy or dissipative components do not have that property and generally absorb power from the external circuit over time. The prototypical example is the resistor. In practice all non-ideal passive components are at least a little lossy, but these are typically modeled in circuit analysis as consisting of an ideal lossless component with an attached resistor to account for the loss.
Most passive components with more than two terminals can be described in terms of two-port parameters satisfying the principle of reciprocity, although there are some rare exceptions. In contrast, active components (which have more than two terminals) generally lack that property.
Note that these distinctions only apply to components listed below which would be modeled as elements within circuit analysis. Practical items which act as transducers or have other connections to the outside world such as switches, cannot be subject to this form of classification since they defy the view of the electronic circuit as a closed system.
Terminals and connectors
Devices to make electrical connection
Cables with connectors or terminals at their ends
- Power cord
- Patch cord
- Test lead
Components that can pass current ("closed") or break the flow of current ("open")
- Switch - Manually operated switch.
- Electrical description: SPST, SPDT, DPST, DPDT, NPNT (general)
- Technology: slide switches, toggle switches, rocker switches, rotary switches, pushbutton switches
- Keypad - Array of pushbutton switches
- DIP switch - Small array of switches for internal configuration settings
- Footswitch - Foot-operated switch
- Knife switch - Switch with unenclosed conductors
- Micro switch - Mechanically activated switch with snap action
- Limit switch - Mechanically activated switch to sense limit of motion
- Mercury switch - Switch sensing tilt
- Centrifugal switch - Switch sensing centrifugal force due to rate of rotation
- Relay - Electrically operated switch (mechanical, also see Solid State Relay below)
- Reed switch - Magnetically activated switch
- Thermostat - Thermally activated switch
- Humidistat - Humidity activated switch
- Circuit Breaker - Switch opened in response to excessive current: a resettable fuse
Pass current in proportion to voltage (Ohm's law).
- Resistor - fixed value
- Power resistor - larger to safely dissipate heat generated
- SIP or DIP resistor network - array of resistors in one package
- Variable resistor
- Heater - heating element
- Resistance wire, Nichrome wire - wire of high-resistance material, often used as heating element
- Thermistor - temperature-varied resistor
- Humistor - humidity-varied resistor
- Varistor, Voltage Dependent Resistor, MOV - Passes current when excessive voltage present
Passive components that protect circuits from excessive currents or voltages
- Fuse - Over-current protection, one time use
- Circuit Breaker - Resettable fuse in the form of a mechanical switch
- PolySwitch or Resettable fuse - Circuit breaker action using solid state device
- Ground-fault protection or Residual-current device - Circuit breaker sensitive to mains currents passing to ground
- Metal Oxide Varistor, Surge Absorber (MOV), TVS - Over-voltage protection.
- Inrush current limiter - Protection against initial Inrush current
- Gas Discharge Tube - Protection against high voltage surges
- Spark gap - Electrodes with a gap to arc over at a high voltage
- Lightning arrester - Spark gap used to protect against lightning strikes
Components that store and release electrical charge. Used for filtering power supply lines, for tuning resonant circuits, and for blocking DC voltages while passing AC signals, among numerous other uses.
- Capacitor - fixed capacitance
- Capacitor network (array)
- Variable capacitor - Adjustable capacitance
- Tuning capacitor - Variable capacitor for tuning a radio, oscillator, or tuned circuit
- Trimmer capacitor - Small variable capacitor usually for internal adjustments
- Varicap diode - AC capacitance varies according to the DC voltage applied.
Magnetic (inductive) devices
Electrical components that use magnetism
- Inductor, coil, choke
- Variable inductor
- Saturable Inductor
- Magnetic amplifier (toroid)
- Ferrite impedances, beads
- Motor / Generator
- Speaker / Microphone
Components that use more than one type of passive component
- RC network - forms an RC circuit, used in Snubbers
- LC Network - forms an LC circuit, used in tuneable transformers and RFI filters
Piezoelectric devices, crystals, resonators
Passive components that use piezoelectric effect
- Components that use the effect to generate or filter high frequencies
- Crystal - Is a ceramic crystal used to generate precise frequencies (See the Modules class below for complete oscillators)
- Ceramic resonator - Is a ceramic crystal used to generate semi-precise frequencies
- Ceramic filter - Is a ceramic crystal used to filter a band of frequencies such as in radio receivers
- Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) filters
- Components that use the effect as mechanical Transducers.
- Ultrasonic motor - Electric motor that uses the piezoelectric effect
- For piezo buzzers and microphones, see the Transducer class below
Sources of electrical power
- Battery - acid- or alkali-based power supply
- Fuel cell - an electrochemical generator
- Power supply - usually a mains hook-up
- Photo voltaic device - generates electricity from light
- Thermo electric generator - generates electricity from temperature gradients
- Electrical generator - an electromechanical power source
Transducers, sensors, detectors
- Transducers generate physical effects when driven by an electrical signal, or vice-versa.
