Siege of Sevastopol (1941–1942)

Siege of Sevastopol (1941–1942)
Siege of Sevastopol (1941–1942)
Part of the Eastern Front of World War II
Eastern Front 1941-12 to 1942-05.png
The Eastern Front at the time of the siege of Sevastopol. (click to enlarge)
Date 30 October 1941 – 4 July 1942
Location 44°36′17″N 33°32′28″E / 44.60472°N 33.54111°E / 44.60472; 33.54111 (Battle of Sevastopol)Coordinates: 44°36′17″N 33°32′28″E / 44.60472°N 33.54111°E / 44.60472; 33.54111 (Battle of Sevastopol)
Crimean Peninsula
Result Axis victory
 Soviet Union
Commanders and leaders
Nazi Germany Erich von Manstein
Flag of Romania.svg Gheorghe Avramescu
Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) Francesco Mimbelli
Soviet Union Ivan Yefimovich Petrov
Soviet Union Filipp Oktyabrskiy
Soviet Union Gordey Levchenko
~ 60,000 men 118,000 men
Casualties and losses
German casualties: 27,000
at least 4,264 killed
21,626 wounded
1,522 missing
Romanian casualties: 8,454
1,597 killed
6,571 wounded
277 missing
Total Axis losses: 35,866[2]
95,000 captured (two-thirds wounded)
5,000 wounded
at least 18,000 killed[2]

The Siege of Sevastopol took place on the Eastern Front of the Second World War. The campaign was fought by the Axis powers of Germany, Romania and Italy against the Soviet Union for control of Sevastopol, a port in Crimea on the Black Sea. On 22 June 1941 the Axis invaded the Soviet Union under Operation Barbarossa. The Axis land forces reached Crimea in the autumn, 1941, and overran the area. The only objective not in Axis hands was Sevastopol. Several attempts were made to secure the city in October and November 1941. A major attack was planned for late November, but bad weather and heavy rains delayed the Axis attack until 17 December 1941. Under the command of Erich von Manstein, the Axis forces were unable to capture Sevastopol. The Soviets launched an amphibious landing on the Crimean peninsula at Kerch in December 1941, to relieve the siege and force the Axis to divert forces to defend their gains. The operation saved Sevastopol for the time being, but the landing was checked and repulsed in May 1942.

At Sevastopol the Axis opted to conduct a siege until the summer, 1942, at which point they attacked the encircled Soviet forces by land, sea and air. On 2 June 1942, the Axis began their operation, codenamed Störfang (Sturgeon Catch). The Soviet Red Army and Black Sea Fleet held out for weeks under intense Axis bombardment. The German Air Force (Luftwaffe) played a vital part in the siege. The Luftwaffe made up for a shortage of Axis artillery, providing highly effective aerial bombardment in support of the ground forces. Finally, on the 4 July 1942, the remaining Soviet forces surrendered and the Axis seized the port. Both sides had suffered considerable losses during the siege.

With the Soviet forces neutralised, the Axis refocused their attention on the major summer campaign of that year, Operation Blue and the advance to the Caucasus oil fields.



The Soviet naval base at Sevastopol was one of the strongest fortifications in the world. Its site, on a deeply eroded, bare limestone promontory at the South-Western tip of Crimea made an approach by land forces exceedingly difficult. The high-level cliffs at Severnaya Bay protected the anchorage, making an amphibious landing just as dangerous. The Soviet Navy had built upon these natural defences by modernising the port and installing heavy coastal and artillery defences which could fire inland and out to sea. The artillery was protected by strong concrete and armoured turrets. The port was a valuable target. Its importance as a potential naval and air base would enable the Axis to conduct far ranging sea and air operations against Soviet targets into and over the Caucasus ports and mountains.[3] The Red Air Force had been using the Crimea as a base to attack targets in Romania since the Axis invasion in June 1941, proving its use as an air base.[4]

Since the beginning of Barbarossa, the planned offensive in the east had not really addressed Crimea as an objective. German planners assumed the area would be captured in mop-up operations once the bulk of the Red Army was destroyed west of the Dnieper river. But in June attacks by Soviet aircraft from Crimea against Romania's oil refineries destroyed 11,000 tons of oil. Hitler described the area as a "floating aircraft carrier" and ordered the conquest of Ukraine and Crimea as vital targets in the Directive 33, dated 23 July 1941.[5]

