Allied leaders of World War II

Allied leaders of World War II

The Allied Leaders of World War II consists of the important political and military figures that fought or supported the Allies during World War II. Engaged in total war, the leaders had to adapt to new types of modern warfare, on the military, psychological and economic fronts.

flagicon|Belgium Belgium

* Leopold III of Belgium reigned as King of the Belgians from 1934 until 1951. Prior to the war Leopold had made extensive preparations against such an invasion of his country. After Belgium's surrender Leopold stayed to face the invaders, while his entire government had fled to Great Britain. King Leopold rejected cooperation with the Nazis and refused to administer Belgium in accordance with their dictates. Despite his defiance of the Germans, the Belgian government-in-exile in London refused to recognize his right to rule. The Germans held him under house arrest at the royal castle in Brussels until the end of the war.

* Hubert Pierlot was the Prime Minister of Belgium from 1939 till 1945. Pierlot became the leader of the government during the Phoney War until the German invasion. Pierlot fled to Britain where he led the government in exile and the formation of the Free Belgian Forces.
* Victor Strydonck de Burkel was a general of the Belgian Army who commanded the 1st Military Zone during the invasion of Belgium. After Belgium's surrender in 1940, he became the Commander of Belgian forces in Great Britain, and presided over the formation of the Free Belgian Forces. After the liberation of Belgium he became the Chief of the Belgian Military Mission to Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force.

* Auguste-Éduard Gilliaert was the commander of the Belgian Expeditionary Forces during the East African Campaign. The Belgian Expeditionary Forces was a unit composed of troops from Belgium and the Belgian Congo. In 1941, Gilliaert cut off the retreat of Italian General Pietro Gazzera in Ethiopia and accepted the surrender of Gazzera's 7,000 troops.

flagicon|Brazil|1889 Brazil

* Getúlio Vargas was the president of Brazil from 1930 until 1945. Despite Brazil's fascist government of "Estado Novo" and strong economic ties with Nazi Germany, Vargas eventually sided with the Allies and declared war on the Axis in 1942. Vargas gave economic and military support to the Allies.

* Mascarenhas de Morais was the commander of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force. He arrived in Italy with the first Brazilian troops in 1944 and commanded the Brazilian forces until the surrender of the Axis forces in Italy. After the end of the war he was given the rank of Field Marshal.

British Commonwealth

*King George VI was the reigning monarch of the British Commonwealth during the war. Despite only having the role of a figurehead, George VI was a symbol of national and Commonwealth unity during the war. He and his family would visit bomb sites and munitions factories. [cite web|url=|title=The History of the Commonwealth|publisher=The Commonwealth Secretariat| accessdate=2007-02-26] . Several members of the royal family, including the future Queen Elizabeth II, served in the forces.

flagicon|Australia Australia

*Robert Menzies was the Prime Minister of Australia from 26 April 1939 until 29 August 1941. He served a second term as Prime Minister between 1949 and 1966. [cite web|url=|title=Robert Menzies. In office.|work=Australia's prime ministers|publisher=National Archives of Australia|accessdate=2008-09-25]

*Arthur Fadden replaced Menzies as Prime Minister but was forced from office when his government collapsed on 7 October 1941. He had previously served as acting Prime Minister for long periods while Menzies was out of the country. [cite web|url=|title=Arthur Fadden|work=Australia's prime ministers|publisher=National Archives of Australia|accessdate=2008-09-25]

*John Curtin was Prime Minister from 7 October 1941 until his death on 5 July 1945. In January 1942, facing Japanese attacks, he wrote in an historic New Year message that Australia looked to the US for its security, rather than the UK. Curtin also formed a close working relationship with General MacArthur and directed the Australian military to follow MacArthur's orders as if they were his own. Curtin had several disagreements over defense policy with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. [cite web|url=|title=John Curtin|work=National Archives of Australia|accessdate=2007-04-21]

*Frank Forde was appointed Prime Minister after Curtin's death, but lost the position on 12 July to a leadership challenge. He had served as acting Prime Minister during periods when Curtin was out of the country or unwell during 1944 and 1945. [cite web|url=|title=Francis Forde|work=Australia's prime ministers|publisher=National Archives of Australia|accessdate=2008-09-25]

*Ben Chifley replaced Forde and served as Prime Minister until 1949. [cite web|url=|title=Ben Chifley|work=Australia's prime ministers|publisher=National Archives of Australia|accessdate=2008-09-25]

* Thomas Blamey was the commander in chief of the Australian Army during the war. Commander of Allied land forces in the South West Pacific, 1942-45. He became Australia's first and only Field Marshal after the war. In 1945 he signed the Japanese surrender document on behalf of Australia.

flagicon|Canada|1921 Canada

* William Lyon Mackenzie King was the Prime Minister of Canada during the war. He had secured greater autonomy for the Commonwealth Realms, allowing them to enter the war of their own accord. Despite initially favouring appeasement of Adolf Hitler, he asked Parliament to declare war on Germany after the Invasion of Poland.