- Sensors (detectors) are transducers that react to environmental conditions by changing their electrical properties or generating an electrical signal.
- The Transducers listed here are single electronic components (as opposed to complete assemblies), and are passive (see Semiconductors and Tubes for active ones). Only the most common ones are listed here.
- Audio (see also Piezoelectric devices)
- Position, motion
- Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) - Magnetic - detects linear position
- Rotary encoder, Shaft Encoder - Optical, magnetic, resistive or switches - detects absolute or relative angle or rotational speed
- Inclinometer - Capacitive - detects angle with respect to gravity
- Motion sensor, Vibration sensor
- Flow meter - detects flow in liquid or gas
- Force, torque
- Thermocouple, thermopile - Wires that generate a voltage proportional to delta temperature
- Thermistor - Resistor whose resistance changes with temperature, up PTC or down NTC
- Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) - Wire whose resistance changes with temperature
- Bolometer - Device for measuring the power of incident electromagnetic radiation
- Thermal cutoff - Switch that is opened or closed when a set temperature is exceeded
- Magnetic field (see also Hall Effect in semiconductors)
- Magnetometer, Gauss meter
- Electromagnetic, light
- Photo resistor - Light dependent resistor (LDR)
Conduct electricity easily in one direction, among more specific behaviors.
- Standard Diode, Rectifier, Bridge Rectifier
- Schottky Diode, Hot Carrier Diode - super fast diode with lower forward voltage drop
- Zener Diode - Passes current in reverse direction to provide a constant voltage reference
- Transient Voltage Suppression Diode (TVS), Unipolar or Bipolar - used to absorb high-voltage spikes
- Varactor, Tuning diode, Varicap, Variable Capacitance Diode - A diode whose AC capacitance varies according to the DC voltage applied.
- Light Emitting Diode (LED) - A diode which emits light
- LASER Diode - A semiconductor laser
- Photodiode - Passes current in proportion to incident light
- Diode for Alternating Current (DIAC, Trigger Diode, SIDAC) - Often used to trigger an SCR
- Constant current Diode
- Peltier cooler - A semiconductor heat pump
- Bipolar transistors
- Field effect transistor (FET)
- Composite transistors
- Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)
- Opto-Isolator, Opto-Coupler, Photo-Coupler - Photodiode, BJT, JFET, SCR, TRIAC, Zero-crossing TRIAC, Open collector IC, CMOS IC, Solid State Relay (SSR)
- Opto Switch, Opto Interrupter, Optical Switch, Optical Interrupter, Photo switch, Photo Interrupter
- LED Display - Seven-segment display, Sixteen-segment display, Dot matrix display
- Filament lamp (indicator lamp)
- Vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) (preformed characters, 7 segment, starburst)
- Cathode ray tube (CRT) (dot matrix scan (e.g. computer monitor), radial scan (e.g. radar), arbitrary scan (e.g. oscilloscope)) (monochrome & colour)
- LCD (preformed characters, dot matrix) (passive, TFT) (monochrome, colour)
- Neon (individual, 7 segment display)
- LED (individual, 7 segment display, starburst display, dot matrix)
- Flap indicator (numeric, preprinted messages)
- Plasma display (dot matrix)
- Filament lamp 7 segment display (aka 'minitron')
- Nixie Tube
- Dekatron (aka glow transfer tube)
- Magic eye tube indicator
- Penetron (a 2 colour see-through CRT)
Vacuum tubes (Valves)
Based on current conduction through a vacuum (see Vacuum tube)
- Diode or Rectifier tube
- Microwave tubes
Optical detectors or emitters
- Phototube or Photodiode - tube equivalent of semiconductor photodiode
- Photomultiplier tube - Phototube with internal gain
- Cathode ray tube (CRT) or Television picture tube
- Vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) - Modern non-raster sort of small CRT display
- Magic eye tube - Small CRT display used as a tuning meter (obsolete)
- X-ray tube - Produces x-rays
- Gas discharge tube
Antennas transmit or receive radio waves
- Elemental dipole
- Phased array
- Loop antenna
- Parabolic dish
- Log-periodic dipole array
Multiple electronic components assembled in a device that is in itself used as a component
- Carbon amplifier (see Carbon microphones used as amplifiers)
- Carbon arc (negative resistance device)
- Dynamo (historic rf generator)
On a circuit diagram, electronic devices are represented by conventional symbols. Reference designators are applied to the symbols to identify the component.
- Discrete device
- Circuit design
- Circuit diagram
- Electrical element
- Electronic components' Datasheets
- IEEE 315-1975
- ^ For instance, a computer could be contained inside a black box with two external terminals. It might do various calculations and signal its results by varying its resistance, but always consuming power as a resistance does. Nevertheless it would be classified as an active component since it relies on a source of power to operate.
- ^ Nonreciprocal passive devices include the gyrator (although as a truly passive component this exists more in theoretical terms, and is usually implemented using an active circuit) and the circulator used at microwave and optical frequencies
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