The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) issued orders that Crimea was to be taken as soon as possible to prevent attacks on Romanian oil supplies, which fed the German military. Hitler, impatient with his commands advance in the south, repeated his desire that Crimea be taken immediately on 12 August. Over a month later, during the capture of Kiev, Generaloberst Erich von Manstein was given command of the German 11th Army on 17 September. After only a week in command, he launched an assault upon Crimea. After severe fighting, von Manstein defeated several Soviet counter-offensives and destroyed two Soviet armies. By 16 November, von Manstein had cleared the region, capturing its capital Simferopol, on 1 November. The fall of Kerch on 16 November left only Sevastopol in Soviet hands.[6]

Fortunately for the Soviets, by the end of October 1941, Major-General Ivan Yefimovich Petrov's Independent Coastal Army, numbering 32,000 men, had arrived in Sevastopol by sea from Odessa, further west, having been routed in heavy fighting. Petrov set about fortifying the inland approaches to Crimea. He aimed to halt the Axis drive on the port by creating three defence lines inland, the outermost arc being 16 km (10 mi) from the port itself. Soviet forces, including the Soviet 51st Army and elements of the Black Sea Fleet, were defeated in Crimea in October and were evacuated in December leaving Petrov's force as Sevastopol's main defence force. Having cleared Crimea from 26 September–16 November, the Romanian 3rd Army and German 11th Army prepared for an attack on the port. The German 11 Army was the weakest on the entire front, containing only seven divisions initially. The Romanians made up the numbers, but were poorly trained, led and only lightly equipped. The weather turned against the Axis in mid-October and torrential downpours delayed the build up. This gave time for Vice Admiral Filipp Oktyabrsky, commander of the Black Sea Fleet, to bring in men and ammunition from Novorossisk. By the 17 December the weather had cleared sufficiently to begin a major operation.[7]

Forces involved


The German 11th Army, commanded by Erich von Manstein, besieged Sevastopol. At the time of the final assault in June 1942 the army consisted of nine German infantry divisions in two Corps, and one Romanian Corps. Support was offered by the Luftwaffe. The Oberkommando der Luftwaffe dispatched Luftflotte 4's (Air Fleet 4) VIII. Fliegerkorps (8th Air Corps) for support. It consisted of nine Geschwader (Wings) and 600 aircraft, all coming under the command of Generaloberst (General Colonel) Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen. Among this contingent was a powerful concentration of medium bomber, dive bomber, and torpedo bomber Geschwader.[8] Naval support came from the Italian 101st Squadron under Francesco Mimbelli. It consisted of four motor torpedo boats, five explosive motorboats, six CB class midget submarine, and a number of 35-ton mini submarines and MAS boats. This force was the only Axis naval force deployed during the siege.[9] Although Bulgaria was not technically at war with the Soviet Union, its naval staff worked closely with the Germans, and despite not being committed to combat, they provided bases for the Axis naval command (Admiral Schwarzes Meer, Admiral of the Black Sea) to operate in the Black Sea waters.[10]

The Axis order of battle:

  • German 11th Army
    • 306th HARKO
      • Elements 672nd Artillery Battalion
      • 833rd Heavy Mortar Battery
      • 688th Railroad Artillery Battery
      • 458th Heavy Artillery Battery
      • 459th Heavy Artillery Battery
      • 741st Artillery Battalion
      • 742nd Artillery Battalion
      • 743rd Artillery Battalion
      • 744th Artillery Battalion
    • German LIVth Corps[11]
      • 22nd Infantry Division
      • 24th Infantry Division
      • 50th Infantry Division
      • 132nd Infantry Division
    • German XXX Corps[11]
  • Regia Marina[12]
    • 101st Naval Squadron


