Military history of Canada during World War II

Military history of Canada during World War II
Military history of Canada
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The Second World War[1] officially began on September 1, 1939, with the German invasion of Poland. Britain and France declared war on the Nazi Third Reich on September 3, 1939. Seven days later, on September 10, 1939, the Parliament of Canada likewise declared war on Germany, the country's first independent declaration of war[2] and the beginning of Canada's participation in the largest combined national effort in its history. By war's end, 1 million citizens would have served in military uniform, and Canada would possess the fourth largest air force and third largest surface fleet in the world.[3]



Canada's military was active in every theatre of war, though most battles occurred in Italy,[4] Northern Europe,[5] and the North Atlantic.

Over the course of the war, 1.1 million Canadians served in the Army, Navy, and Air Force. Of these more than 45,000 lost their lives and another 54,000 were wounded.[6] The financial cost was $21,786,077,519.12, between the 1939 and 1950 fiscal years.[7] By the end of the War, Canada had the world's fourth largest air force,[8] and third largest navy.[9] As well, the Canadian Merchant Navy completed over 25,000 voyages across the Atlantic.[10] Canadians also served in the militaries of various Allied countries.

By D-Day, June 6, 1944, the landings at Normandy were accomplished by two beachheads made by the American forces at Omaha and Utah, two by British forces, Sword and Gold, and a final one at Juno made by the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division.

The war had significant cultural, political and economic effects on Canada, including the conscription crisis which affected unity between Canadian francophones and anglophones. However, the war effort not only strengthened the Canadian economy but further established Canada as a major actor on the world stage.[11]

Sovereignty and the declaration of war

Prime Minister Mackenzie King's request to King George VI for approval that war be declared against Germany in His Majesty's name, September 10, 1939.

In 1914, at the outbreak of the First World War, Canada was still a quasi-independent Dominion of the British Empire and automatically went to war when Britain did, albeit with full autonomy to decide the form and extent of its involvement. However, the 1931 Statute of Westminster had transformed Canada into a fully sovereign state, theoretically co-equal with Britain and the other Dominions of the British Commonwealth. Despite this, some commentators at the time suggested that Canada was still bound by Britain's declaration of war because it had been made in the name of their common monarch, but Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King was unshakable, and repeatedly declared that "Parliament will decide."[12] Canada later also declared war on Italy (June 11, 1940), Japan (December 7, 1941), and other Axis powers, enshrining the principle that the Statute of Westminster conferred these sovereign powers to Canada.

Outbreak of war

World War II poster from Canada

Though Canada was the oldest Dominion in the British Commonwealth, it was, for the most part, reluctant to enter the war. Canada, with a population somewhere between 11 to 12 million, eventually raised very substantial armed forces. After the long struggle of the Great Depression of the 1930s, the challenges of the Second World War accelerated Canada's ongoing transformation into a modern urban and industrialized nation.

Having suffered from nearly 20 years of neglect, Canada's armed forces were small, poorly equipped, and, for the most part, unprepared for war in 1939. The Permanent Active Militia (or Permanent Force (PF), Canada's full time army) had just 4,261 officers and men, while the Non-Permanent Active Militia (Canada's reserve force) numbered 51,000 partially trained and ill-equipped soldiers. Modern equipment was scarce all around. Attempts to modernize had begun in 1936, but equipment procurement was slow and the government was unwilling to expend money to equip the new tank battalions introduced that year.

At the outbreak of war, Canada's commitment to the war in Europe was limited by government to one division, and one division in reserve for home defence. Nevertheless, the eventual size of the Canadian armed forces greatly exceeded those envisioned in the pre-war period's so-called mobilization "schemes". Over the course of the war, the army enlisted 730,000; the air force 260,000; and the navy 115,000 personnel. In addition, thousands of Canadians served in the Royal Air Force. Approximately half of Canada's army and three-quarters of its air-force personnel never left the country, compared to the overseas deployment of approximately three-quarters of the forces of Australia, New Zealand, and the United States. By war's end, however, 1.1 million men and women had served in uniform for Canada. The Royal Canadian Navy grew from only a few ships in 1939 to over 400 ships, including three aircraft carriers and two cruisers. This maritime effort helped keep the shipping lanes open across the Atlantic throughout the war.