* Harry Crerar was a general and the "de facto" commander-in-chief of the Canadian military during the war. Crerar lead the Canadian military during the Invasion of Normandy. He has been described as an able administrator and politically astute. []

* Guy Simonds was an army officer who commanded the II Canadian Corps. He served as acting commander of the Cdn. 1st Army, leading the Allied forces to victory in the Battle of the Scheldt. After the war he was appointed Chief of the General Staff. He was the youngest officer in the Canadian army to be promoted to the rank of General.

* Andrew McNaughton was the original commanding officer of the Canadian Expeditionary Forces at the beginning of the war, but was recalled to Canada to serve as Minister of National Defense. Often attributed responsibility for the Dieppe Raid he was one of the inventors of RADAR.

flagicon|Newfoundland Newfoundland

* Sir Humphrey Walwyn was governor of Newfoundland and chairman of the Commission of Government from 1936 to 1946. A former Royal Navy Admiral, during World War II he was active in encouraging Newfoundlanders to join the war effort.

flagicon|New Zealand New Zealand

* Michael Joseph Savage was Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1935 till his death in 1940. An opponent of fascism and the appeasement. He declared war on Nazi Germany in 1939 by declaring "Where Britain goes, we go! Where she stands, we stand".

* Peter Fraser was Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1940 till 1949. He came into office after the death of Michael Joseph Savage. During the war, Fraser had a concern with ensuring that New Zealand retained control over its own forces. After serious losses in the Balkans Campaign in 1941, Fraser determined to retain a say as to where to deploy New Zealand troops.

* Bernard Freyberg was commander of the 2nd New Zealand Expeditionary Force and the New Zealand 2nd Division. He led the Allied forces during the Battle of Crete. Freyberg commanded the New Zealand 2nd Division through the North African and Italian campaigns. He had an excellent reputation as a divisional-level tactician. After the war he served as the Governor-General of New Zealand.

flagicon|South Africa|1928 Union of South Africa

* Jan Smuts was the Prime Minister of the South Africa from 1939 till 1948. He had served in the Imperial War Cabinet in the First World War and did so again as the most senior South African in favor of war and became South Africa's first Field Marshal in 1941. After the war he represented South Africa at the drafting of the United Nations Charter.

*George Brink was a Lieutenant-General in the South African military who commanded the 1st Infantry Division during the war. Brink successfully lead the 1st Infantry Division during the East African Campaign. After the war he was responsible for the demobilization.

*Isaac Pierre de Villiers was a Major-General n the South African military who commanded the 2nd Infantry Division. Prior to the war, de Villiers served as a Lieutenant in the South African Police and so the 2nd Infantry Division was responsible for internal security operations at the beginning of the war.

flagicon|UK United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

* Winston Churchill was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during most of the war, from 1940 to 1945. An early opponent of Hitler, he opposed appeasement of Germany. He was First Lord of the Admiralty at the outbreak of war, then came into power at the start of the Invasion of France. During the Battle of Britain, Churchill's speeches boosted the British morale during the darkest moments.

* Neville Chamberlain, who had formerly led a policy of appeasement towards Nazi Germany, was Prime Minister during the first stages of the war, taking office in 1937 and resigning on 10 May, 1940 after the failed Norwegian campaign. Chamberlain then became Lord President of the Council. He died of cancer on 9 November, 1940, half a year after resigning.

* Harold Alexander was a Field Marshal commanding the 15th Army Group and all Allied ground forces in Italy. In 1940 he was the last division commander to be evacuated from Dunkirk. Alexander received the surrender of German forces in Italy on April 29 1945.

* Hugh Dowding was an Air Chief Marshal who commanded RAF Fighter Command during the Battle of Britain. He ended the sacrifice of aircraft and pilots in the attempt to aid troops during the Battle of France, which was weakening the home defence. He developed the "Dowding System" – an integrated air defence system of radar, raid plotting and radio control of aircraft. He introduced modern aircraft into service such as the Supermarine Spitfire and Hawker Hurricane. During the battle he led resources behind the scenes and maintained a significant fighter reserve, while leaving his subordinate commanders' hands free to run the battle.