The defence of Sevastopol was provided mainly by the Black Sea Fleet and the Separate Coastal Army under Ivan Yefimovich Petrov (which had been shipped in from Siege of Odessa). The Black Sea Fleet sent 49,372 personnel to fight as infantry. Most were not trained for ground combat and the act was an ad hoc emergency measure. The naval Brigades formed had four to six battalions of 4,000 men, allowing them to absorb significant losses. These forces were well armed, having a variety of artillery and mortar battalions. Almost 20 percent of the Coastal Army were naval personnel. In the Red Army units, the strongest Divisions were the 95th, 109th, 172nd and 388th Rifle Divisions. They had around 7,000 soldiers each, the rest of the Red Army units having around 5,000 personnel. Some 5,000 reinforcements made it into Sevastopol in May 1942. However, Petrov's army lacked tanks and anti-aircraft guns. The garrison also lacked food supplies and mortar ammunition, which would severely sap Soviet strength. Poor communications between Headquarters and the front line were also an issue. Petrov found it difficult to respond to Axis attacks quickly.[13]

Red Army:[14]

  • Coastal Batteries
    • 12 battalions
    • 3 batteries
  • Defence Sector I
    • 109th Rifle Division
    • 388th Rifle Division
  • Defence Sector II
    • 386th Rifle Division
    • 7th Naval Infantry Brigade
  • Defence Sector III
    • 25th Rifle Division
    • 345th Rifle Division
    • 8th Naval Infantry Brigade
    • 79th Naval Infantry Brigade
  • Defence Sector IV
    • 95th Rifle Division
    • 172nd Rifle Division

Red Air Force and Soviet Naval Aviation:[15]

  • 3rd Special Aviation Group
  • 6th Guards Naval Fighter Regiment
  • 9th Naval Fighter Regiment
  • 247th Fighter Regiment
  • 18th Ground Attack Regiment
  • 23rd Aviation Regiment
  • 32nd Guards Fighter Regiment
  • 116th Maritime Reconnaissance Regiment

Soviet Black Sea Fleet:[15]

  • Two heavy cruisers
  • One Light Cruiser
  • Two Flotilla Leaders
  • Six Destroyers
  • Nine Minesweepers
  • One Guardship
  • 24 Submarines

First Axis offensive

The German 11th Army's first task was to breakthrough into Crimea. The cities of Perekop and Ishun guarded the narrow corridor of land which linked Crimea to the bulk of Ukraine. Erick-Oskar Hansen's LIV Corps and its 45th and 73rd Infantry Divisions broke through at Perekop at the cost of 2,641 casualties in six days of fighting. The Soviets launched a counter-offensive against the 11th Army's flank at Melitopol. Von Manstein withdrew his other Corps in order to deal with it. The resulting battle ended with the destruction of two attacking Soviet armies. By the time the threat had been dealt with, the Stavka had rushed in reinforcements and established another defence line at Ishun. Ordered to concentrate on Crimea once more, von Manstein launched his LIV Corps, this time with the support of the German 22nd Infantry Division, into the assault. The Soviets enjoyed local air superiority and armoured reserves. They also outnumbered the attacking Germans. The defending Soviet 51st Army was pushed back, in spite of this. In 12 days the Germans had suffered 5,376 causalties and the Soviets much more. By the end of October, the 51st Army was broken and was in full retreat into Crimea. The situation in the air also changed. Arriving Jagdgeschwader (Fighter Wings) won back air superiority.[16]

On 22 and 23 October, Jagdgeschwader 3 (JG 3), JG 52 and JG 77 crippled Soviet air strength in Crimea. Over the two days they destroyed 33 Soviet aircraft for one loss. In the six days from 18 to 24 October, 140 Soviet aircraft were lost, 124 of them to Luftwaffe fighters. Heinkel He 111s of KG 26 and KG 51 and Junkers Ju 87 Stukas of StG 77 were free to attack Soviet ground positions contributing to the collpase of the Soviet Crimean front on 27 October.[17]

Sevastopol offensive

Initial battles

Chervona Ukraina. She was sunk by Ju 87s of StG 77 on 12 November.

With the front collapsed and the Axis closing in on Sevastopol, Vice-Admiral Oktyabrsky assumed command of the port on 4 November 1941. The city had a population of 111,000 in 1941, and most were sent to work on the three defence lines around the port. Only the 7th and 8th Naval Infantry Brigades were available for combat in the port. More naval infantry were formed from naval ships in the harbour. The 8th Brigade was sent to guard the north eastern approach near the Mamachai-Belbek line. The 7th (5,200 men) was deployed in the centre, near Mekenzyya. With only 20,000 soldiers, Oktyabrsky relied heavily on 12 coastal batteries to slow down the Axis. The 62nd Fighter Brigade contributed 61 fighters which were able to achieve temporary air superiority.