In part, this reflected Mackenzie King's policy of "limited liability" and the labour requirements of Canada's industrial war effort. But it also reflected the objective circumstances of the war. With France defeated and occupied, there was no Second World War equivalent of the Great War's Western Front until the invasion of Normandy in June 1944. Moreover, the manpower requirements of the North Africa and Mediterranean theatres were comparatively small and readily met by British and other British Empire/Commonwealth forces.

Canada had become one of the world's leading automobile manufacturers in the 1920s, owing to the presence of branch-plants of American automakers in Ontario. In 1938, Canada's automotive industry ranked fourth in the world in the output of passenger car and trucks, even though a large part of its productive capacity remained idle because of the Depression. During the war, this industry was put to good use, building all manner of war material, and most particularly wheeled vehicles, of which Canada became the second largest (next to the United States) producer during the war. Canada's output of nearly 800,000 trucks, for instance, exceeded the combined total truck production of Germany, Italy, and Japan. Rivals Ford and General Motors of Canada pooled their engineering design teams to produce a standardized vehicle amenable to mass production, the Canadian Military Pattern (CMP) truck, which served throughout the British Commonwealth. Approximately half of the British Army's transport requirements were supplied from Canadian manufacturers. The British Official History argues that the production of soft-skinned trucks, including the CMP truck class, was Canada's most important contribution to Allied victory.[13]

Canada also produced its own medium tank, the Ram. Though it was unsuitable for combat employment, many were used for training, and the 1st Canadian Armoured Carrier Regiment used modified Rams as armoured personnel carriers in North-West Europe.[14] In addition 1,390 Canadian-built Valentine tanks were shipped to the Soviet Union. Approximately 14000 aircraft, including Lancaster and Mosquito bombers, were built in Canada. In addition, by the end of 1944, Canadian shipyards had launched naval ships, such as destroyers, frigates, corvettes, and some 345 merchant vessels. But perhaps no Canadian contribution to the Allied war effort was so vital as that made by the metals industries: half of Allied aluminium and ninety percent of Allied nickel was supplied by Canadian sources during the war.

Mobilization, deployment

The Wait for Me, Daddy photo of the BC Regiment (DCOR), marching in New Westminster, 1940.

While the response to war was initially intended to be limited, resources were mobilized quickly. The Convoy HX-1 departed Halifax just six days after the nation declared war, escorted by HMCS St. Laurent and HMCS Saguenay.[15] The 1st Canadian Infantry Division arrived in Britain on January 1, 1940.[16] By June 13, 1940, the 1st Battalion of The Hastings and Prince Edward Regiment was deployed to France in an attempt to secure the southern flank of the British Expeditionary Force in Belgium. By the time the battalion arrived, the British and allies were cut off at Dunkirk, Paris had fallen, and after penetrating 200 km inland, the battalion returned to Brest and then to Britain.

After Dunkirk, the defence of the British Isles was left in disarray. There were only two fully armed and mobilized divisions ready to defend against invasion: the 1st Canadian Infantry Division, and the Scottish 52nd. Consequently, the bulk of the Canadian army overseas did not engage in sustained combat until mid-1943. Many of the young soldiers of the 1st Canadian Infantry Division, overseas since December 1939, could claim, by 1943, to have spent more of their adult lives in England than in Canada. Nevertheless, this guard duty served as a bulwark, along with British counterparts, in combating the threat from German-occupied Europe during the time when the threat of invasion was at its greatest.

The frustrated Canadian Army fought no significant engagement in the European theatre of operations until the invasion of Sicily in the summer of 1943. With the Sicily Campaign, the Canadians had the opportunity to enter combat and later were among the first to enter Rome.

Canada was the only country of the Americas to be actively involved in the war[17] until the Attack on Pearl Harbor.

Canadian support for the war was mobilized through a propaganda campaign, including If Day, a staged 'Nazi' invasion of Winnipeg which generated more than $3 million in war bonds.

Early campaigns

Canadian Bren gunner

Between the fall of France in June 1940 and the German invasion of the USSR in June 1941, Canada supplied Britain with urgently needed food, weapons, and war materials by naval convoys and airlifts, as well as pilots and planes who fought in the Battle of Britain and the Blitz. If the planned German invasion of Britain had taken place in 1941, units of the formation later known as I Canadian Corps were already deployed between the English Channel and London to meet them.