*Bernard Montgomery was a General (later Field Marshal) who led the Allied forces in North Africa. Under his command the Allies were able to defeat the Afrika Korps and their Italian allies. He later commanded the 21st Army Group and all Allied ground forces during Operation Overlord. He was also the primary mind behind the failed Operation Market Garden. He accepted the surrender of German forces on the 4 May 1945.

*Alan Brooke was Chief of the Imperial General Staff for much of the war and was the foremost military advisor to Winston Churchill.

* Arthur Harris was an Air Chief Marshal commonly known as "Bomber" Harris by the press. He was Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief of RAF Bomber Command and later a Marshal of the Royal Air Force during the latter half of World War II.

*Clement Attlee was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. Attended half the rest of the Potsdam Conference and announced the Defeat of Japan. Later, looked for Post-War ideas.

flagicon|Malaysia|1895 British Malaya

* Shenton Thomas was the Governor of Straits Settlements and the British High Commissioner in Malaya from 1934 until 1942. After the fall of Singapore he was taken as a POW and imprisoned in Cell 24 of Changi Prison.

* Arthur Percival was the General Officer Commanding Malaya at the start of the Pacific War. After the fall of Singapore he was taken as a prisoner-of-war. Percival's surrender to the invading Japanese forces was the largest capitulation in British military history.

flagicon|Palestine|Mandate British Mandate of Palestine

* Harold MacMichael was a British colonial administrator who was appointed as the High Commissioner of the British Mandate of Palestine from 1937 until 1944. During this era he attempted to suppress Zionist and Arab nationalists but had to change this policy during the war.

* Henry Maitland Wilson was a Field Marshal and commander of the Ninth Army in the British Mandate of Palestine. During the Syria-Lebanon campaign he led the Allied Forces in Syria and Lebanon against Vichy France. For his actions he was promoted to full General.

flagicon|India|British British Raj

* Victor Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow was the Viceroy of India from 1936 until 1943. During the war he made an appeal for unity among the people of India.

*Mahatma Gandhi was a major political and spiritual leader of the Indian National Congress. An opponent of Nazism and Fascism, prior to the war Gandhi sent an open letter to Hitler, touting tolerance. When the war broke out Gandhi had favored offering "non-violent moral support" to the British effort. Gandhi declared that India couldn't be party to a war ostensibly being fought for democratic freedom, while that freedom was denied in India herself. As the war progressed, Gandhi increased his demands for independence.

*Archibald Wavell at the start of the war was in charge of the Middle East Command. The Italian forces in North Africa greatly outnumbered the Allies. Wavell, however, was able not only to repel Italian attacks, but to defeat them and occupy their colonies. Wavell was replaced by Claude Auchinleck in 1941 and became Commander-in-Chief, India. During early 1942, he led the short-lived American-British-Dutch-Australian Command in South East Asia and the Pacific, before resuming his previous position, as head of the India Command (later South East Asia Command). In 1943 Wavell succeeded Linlithgow as Viceroy of India.

* Claude Auchinleck nicknamed "The Auk" was appointed Commander-in-Chief, India in January 1941 after commanding the Allied forces during the fall of Norway. He had previously in 1938, when a Major-General, chaired a committee the recommendations of which formed the basis of the 1939 Chatfield Report on the modernisation, re-equipment and expansion of the British Indian Army (which by the end of the war had grown to 2,250,000 men from 183,000 in 1939). In 1941 he replaced Archibald Wavell as Commander-in-Chief Middle East Command but returned as C-in-C India in 1943 when Wavell became Viceroy.

flagicon|ROC Republic of China

* Chiang Kai-shek was the leader of the Nationalist Government of the Republic of China and the supreme commander of the China Theatre, which also included Burma. He was the chairman of the National Military Council, the highest political organ of the wartime Chinese government. There is controversy over the fact that he had refused to send troops against the Japanese, instead, intending to attack the Nationalist government during the ceasefire and replenish their battered forces - "Our determined policy is 70% self-development, 20% compromise, and 10% fight the Japanese". He wished to defeat communism first before taking on Japan, but after the Xi'an Incident Chiang made a temporary truce with the communists to form a united front against Japan. After that war the truce ended and hostilities continued until his government retreated to Taiwan.

* Mao Zedong was leader of the Communist Party of China. He formed an alliance with the Nationalist Government after the Xi'an Incident. After the war, the truce ended and hostilities continued until the communists gained control of the mainland.