On 30 October, the Soviet defences detected the spearhead of the German 132nd Infantry Division and shelled it at 12:30 on 1 November using Battery 30's 305mm coastal guns. This fort would later become known to the Germans as Fort Maxim Gorky I. Von Manstein lacked the air support, mobile and tank forces to force a decision. Instead, Manstein ordered Hansen's LIV Corps to head east down the Sevastopol-Simferopol rail line and towards Yalta, while the German 72nd Division was to head to Balaklava effectively encircling Sevastopol. Once there, it would attack Sevastopol from the east. The 132nd made reasonable progress, but was stopped on 2 November by the 8th Naval Brigade. The Germans suffered 428 casualties. Manstein ordered a halt for a week, whilst bringing up reserves. Oktyabrsky used his fleet to bring in a further 23,000 men from the Caucacus. On 9 November, Petrov's Army was brought in, bringing 19,894 soldiers, ten T-26 tanks, 152 artillery pieces and 200 mortars. The Soviets had 52,000 troops in the city. The Luftwaffe was considered weak (the bulk of it was engaged in the Battle of Moscow), so the Navy retained the heavy cruiser Krasny Kavkaz, light cruiser Krasny Krym and Chervona Ukrania and seven destroyers to protect the port.[18]

The Luftwaffe did what it could to disrupt Soviet defences. On 31 October the destroyer Bodryy shelled German positions along the coastline. StG 77 Ju 87s attacked and wounded 50 of its crew through machine gun fire. On 2 November Junkers Ju 88s of KG 51 scored several hits on the cruiser Voroshilov, and put it out of action for months. On 7 November He 111s from KG 26 sank the liner Armeniya evacuating soldiers and civilians from Sevastopol. Only eight of the 5,000 passengers survived. On 12 November StG 77 sank the cruiser Chervona Ukrania and KG 26 damaged the destroyers Sovershennyy and Besposhchadnyy. But with the Luftwaffe units being dispatched to other sectors and theatres, the Soviets again achieved air superiority with 59 aircraft (39 serviceable).[19]

Manstein wanted to launch an attack as soon as possible, but his logistical lines were poor. Wanting to avoid strong Soviet forces protecting the north of the port, containing the 95th Rifle Division, Manstein chose to press the centre and southern Soviet defences. Instead he ordered the German 50th Infantry Division to probe the centre of the Soviet line east of the Chernaya river. The 132nd Division supported the probe and was able to push to within 4 kilometres of Severnaya Bay. The Soviets moved in the 172nd Rifle Division to stop the attack. With the support of the Coastal batteries, the attack was stopped. The German 72nd Division continued towards Balaklava. The German 22nd Infantry Division joined the assault. Assisted by the shelling of two light cruisers and the battleship Parizhskaya Kommuna, the Soviets halted the attack and Manstein called the offensive off on 21 November having lost 2,000 men.[20]

December offensive

Manstein recognised he could not take the port quickly, and was going to have to organise a proper set-piece offensive. With German offensive operations suspended in December, Manstein found himself the only commander on the Eastern Front with an offensive mission. He would not be ready to carry out his attack until the 17 December. In the meantime, Oktyabrsky used the interval to sail in 11,000 soldiers of the 388th Rifle Division into Sevastopol over the 7–13 December. Soviet engineers began laying extensive minefields and barbed wire belts. By the time of the Axis attack Petrov’s force held a fairly strong defensive position. Naval Commanders demanded that Petrov hold the coast along the northern flank of Sevastopol on the Belbek River in order to retain Coastal Battery 10, a complex near Mamaschai. The German situation was somewhat worse. LIV Corps had only 15,551 men in its four tired infantry divisions (22nd, 24th, 50th and 132nd). Over 7,000 soldiers in the German 11th Army were on the sick list at that time. It was also short of artillery ammunition and heavy artillery. In order to commit as many forces to the battle as possible, Manstein left the very weak XLII Corps, containing just the 46th Infantry Division and two Romanian brigades to protect the entire front form Yalta to Kerch.[21]