Canada was the primary location of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, the largest air force training program in history. 131,553 air force personnel, including 49,808 pilots, were trained at airbases in Canada from October 1940 to March 1945.[18] More than half of the BCAT graduates were Canadians who went on to serve with the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) and Royal Air Force (RAF). One out of the six RAF Bomber Command groups flying in Europe was Canadian.

Ben Weider lies prone with his rifle in 1942.

Squadrons of the RCAF and individual Canadian pilots flying with the British RAF fought with distinction in Spitfire and Hurricane fighters during the Battle of Britain. By January 1, 1943, there were enough RCAF bombers and crews in Britain to form No. 6 Group, one of eight bomber groups within RAF Bomber Command.

Early in the war, Japanese troops invaded the Aleutian Islands. Canadian air force planes flew anti-submarine patrols against the Japanese while on land, Canadian troops fought side by side with American troops against the Japanese. Eventually, the Japanese were repulsed.


When war was declared, Britain expected Canada to take responsibility for defending North America.[citation needed] In 1939, L. E. Emerson was the Commissioner of Defence for Newfoundland. Winston Churchill instructed Emerson to cooperate with Canada and comply with a "friendly invasion" as he encouraged Mackenzie King to advise the occupation of Newfoundland by the king as monarch of Canada. By March 1942, Commissioner Emerson had restructured official organizations, such as The Aircraft Detection Corps Newfoundland, and integrated them into Canadian units, like The Canadian Aircraft Identity Corps.

The British Army mustered two units in Newfoundland for overseas service: The 59th Field Artillery and the 166th Field Artillery. The 59th served in northern Europe, the 166th served in Italy and North Africa. The Newfoundland Regiment was also mustered, but was never deployed overseas. No. 125 (Newfoundland) Squadron R.A.F. served in England and Wales and provided support during D-Day: the squadron was disbanded on 20 November 1945.[19]

Several Canadian regiments were garrisoned in Newfoundland during the Second World War: the most famous regiment was The Royal Rifles of Canada who were stationed at Cape Spear before being dispatched to British Hong Kong; In July 1941, The Prince Edward Island Highlanders arrived to replace them; In 1941 and 1942, The Lincoln & Welland Regiment was assigned to Gander Airport and then St. John's.

The Canadian Army built a concrete fort at Cape Spear with several large guns to deter German naval raids. Other forts were built overlooking St. John's Harbour; magazines and bunkers were cut into the South Side Hills and torpedo nets were draped across the harbour mouth. Cannons were erected at Bell Island to protect the merchant navy from submarine attacks and guns were mounted at Rigolette to protect Goose Bay.

All Canadian soldiers assigned to Newfoundland from 1939 to 1945 received a silver clasp to their Canadian Volunteer Service Medal for overseas service. Because Canada, South Africa, New Zealand and Australia had all issued their own volunteer service medals, the Newfoundland government minted its own volunteer service medal in 1978. The Newfoundland Volunteer War Service Medal was awarded only to Newfoundlanders who served overseas in the Commonwealth Forces but had not received a volunteer service medal. The medal is bronze: on its obverse is a crown and a caribou; on its reverse is Britannia and two lions.

The war at sea

Battle of the Atlantic

The Battle of The Atlantic was longest ongoing battle in World War Two. Once Britain declared war on Germany, Canada quickly followed, entering the war on September 10, 1939, as they had a vested interest in sustaining Britain.[20]

Canadian security relied on British success in this war, along with maintaining national security, politically speaking, some felt it was Canada’s duty to assist her allies. For example the Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King had been utterly convinced that it was Canada’s “Self evident national duty” to "back Britain”.[21]

Once World War Two had erupted in 1939, Canada did not have a navy of any significance. In 1939 Canada had 7 warships. Once entering the war, Canada needed a naval reformation in order to keep up with and aid the British. On the outbreak of the war Canada had roughly 3,500 men supporting the RCN. In September 1940 “the RCN grew to 10,000 men”.[22]