* Zhang Xueliang was warlord of Manchuria after the death of his father. Nicknamed the "Young Marshal"; he was a strong opponent of the Japanese occupation. He was responsible for the Xi'an incident which established a truce between the Nationalist and Communists. He fled the mainland with Nationalist government to Taiwan after the communists seize the mainland.

* Claire Lee Chennault was the commander of the Flying Tigers. Originally a military advisor to Chiang Kai-shek, Chennault was asked to establish an American squadrons to aid the Republic of China. Chennault spent the winter of 1940–1941 in Washington, helping to negotiate the establishhment of the American Volunteer Group. The AVG began their service with the Chinese Air Force in 1941 until it was disbanded in 1942. [Caidin, "ibid.", dates the departure of the first AVG pilots 10 December 1941.]

flagicon|France French Third Republic (Until 1940)

* Albert Lebrun was the last President of the Third Republic. In 1940, he was forced to accept the German terms of surrender of France and was replaced by Philippe Pétain as head the French state (see Vichy France). In 1944, Lebrun acknowledged de Gaulle's leadership of the restored French, provisional, government. In 1945, since he had not resigned from his presidential office, and that Pétain was not president, Lebrun thought he could be able to return to power after the liberation. [ [ Albert Lebrun's biography on the French Presidency official website] ]

* Édouard Daladier was Prime Minister from 1938 to 1940. He led his country during the opening stages of the war. Daladier resigned on 9 May, 1940, the day before the German invasion of France, because of his failure to aid Finland's defence in the Winter War.

* Paul Reynaud succeeded Daladier as Prime Minister in 1940 and led France during the Battle of France. After Germany had occupied large parts of France, Reynaud was advised by his newly appointed Minister of State Philippe Pétain to come to separate peace with Germany. Reynaud refused to do so, and resigned.

* Maurice Gamelin commanded the French military during the critical days of May 1940, before being removed from his position after failing to defend France from the Germans.

* Maxime Weygand replaced Gamelin as commander of the French army in May 1940. He eventually favoured an armistice with Germany.

flagicon|Free French Free French Forces (and later fighting France and provisional government of the French republic)

*Charles de Gaulle was a Brigade General and political leader who led the Free French Forces from 1940 to 1944. After the fall of France, de Gaulle was one of the French military leaders who refused to accept the surrender and the government of Marshal Pétain, the latter became Chief of the short lived French State replacing the Republic. He gave his Appeal of 18 June via BBC to rally the French against the German occupation. In June 1944, de Gaulle formed the Provisional Government of the French Republic and acted as its chairman for the rest of the war.

*Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque was one of the central leaders of the Free French forces, and commanded forces both in Africa and in France. After the war ended, he commanded the French Far East Expeditionary Corps in the First Indochina War. He signed the armistice with Japan on behalf of France on September 2, 1945.

*Henri Giraud was de Gaulle's rival and Western Allies favourite. He escaped from Germany where he was Prisoner of war and co-founded the Free French movement with de Gaulle, though soon found himself relegated to second in command of the Free French Forces after the Casablanca Conference of 1943. He was the chieff of staff of the french army of liberation from 1943 to July 1944.

*Alphonse Juin became chief of staff of the French army in July 1944 after being the commander of the French troops (100,000 men) in Italy.

*Marie Pierre Kœnig became commander in chief of the French force of interior which effectively helped the allies in the invasion of France.

*Jean de Lattre de Tassigny was the commander of the First French army which invaded southern France with 260,000 men. His army numbered more than 320,000 men when he entered in Germany with the integration of the FFI.

*Georges Catroux was the french main military leader in Syria and Lebannon before entering De Gaulle's government.

*Admiral André Lemonnier served as the french navy chieff of staff in 1943 and lead himself the french navy participation in operation dragoon (34 warships including one battleship and eight cruisers).

flagicon|Greece|old Kingdom of Greece

* George II of Greece was king of Greece from 1922 to 1924 and from 1935 to till his death in 1947. King George was pro-British, and this stance greatly influenced the country's policy. When Germany invaded Greece, the King and the government fled the Greek mainland for Crete but after the Battle of Crete he was evacuated to Egypt and went to Great Britain. During the war he remained the internationally recognized head of state, backed by the exiled government and Greek forces serving in the Middle East.

* Ioannis Metaxas was the dictator and Prime Minister of Greece from 1936 until his death in 1941. Despite his quasi-fascist tendencies and strong economic ties to Nazi Germany, he pursued a policy of pro-British neutrality. On 28 October 1940 he rejected an Italian ultimatum, and ordered the Greek Army to repel the Italian invasion of the country.

