List of systemic diseases with ocular manifestations

List of systemic diseases with ocular manifestations


This is a list of systemic diseases with ocular manifestations.

An ocular manifestation of a systemic disease is an eye condition that directly or indirectly results from a disease process another part of the body. There are many diseases known to cause ocular or visual changes. Diabetes, for example, is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in those aged 20–74, with ocular manifestations such as diabetic retinopathy and macular edema affecting up to 80% of those who have had the disease for 15 years or more[citation needed]. Other diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and hypertension are commonly found to have associated ocular symptoms.

Systemic allergic diseases

Skin and mucous membrane diseases


Collagen diseases

Systemic viral infections

Systemic bacterial infections

Systemic protozoal infections

Systemic fungal infections

Systemic cestode and nematode infections

Chromosomal disorders and genetic syndromes

  • Cri-du chat syndrome
  • Schmid-Fraccaro syndrome
  • Turner's syndrome
  • Ring-D chromosome
  • Monosomy-G syndrome
  • Trisomy 13 (Patau's syndrome, D-syndrome)
  • Trisomy 18 (Edwards' syndrome, E-syndrome)
  • Trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome, mongolism)
  • Deletion of long arm of chromosome 18
  • Deletion of chromosome 18
  • Ciliopathic genetic syndromes -- A number of widely-variant genetic disorders with occular phenotypes have been identified with genotypical ciliopathy.

Hematologic diseases

Cardiovascular diseases

  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Occlusive vascular disease (sudden)
  • Emboli and thrombi
  • Central retinal artery occlusion
  • Cardiac myxoma
  • Cranial arteritis
  • Sickle cell attack
  • Occlusive vascular disease (slow, progressive)
  • Venous occlusive disease
  • Endocarditis
  • Myxoma
  • Aortic arch syndrome (Takayasu)
  • Pre-eclampsia (Toxemia of pregnancy)
  • Thromboangiitis obliterans
  • Hereditary telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome)

Endocrine diseases

Gastrointestinal and nutritional disorders

Metabolic disorders

Musculoskeletal disease

Pulmonary diseases

Renal disease

Neoplastic diseases with ocular metastases

  • Gut


  • Pavan-Langston, Deborah (1990). Manual of Ocular Diagnosis and Therapy. Little, Brown and Company.

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