Canada’s role in the Battle of the Atlantic primarily consisted of escorting merchant ships from North America to Britain. Without the shipments Britain would not be able to continue fighting in the war. Submarines were used by both Germans and Italians to attack the supply lines in the Atlantic in an attempt to “suffocate” Britain of its ability to continue fighting in the war. Initially, the Germans were very successful in their goal of cutting off these supply lines. Nearly 350 merchant ships were sunk by U-boats during the last six months of 1940, and at the end of 1941, U-boats destroyed 600,000 tons of cargo.[23] After 1941, Canada did an excellent job in making these convoy escorts go smoothly. The RCN became increasingly involved in all three countries’ (United States, Canada, and Britain) shipyards, docks, railways, road transport and air force to ensure the continual flow of these merchant convoys.[24]

The Canadian government agencies also played a major role in the patterns of warfare in the Atlantic. The Canadian Navies Division operated a network of naval control of shipping agents in the neutral United States from 1939 to 1941.[clarification needed] These agents managed the shipping movements of British shipping in the United States, and also managed the growing USN systems in regards to basic trade movements. Special publications on trade matters were supplied to the USN from Ottawa in 1941, and by the time of Pearl Harbor American port directors were working with Ottawa as a team. Ottawa’s job of studying trade movements and keeping track of intelligence was so effective and crucial that they were given the task of controlling shipping west of 40〫and north of the equator from December 1941 to July 1942, along with supplying the USN trade directorate with daily intelligence.[25]

Canada was also given the responsibility of covering two strategically key points in the Atlantic. The first is known as the “Mid-Atlantic Gap”, located off the coast of Greenland. This gap was a very hostile point in the supply line which was very difficult to take control. With the use of Iceland as a refuelling point and Canada to the west, the gap was narrowed down to 300 nautical miles (560 km). “The Surface gap was closed by the Royal Canadian Navy [in 1943]. This Newfoundland escort force started with 5 Canadian corvettes and two British destroyers [manned by Canadian seaman], followed by other Canadian-manned British destroyers when available”.[26]

The second and perhaps most daunting task Canada was given was to control the English channel during Operation Overlord (The Normandy Invasion). “On the 6th of June, 50 RCN escorts were redeployed from the North Atlantic and Canadian Waters for invasion duties”.[27] Their tasks were to cover the flanks of the invasion to ensure submarine defence of the invasion fleet, also to provide distant patrols of the southern flank of the invasion area, and lastly to prevent submarine flotillas in the channel from gaining reinforcements . This invasion relied on the RCN to cover British and American flanks to ensure a successful landing on the beaches of Normandy.[28]

The progression Canada made from 1939 to 1945 is astonishing, going from the limited amount of warships they had to becoming the third largest navy in the world is an achievement in itself, not to mention the role they played in informing the USN in intelligence and the increase in responsibility. Their primary role in protecting merchant ships from North America to Britain was successful. Throughout the war Canada had made 25,343 successful escort voyages delivering 164,783,921 tons of cargo.[29]By the end of the war, German documents state that the Royal Canadian Navy was responsible for the loss of 52 submarines in the Atlantic. In return 59 Canadian merchant ships, and 24 warships were sunk during the battle of the Atlantic.[30]

“Canadians solved the problem of the Atlantic convoys” – British Admiral Sir Percy Noble

HMCS Uganda

The major contribution and sacrifice of Canadians to the Battle of the Atlantic has been referred to. Canada also contributed a cruiser, HMCS Uganda (a British cruiser transferred to the RCN in 1944) to the British Pacific Fleet, an Empire fleet in the western Pacific. Conditions aboard, particularly when compared to those enjoyed in the United States Navy, strict discipline and the inability to display a separate Canadian identity, had contributed to poor morale and resentment amongst the crew. In an attempt to nip this in the bud and mindful of the legal rights of Canadians not to serve overseas, the ship's commander, Captain Edmond Rollo Mainguy, invited crew members to register their unwillingness to serve overseas. Of the 907 crew members, 605 did so on May 7 1945.[31][32]

This decision, which had legal impact, was relayed to Canada and thence to the British government. Reacting to the angry British response, the Canadians agreed to stay on station until replaced. This happened on July 27 1945, when HMS Argonaut joined the British Pacific Fleet and Uganda departed for Esquimalt arriving on the day of the Japanese surrender.[31]