* Alexander Papagos was a Greek General who led the Greek Army in the Greco-Italian War and the Battle of Greece. Prior to the war he actively tried to reorganize and reequip the Army. When war was declared he was named Commander-in-Chief and lead Greek forces against Italy along the Albanian border. When the Greek government fled to Crete, Papagos remained behind and with other generals, was arrested and sent to concentration camps in Germany. In 1945 he was repatriated and rejoined the Army.

* Aris Velouchiotis was the creator and chief leader of the Greek People's Liberation Army, the country's largest guerrilla force, aligned to the leftist National Liberation Front.

flagicon|Italy|1861 Kingdom of Italy (After 1943)

* Victor Emmanuel III was the King of Italy from 1900 until his abdication in 1946. He supported the Fascist government from 1922 until 1943 when he had the Fascist regime removed from office. Technically, as King, he was the Supreme Commander of the Italian Army and Navy, but he was a figurehead leader and delegated his powers to dictator Benito Mussolini who delegated those powers to ministers. In 1943, with Italian dissatisfaction with the war and the embarrassment Italy's failed war effort, Victor Emmanuel used his powers as King to remove Mussolini from office and dissolve the Fascist regime. He and Marshal Pietro Badoglio then brought Italy into the war on the side of the Allies against Germany. The Royalist government in southern Italy was known as the "Badoglio government."

flagicon|Mexico|1934 Mexico

* Manuel Ávila Camacho was president of Mexico from 1940 till 1946. Ávila declared war against the Axis powers in 1942 after two of Mexico's ships were destroyed by German submarines. Ávila Camacho cooperated in the war effort, providing United States with 15,000 soldiers and 300,000 workers under the Bracero Program.

flagicon|Panama Panama

*Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia Arango was president of Panama from 1941 till 1945. Because of strong political connections with the United States, Arango declared war on the Axis powers hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor. The Military of Panama was sent to the war alongside the Military of the United States and the Military of Mexico.

flagicon|Honduras Honduras

*Tiburcio Carias Andino was President of Honduras during World War II(1933-1948), he gave the order to declare war against the Japan on December 8, 1941 after the attack on Pearl Harbor and to Nazi Germany and Italy on December 13.But Honduras did not send soldiers nor weapons because of its low development, but food and medicines were sent to the soldiers of the Allies specially to the American soldiers.

flagicon|Poland Second Polish Republic (Until 1939)

*Ignacy Mościcki was president of Poland from 1926 until 1939. After the Invasion of Poland he was forced to resign and went into exile in Switzerland.

*Edward Rydz-Śmigły was Marshal of Poland and commander of the Polish armed forces during the invasion of Poland. After the invasion; Śmigły-Rydz took complete responsibility for Poland's military defeat. He later resigned and joined the resistance movement as a common underground soldier.

* Henryk Sucharski was a major in the Polish Army. At the outbreak of World War II, he was the commander of the Westerplatte position. Troops under his command defended Westerplatte for seven days against overwhelming odds. Sucharski survived the war and was posthumously promoted to the rank of General. Despite his efforts to improve the defences, he later tried to persuade his fellow officers to surrender and suffered a nervous breakdown which required his deputy to assume command.

* Stanisław Sosabowski

Polish Secret State

* Władysław Raczkiewicz

*Władysław Sikorski was Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile and commander of the Polish Armed Forces. A staunch advocate of the Polish cause on the diplomatic scene, he supported the reestablishment of diplomatic relations between Poland and the Soviet Union, which had been severed after the Soviet alliance with Germany. In July 1943, Sikorski was killed when his plane crashed into the sea 16 seconds after takeoff from Gibraltar.

*Jan Zumbach was the Squadron Leader of the No. 303 Polish Fighter Squadron from 1942 until 1943. Zumbach never fought during the Invasion of Poland but fought during the Battle of Britain. Zumbach was awarded the Cross of Valor for his service during the war.

*Władysław Anders was a Polish General and commander of the II Corps during the war. When Germany invaded Poland, Andres fled east and was captured by the Red Army. After the Nazi invasion of the USSR, he was released and placed in commanded of the Polish Armed Forces in the East until 1942.

* Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski

flagicon|Soviet Union|1923 Soviet Union

*Joseph Stalin was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during World War II. It was during Stalin's reign that the USSR emerged as a superpower that rivaled the United States. As the supreme commander of the RKKA, Stalin has led the RKKA to liberate the Soviet Union from Nazi occupation. After the war Stalin put communist leaders in power in Eastern Europe triggering the Cold WarFact|date=March 2008.

