Longman was a publishing company founded in London, England in 1724. It is now an imprint of Pearson Education.

econd and third generations

In 1754, Longman took into partnership his nephew, Thomas Longman(2) (1730-1797), and the title of the firm became T. and T. Longman. Upon the death of his uncle in 1755, Longman(2) became sole proprietor. He greatly extended the colonial trade of the firm. In 1794 he took Owen Rees as a partner; in the same year, Thomas Brown (c. 1777–1869) entered the house as an apprentice.

Longman(2) had three sons. Of these, Thomas Norton Longman(3) (1771-1842) succeeded to the business. In 1804 two more partners were admitted, and the former apprentice Brown became a partner in 1811; in 1824 the title of the firm was changed to Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown & Green.

In 1799 Longman(3) purchased the copyright of Lindley Murray's "English Grammar", which had an annual sale of about 50,000 copies. About 1800 he also purchased the copyright of Southey's "Joan of Arc" and Wordsworth's "Lyrical Ballads", from Joseph Cottle of Bristol. He published the works of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Southey and Scott, and acted as London agent for the "Edinburgh Review", which was started in 1802.

In 1814 arrangements were made with Thomas Moore for the publication of "Laila Rookh", for which he was paid £3000; and when Archibald Constable failed in 1826, Longmans became the proprietors of the "Edinburgh Review". They issued in 1829 Lardner’s "Cabinet Encyclopaedia", and in 1832 McCulloch's "Commercial Dictionary".

Fourth and fifth generations

Thomas Norton Longman(3) died on August 29 1842, leaving his two sons, Thomas(4) (1804-1879) and William Longman (1813-1877), in control of the business in Paternoster Row. Their first success was the publication of Macaulay's "Lays of Ancient Rome", which was followed in 1841 by the issue of the first two volumes of his "History of England", which in a few years had a sale of 40,000 copies.

The two brothers were well known for their literary talent. Thomas Longman(4) edited a beautifully illustrated edition of the New Testament, and William Longman was the author of several important books, among them a "History of the Three Cathedrals dedicated to St Paul" (1869) and a work on the "History of the Life and Times of Edward III" (1873). In 1863 the firm took over the business of Mr JW Parker, and with it "Fraser's Magazine", and the publication of the works of John Stuart Mill and JA Froude; while in 1890 they incorporated with their own all the publications of the old firm of Rivington, established in 1711. The family control of the firm (later Longmans, Green & Co.) was continued by Thomas Norton Longman(5), son of Thomas Longman(4).

1900 onwards

In December, 1940, Longman's Paternoster Row offices were destroyed in The Blitz, along with most of the company's stock. The company survived this crisis, however, and became a public company in 1948. Longman was acquired by the media conglomerate Pearson in 1968. In 1972, Mark Longman, last of the Longman family to run the company, died.

Longman continues to exist as an imprint of Pearson Education, under the name Pearson Longman. Pearson Longman specializes in English, including English as a second or foreign language, history,economics, philosophy, political science, and religion.

ee also

*Badminton Library

External links

* http://www.longman.co.uk/
* [http://www.ldoceonline.com Longman Online Dictionary]



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