Attacks in Canadian waters and on the mainland

Axis U-boats operated in Canadian and Newfoundland waters throughout the war, sinking many naval and merchant vessels. Two significant attacks took place in 1942 when German U-boats attacked four allied ore carriers at Bell Island, Newfoundland. The carriers S.S. Saganaga and the S.S. Lord Strathcona were sunk by U-513 on September 5, 1942, while the S.S. Rosecastle and P.L.M 27 were sunk by U-518 on November 2 with the loss of 69 lives. When the submarine fired a torpedo at the loading pier, Bell Island became the only location in North America to be subject to direct attack by German forces in the Second World War. U-boats were also found in the St. Lawrence River; during the night of October 14, 1942, the Newfoundland Railway ferry, SS Caribou was torpedoed by German U-boat U-69 and sunk in the Cabot Strait with the loss of 137 lives. The Canadian mainland was also attacked when the Japanese submarine I-26 shelled the Estevan Point lighthouse on Vancouver Island on June 20, 1942. Japanese fire balloons were also launched at Canada, some reaching British Columbia and the other western provinces.


An abandoned scout vehicle after the failed Dieppe Raid

The Dieppe Raid (Operation Jubilee) of August 19, 1942, landed nearly 5,000 soldiers of the Second Canadian Division and 1,000 British commandos on the coast of occupied France, in the only major combined forces assault on France prior to the Normandy invasion of June 1944. The air and naval support promised by the British did not materialize and as a result the Canadian forces assaulted a heavily defended coast line with no supportive bombardment and the unsupported raid was a disaster.[clarification needed] While Dieppe did provide valuable information on the absolute necessity of close communications in combined operations, of nearly 6,000 troops landed over a thousand were killed and another 2,340 were captured. Two Canadians were recognized with the Victoria Cross for actions at Dieppe; Lieutenant Colonel "Cec" Merritt of the South Saskatchewan Regiment and Honorary Captain John Foote of the Royal Hamilton Light Infantry. The value of the Dieppe Raid is a matter of some controversy; some historians feel that it was largely because of Dieppe that the Allies decided not to attempt an assault on a seaport in their first invasion of occupied western Europe, others would point to the large number of amphibious operations before and after Dieppe as evidence that nothing new was learned there.


Canadian forces in advancing from the Gustav Line to the Hitler Line

While Canadians served at sea, in the air, and in small numbers attached to Allied formations and independently, the invasion of Sicily was the first full scale combat engagement by full Canadian divisions since World War I. Canadian soldiers went ashore in 1943 in the Allied invasions of Sicily and mainland Italy, then fought through the long Italian Campaign. During the course of the Italian Campaign, over 25,000 Canadian soldiers became casualties of war.

The 1st Canadian Division and the 1st Canadian Tank Brigade took part in the Allied invasion of Sicily in Operation Husky, 10 July 1943 and also the Allied invasion of mainland Italy on September 3, 1943. Canadian participation in the Sicily and Italy campaigns were made possible after the government decided to break up the First Canadian Army, sitting idle in Britain. Public pressure for Canadian troops to begin fighting forced a move before the awaited invasion of northwest Europe.[33] Troops fought on through the long and difficult Italian campaign until redeployed to North-West Europe in February–March 1945 during Operation Goldflake. By this time the Canadian contribution to the Italian theatre had grown to include I Canadian Corps headquarters, the 1st Division, 5th Canadian (Armoured) Division and an independent armoured brigade. Three Victoria Crosses were awarded to Canadian Army troops in Italy; Captain Paul Triquet of the Royal 22e Régiment, Private Smokey Smith of The Seaforth Highlanders of Canada, and Major John Mahoney of The Westminster Regiment (Motor). Notable battles in Italy included The Moro River Campaign, the Battle of Ortona and the battles to break the Hitler Line.

Conscription Crisis and Quebec

The political astuteness of Mackenzie King, combined with much greater military sensitivity to Quebec volunteers resulted in a conscription crisis that was minor compared to that of the First World War. French-Canadian volunteers were front and centre, in their own units, throughout the war, highlighted by actions at Dieppe (Les Fusiliers Mont-Royal), Italy (Royal 22e Régiment), the Normandy beaches (Le Régiment de la Chaudière), the thrust into Holland (Le Régiment de Maisonneuve), and in the bombing campaign over Germany (No. 425 Squadron RCAF).