*Vyacheslav Molotov was Foreign Minister of the Soviet Union from 1939-1949. He was responsible for the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact which governed Soviet-German relations until June 1941 when Hitler attacked the Soviet Union. Molotov conducted urgent negotiations with Britain and, later, the United States for wartime alliances. He secured Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill's agreement to create a "second front" in Europe.

*Georgy Zhukov was a Soviet Field Marshal who led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from Nazi occupationFact|date=March 2008. He would lead the Soviets to overrun much of Eastern Europe, and to the capture of Berlin. After the war Zhukov was the supreme Military Commander of the Soviet Occupation Zone in Germany.

*Mikhail Kalinin was Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR during the war, and thus held one of the highest political offices in the Soviet Union.

*Vasily Chuikov commanded the 64th Army and later the 62nd Army, which defended Stalingrad during the crucial Battle of Stalingrad.

*Leonid Govorov became Soviet commander in Leningrad in 1942, and commanded Leningrad's forces in Operation Spark. In 1944, he was promoted to Marshal of the Soviet Union.

*Ivan Konev was commander of the 19th Army during the early days of the Nazi invasion. He would led the Red Army on the Eastern Front and liberated much of Eastern Europe. He helped in the capture of Berlin.

*Kirill Meretskov

*Hovhannes Bagramyan

*Konstantin Rokossovsky

*Boris Shaposhnikov

*Semyon Timoshenko

*Fyodor Tolbukhin

*Aleksandr Vasilevsky

*Matvei Zakharov

flagicon|Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia

* Ibn Saud was the king of Saudi Arabia from 1932 until 1953. Ibn Saud positioned Saudi Arabia as neutral during the war until 1945. However he was generally in favor of the Allies and supplied the Allied forces with oil. [A Country Study: Saudi Arabia. Library of Congress Call Number DS204 .S3115 1993. Chapter 5. World War II and Its Aftermath]

flagicon|US|1912 United States

*Franklin D. Roosevelt was the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. Roosevelt had come into power during the Great Depression on a promise to heal the country. Prior to the Pearl Harbor, he attempted to aid the Allies without declaring war. He died in office two weeks before the surrender of Germany.

*Harry S. Truman was the 33rd president of the United States from 1945 until 1953. Truman took office after the death of Roosevelt. President Truman ordered the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. After the war he oversaw postwar recovery efforts.

*George Marshall was General of the Army and the Chief of Staff during the war. As Chief of Staff, Marshall oversaw the largest military expansion in American history. Marshall coordinated Allied operations in Europe and the Pacific. After the war Marshall became Secretary of State and led the post-war reconstruction effort in Europe, which became known as the Marshall Plan. For his role in the recovery he received the Nobel Peace Prize.

* Cordell Hull was Secretary of State from 1933 till 1944. Hull was responsible for foreign relations before the attack on Pearl Harbor. He sent the Hull note to Japan prior to the attack, which was part of the United States attempt to open Chinese markets to U.S. goods against Japanese interests there. After the war he was the key architect for establishing the United Nations and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

* William Joseph Donovan was the director of the Office of Strategic Services from 1942 until it was disbanded in 1945. Donovan and the OSS was responsible for collecting intelligence by the Army, Navy, and State Department. For his actions he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal.

* J. Edgar Hoover was the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation from 1935 until 1972. Hoover and the FBI were responsible for the intelligence in the United States and South America during the war. Hoover had success in shutting down of a Nazi Spy Network in the United States.

* Fiorello H. LaGuardia was the mayor of New York City from 1935 until 1945 and the director of the Office of Civilian Defense (OCD) in 1941. LaGuardia was an outspoken opponent of Nazi Germany and Fascism. In 1941 he was appointed as the director of the OCD. He was responsible for preparing the protection of the civilian population in case America was attacked. LaGuardia had remained Mayor of New York during this appointment. After the war he became the director of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration.

European Front

*Dwight D. Eisenhower nicknamed "Ike", was the Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe. He was responsible for planning and supervising the liberation of France and Europe with the invasion of Nazi Germany. Following the German unconditional surrender, Eisenhower was appointed Military Governor of the U.S. Occupation Zone. After the war he was elected as president of the United States.

*Omar Bradley was General of the Army in North Africa and Europe during World War II. He led the First United States Army during Operation Overlord and the invasion of Europe. He was informally known as "the soldier's general."