D-Day and Normandy

Canadians on Juno Beach, June 1944.

On June 6, 1944, the 3rd Canadian Division landed on Juno Beach in the Battle of Normandy and sustained 50% casualties in their first hour of attack. By the end of D-Day, the Canadians had penetrated deeper into France than either the British or the American troops at their landing sites, overcoming stronger resistance than any of the other beachheads except Omaha Beach. In the first month of the Normandy campaign, Canadian, British and Polish troops were opposed by some of the strongest and best trained German troops in the theatre, including the 1st SS Division, the 12th SS Division and the Panzer-Lehr-Division. Several costly operations were mounted by the Canadians to fight a path to the pivotal city of Caen and then south towards Falaise, part of the Allied attempt to liberate Paris. Canadian troops played a heavy role in the liberation of Paris. Some feel[who?] that Canadian inexperience during the battle to close the Falaise Gap allowed German forces to escape destruction, but by the time the First Canadian Army linked up with U.S. forces, the destruction of the German Army in Normandy was nearly complete. Three Victoria Crosses were earned by Canadians in Northwest Europe; Major David Currie of the South Alberta Regiment won the Victoria Cross for his actions at Saint-Lambert-sur-Dive, Captain Frederick Tilston of the Essex Scottish and Sergeant Aubrey Cosens of the Queen's Own Rifles of Canada were rewarded for their service in the Rhineland fighting in 1945, the latter posthumously.

The Low Countries

Buffalo amphibious vehicles taking troops of the Canadian First Army across the Scheldt in Holland, September 1944.

One of the most important Canadian contributions was the Battle of the Scheldt, involving the II Canadian Corps. The Corps included the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division, 3rd Canadian Infantry Division and 4th Canadian (Armoured) Division. Although nominally a Canadian formation, II Canadian Corps contained the Polish 1st Armoured Division, the 1st Belgian Infantry Brigade, the Royal Netherlands Motorized Infantry Brigade, and the 51st (Highland) Infantry Division.

The British had liberated Antwerp, but that city's port could not be used until the Germans were driven from the heavily fortified Scheldt estuary. In several weeks of heavy fighting in the fall of 1944, the Canadians succeeded in defeating the Germans in this region. The Canadians then turned east and played a central role in the liberation of the Netherlands.

The royal family of the Netherlands eventually moved to Ottawa until the Netherlands were liberated, and Princess Margriet was born during this Canadian exile. In 1944-45, First Canadian Army was responsible for liberating much of the Netherlands from German occupation. Princess Juliana of the Netherlands, the only child of then–Queen Wilhelmina and heir to the throne, sought refuge in Canada with her two daughters, Beatrix and Irene, during the war. During Princess Juliana’s stay in Canada, preparations were made for the birth of her third child. To ensure the Dutch citizenship of this royal baby, the Canadian Parliament passed a special law declaring Princess Juliana’s suite at the Ottawa Civic Hospital “extraterritorial”. On January 19, 1943, Princess Margriet was born. The day after Princess Margriet’s birth, the Dutch flag was flown on the Peace Tower. This was the only time a foreign flag has waved atop Canada’s Parliament Buildings.

In 1945, the people of the Netherlands sent 100,000 hand-picked tulip bulbs as a post-war gift for the role played by Canadian soldiers in the liberation of the Netherlands. These tulips were planted on Parliament Hill and along the Queen Elizabeth Driveway.

Princess Juliana was so pleased at the prominence given to the gift that in 1946, she decided to send a personal gift of 20,000 tulip bulbs to show her gratitude for the hospitality received in Ottawa. The gift was part of a lifelong bequest. Since then, tulips have proliferated in Ottawa as a symbol of peace, freedom and international friendship. Every year, Canada’s capital receives 10,000 bulbs from the Dutch royal family.

See also


  1. ^ As noted in the article on World War II, the official name of this conflict varies from country to country. In Canada, official historians refer to the conflict as "the Second World War". Wikipedia, as an international website, uses both terms, with a consensus to use "World War II" in the title of all articles, categories, etc.
  2. ^ CBC Archives, On This Day, Sept. 10, 1939
  3. ^ Stacey, C.P. History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War
  4. ^ Canadian War Museum "The Italian Campaign". Retrieved on: August 5, 2007.
  5. ^ Canadian War Museum "Liberating Northwest Europe". Retrieved on: August 5, 2007.
  6. ^ Canadian War Museum "Counting the Cost". Retrieved on: August 5, 2007.
  7. ^ "World War II". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2010-08-19. 
  8. ^ Canadian Air Force Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, "World's Fourth Largest Air Force?"
  9. ^ World War - Willmott, H.P. et al.; Dorling Kindersley Limited, London, 2004, Page 168 Retrieved on: May 17, 2010.
  10. ^ Veterans Affairs Canada "The Historic Contribution of Canada's Merchant Navy". Retrieved on: August 5, 2007.
  11. ^ Stacey, C. "World War II: Cost and Significance". The Canadian Encyclopedia online (Historica). Revised by N. Hillmer. Retrieved on: August 5, 2007.
  12. ^ J.L. Granatstein, Globe and Mail, "Going to War? Parliament will decide."
  13. ^ Hall, H. Duncan and Wrigley, C. C. Studies of Overseas Supply, a volume in the War Production Series directed by M. M. Postan, published as part of the History of the Second World War. United Kingdom Civil Series edited by Sir Keith Hancock. Her Majesty's Stationery Office and Longmans, Green and Co., London, 1956, pp. 51-52.
  14. ^ Tonner, Mark. The Kangaroo in Canadian Service, Service Publications, 2005. See also The Ram in Canadian Service Vol 1. and Vol 2., same publisher.
  15. ^ Byers, A.R., ed (1986). The Canadians At War 1939–45. Westmount, QC: The Readers' Digest Association. p. 22. ISBN 9780888501455. 
  16. ^ Byers, p.26
  17. ^ Murray, D. R. (May 1974). "Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs". Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 16 (2): 1953–1972. JSTOR 174735. 
  18. ^ "Categories of Air Crew Graduates October 1940 ­ March 1945 - Veterans Affairs Canada". 2000-04-11. Retrieved 2011-02-24. 
  19. ^ "Sqn Histories 121-125_P". Retrieved 2011-02-24. 
  20. ^ Sarty, Roger (1998). Canada and the Battle of the Atlantic. canada: Editions Art Global and the Department of National Defence. pp. 56. 
  21. ^ Satry, Roger (1998). Canada and the Battle of the Atlantic. Canada: Editions Art Global and the Department of National Defence. pp. 38. 
  22. ^ Sarty, Roger (1998). Canada and the Battle of the Atlantic. Canada: Editions Art Global and the Department of National Defence. pp. 134. 
  23. ^ Sarty, Roger (1998). Canada and the Battle of the Atlantic. Canada: Editions Art Global and the department of National Defence. pp. 50. 
  24. ^ Van Der Vat, Dan (1988). The Atlantic Campaign. New York: Harper and Row. pp. 187. 
  25. ^ Milner, Marc (1990). "The Battle of the Atlantic". Journal of Strategic Studies 13 (1): 45–66. 
  26. ^ Van Der Vat, Dan (1988). The Atlantic Campaign. New York: Harper and row. pp. 187. 
  27. ^ Sarty, Roger (1998). Canada and the battle of the atlantic. Canada: editions art global and the department of national defence. pp. 144. 
  28. ^ Sarty, Roger (1998). Canada and the Battle of the Atlantic. Canada: Editions Art Global and the Department of National Defence. pp. 144. 
  29. ^ Sarty, Roger (1998). Canada and the Battle of the Atlantic. Canada: Editions Art Canada and the Department of National Defence. pp. 56. 
  30. ^ LAne, Tony (1993). "50th Anniversary". Battle of the Atlantic Official Souvenir Booklet 83 (1). 
  31. ^ a b Chaplin-Thomas, Charmion (10 May 2006). "HMCS Uganda Votes". Maple Leaf. Retrieved 4 Feb 2010. 
  32. ^ Butler, Malcolm. "The Uganda". CFB Esquimalt Naval & Military Museum. Retrieved 3 Jan 2011. 
  33. ^ Bercuson, David J. Maple Leaf against the Axis: Canada's Second World War. Toronto: Stoddart, 1995. p. 152.

Further reading

Memorial Stained Glass window, Class of 1933, Royal Military College of Canada

External links

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