*George S. Patton was one of the United States' leading generals during the campaigns in North Africa, Sicily, France and Germany. He was known as "Old Blood and Guts".

*Andrew R. TeDuits was the most important general on the European Front. His decisive decision making skills caught the Italian forces off-guard on many occasions leading to many victories. These many victories were a major reason why the allies were able to take Italy so effectively. Also, he was the first general to enter Berlin on V-E day.

Pacific Front

*Douglas MacArthur was Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in the South West Pacific Area, 1942-45. He was commander of US and Filipino forces in the Philippines, before relocating to Australia. He accepted the surrender of Japan on September 2, 1945 and then became Supreme Commander Allied Powers.

*Chester W. Nimitz was Admiral of the United States Pacific Fleet in 1941-42 and became supreme commander of Allied forces in the Pacific Ocean Area, 1942-45.

*William D. Leahy, former US ambassador in Vichy France, was effectively chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1942 to 1949. In 1944, he became the first US Fleet Admiral. He also appeared at the Yalta Conference. Leahy criticized the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

*Ernest King was Commander in Chief of the United States Fleet (1941-45) as well as Chief of Naval Operations (1942-45) and Fleet Admiral (from 1944).

*William Halsey, Jr. commanded the Third Fleet, formed in 1943, and appeared in the Guadalcanal campaign and the Battle of Leyte Gulf.

*Raymond A. Spruance commanded United States Navy forces at both the Battle of Midway and the Battle of the Philippine Sea.

flagicon|Philippines|1919 Commonwealth of the Philippines

* Manuel Quezon was the first Filipino president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines under U.S. rule in the early period of the 20th century. After the Japanese invasion, he was evacuated to Washington D.C. where he died of tuberculosis in 1944.

* Sergio Osmena was the second Filipino president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. As Vice President, he ascended to the presidency after Quezon's death in 1944. He returned to the Philippines the same year with General Douglas MacArthur and the liberation forces.

* Vicente Lim commanded the Philippine Army during the early days of the war. Lim was given the rank of Brigadier General and became the top ranking Filipino under General MacArthur. He was placed in command of the 41st Philippine Division, tasked with the defense of Bataan. After the fall of the Philippines, he led resistance against Japanese occupation.

flagicon|Puerto Rico Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

* Mihiel Gilormini was a Brigadier General in the Air Force. Prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor, Gilormini served in the Royal Air Force from 1941 till 1942. He joined the United States Army Air Force with the rank of second lieutenant. After the war he continued to serve in the Army Air Force until he was named base commander to the 198th Tactical Fighter Squadron in Puerto Rico.

*Horacio Rivero, Jr. was an Admiral who served aboard the USS|San Juan|CL-54|6 and was involved in providing artillery cover for Marines landing on Guadalcanal, the Marshall Islands, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa. For his service he was awarded the Bronze Star Medal with Combat "V." [*cite web|url=
title=Damn the Torpedoes! Former VCNO excelled in combat, technical roles
author=Robert F. Dorr
work=Navy Times
date=January 26 2004

*Pedro Augusto del Valle, was a highly decorated Marine Lieutenant General who played a key role in the Guadalcanal Campaign and the Battle of Guam and became the Commanding General of the First Marine Division. Del Valle played an instrumental role in the defeat of the Japanese forces in Okinawa and was in charge of the reorganization of Okinawa. [ [ Puerto Rico Archives] ] Sontag, "Blind Man's Bluff". ] [cite web |url= |title=Lieutenant General Pedro A. Del Valle, USMC |accessmonthday=October 10 |accessyear=2006 |author= |date= |year= |month= |format= |work=History Division |publisher=United States Marine Corps |pages= |language=]

* Juan Cesar Cordero Davila, was a Birgadier General who in World War II commanded the 65th Infantry Regiment (United States), a Puerto Rican unit, in Europe.

flagicon|Kingdom of Yugoslavia Kingdom of Yugoslavia

* Peter II was the last King of Yugoslavia reigning from 1934 till 1945. An opponent of Nazi Germany, he participated in a British-supported coup d'état opposing the pro-fascist Prince Paul. Peter was forced to leave the country following the Axis invasion. In 1944, he signed the Treaty of Vis which was an agreement to share power with Josip Broz Tito. But, after the war, Peter was deposed by the communist government.

* Josip Broz Tito was a leader of Yugoslavian partisan's resistance movement, which was largest in Europe. Communist by political orientation, Tito was nevertheless able to gather nation-wide support for anti-fascist cause, and to persuade Allies' governments that only his forces were mounting credible resistance to Axes and their leaders in Yugoslavia. By the end of war, occupied Yugoslavia draw attention of no less than 20 German divisions alone, prompting several major operations 1942-1944, which were futile. Finally, with help from advancing Soviet forces, partizans liberated Yugoslavia, reaching at the final days of operations a respectable size of 800,000 soldiers.

* Draža Mihajlović was the leader of the Chetnik guerilla that initially was designated by an exiled government to fought against the Germans, but subsequently cooperated with Germans, Italians and other occupying forces against communist movement in Yugoslavia. Chetnicks were later held accountable over a large number of atrocities committed over civilians in Yugoslavia, but nevertheless Mihailović was decorated with highest war medals by France and the USA (Legion of Merit). After the war, he was executed by the newly formed communist government of Josip Broz Tito in 1945 for high treason, war crimes and crimes against humanity. In 2004, Chetniks were rehabilitated by democratic National Assembly of Serbia.

* Slobodan Jovanović was the Prime Minister of the Yugoslav government in exile during World War II from January 11, 1942, to June 26, 1943.

* Ivan Šubašić was the Prime Minister of the Yugoslav government in exile when the Treaty of Vis (or Tito-Šubašić Agreement) was signed on June 14, 1944.

flagicon|Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak Republic

*Edvard Beneš was President of Czechoslovakia and later head of the Czechoslovak Government-in-Exile.

*Ludvík Svoboda led Czechoslovak military units on Eastern front against Germany.

flagicon|Luxembourg Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

*Grand Duchess Charlotte was head of state of Luxembourg.
*Pierre Dupong was Prime Minister of Luxembourg and later led the government in exile after the country was occupied.

flagicon|Norway Kingdom of Norway

*Haakon VII of Norway was King of Norway and the formal head of state from 1905 to his death in 1957. Following the German invasion of Norway in 1940, Haakon refused to meet the demands of the attackers, and went into exile in London, where he stayed for the rest of the war.

*Johan Nygaardsvold was Prime Minister during the war. His government agreed with the King not to meet the German demands, and went into exile in London. Nygaardsvold resigned shortly after the war.

*Otto Ruge was Chief of Defence of Norway from May to June 1940, leading the Norwegian forces in the Norwegian Campaign. After the Germans had conquered Norway, Ruge was arrested and sent to Germany. He resumed his position for a short time after the war.

*Max Manus

flagicon|Netherlands Kingdom of the Netherlands

*Wilhelmina of the Netherlands was the ruling Queen of the Netherlands. She led the Dutch government in exile after escaping to Britain.

*Dirk Jan de Geer was the Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1939 until 1940. When Nazi Germany invaded the Netherlands he fled to London. As he wanted to make peace with Nazi Germany, he was forced to resign.

*Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy was Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1940 until 1945. After the Fall of France and Dirk Jan de Geer's resignation, Gerbrandy was appointed the office of Prime Minister by Queen Wilhelmina in London. After the liberation, he returned to form a new cabinet but ended up resigning.

*Henri Winkelman was commander of the Dutch Army during the Battle of the Netherlands. Winkelman was responsible for defending the Netherlands the Nazi invasion. He was captured and interned for the rest of the war.

*Jan Joseph Godfried was second in command of the Dutch Army during the Battle of the Netherlands.

*Conrad Helfrich was Vice-Admiral of the Royal Netherlands Navy during the Netherlands East Indies campaign. At the outbreak of the war in the Pacific Helfrich assumed command of all Dutch naval units in the Dutch East Indies. On September 2, 1945, he signed the Japanese Instrument of Surrender aboard the battleship USS|Missouri|BB-63|6 on behalf of the Dutch government.

flagicon|Egypt|1922 Kingdom of Egypt

*Farouk of Egypt
*Ahmad Mahir Pasha

flagicon|Ethiopia|1897 Empire of Ethiopia

*Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia
*Makonnen Endelkachew

flagicon|Iran|1925 Empire of Iran

*Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
*Ali Soheili
*Ahmad Qavam

flagicon|Liberia Republic of Liberia

*Edwin Barclay was the President of Liberia from 1930 until 1944.

*William Tubman was the President of Liberia from 1944 until 1971.

flagicon|Vietnam Vietnam

*Ho Chi Minh was a rebel leader of the Viet Minh who fought against the Japanese occupation. Eventually at the end of WWII, he would declare war on French for independence and later declare war on democratically supported South Vietnam.


ee also

* Allies of World War II
* Axis Leaders of World War II
* Commanders of World War II

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