The attack began at 06:10 on 17 December. The German 22nd attacked the 8th Naval Brigade on the Belbek River, pushing west towards the coast while the German 50th and 132nd Divisions conducted fixing attacks on the Soviet centre. The 22nd succeeded in rolling up the flank of the Naval Brigade after five days of fighting. However, Oktyabrsky ordered its retirement south towards Sevastopol, abandoning Mamaschai and forming a new front north of Belbek city and Belbek river. In the South German XXX Corps tried and failed to breakthrough with its 72nd and 170th Infantry Divisions. Only minor gains were made against the Soviet 172nd Division, even with help from the Romanian 1st Mountain Brigade. The Soviets brought in the 79th Naval Brigade and 345th Rifle Division as reinforcements by sea, using the long winter nights and their naval supremacy. Meanwhile the battleship Parizhskaya Kommuna shelled German forces whenever they threatened a breakthrough. The offensive came to an abrupt end, when the Red Army began an amphibious landing at Kerch.[22]

Kerch Campaign

On 26 and 30 December 1941 the Soviet launched an amphibious assault on the Kerch peninsula to relieve the encircled Soviet forces at Sevastopol. It succeeded in gaining and sustaining the landing for five months. However, a German counter offensive, Operation Trappenjagd (Bustard Hunt), destroyed the bridgehead and the three Soviet armies supporting the landing in May 1942. This allowed von Manstein to concentrate all his resources against Sevastopol for the first time. The front over Sevastopol grew quiet and a stalemate ensued. The Luftwaffe kept up the pressure on Soviet sea communications and although supplies still made it through, Vice Admiral Oktyabrskiy, commanding the Black Sea Fleet, was forced to reduce the number of coastal bombardment missions.[23]

Second Axis offensive

Unternehmen Störfang

Soviet defence

Sevastopol was still a formidable obstacle. Its airfields provided a base for the Red Air Force to attack the Axis-held Soviet coastline and Romania proper. It also was home to the Black Sea Fleet. Its main fortifications were pointed seaward, while the land defences encircled the city at a distance of 15–20 km and the inner belt at a range of 5 km. Among the man-made defences was the forested, rocky and rugged terrain. To the north of Severnaya Bay there were 11 strongpoints. They were given morale boosting names, such as Stalin, Maxim Gorky I, Molotov and Lenin. It was to be defended by the First Coastal Army.[24] Elsewhere the Soviets had constructed hundreds of timber bunkers with machine gun nests and 45 mm anti-tank artillery. Along the outer belt, concrete bunkers were less common, 19 being stretched across the 37 km along the outer belt. Soviet engineers laid thousands of mines, including PMD-6 wooden anti-personnel mines TMD 40 wooden anti-tank mines and barb-wire obstacle belts.[25]

Petrov, commanding the Independent Coastal Army, had a powerful artillery pool. Petrov had on strength some 455 artillery pieces and howitzers. Among those were 34 152 mm and 40 122 mm Howitzers and 918 mortars. Ammunition was adequate for a battle of two weeks for these calibres, but 82 mm mortar ammunition was in short supply. The battles of the Crimean campaign had taken their toll, and scarce tank and anti-aircraft artillery support was available. A further force, under Major-General Petr Morgunov was added. The Coastal Artillery Force was a semi-independent for much of the siege and had an initial strength on 12 batteries and 45 guns, though more were added during 1942. By the time of the German June offensive, the Soviets had available eight 305 mm, one 188 mm, 10 152 mm and 17 130 mm, three 120 mm, eight 100 mm and four 45 mm guns.[25]

Axis forces

Italian Motoscafo Armato Silurante (MAS) boats.

The Axis were facing a manpower and artillery shortage. The German 11th Army's divisions had anywhere between 35 and 75 percent of their strength. The German 22nd Infantry Division was the strongest division, which was only short of 1,750 personnel while the weakest was the 132nd Infantry Division, which was short of 2,300 men. The 170th Infantry Division had to collapse one of its regiments to bring the others up to strength. The German infantry force was a fragile force at Sevastopol and von Manstein could not afford to squander it. German doctrine stressed bypassing strongpoints, but since this was not possible, German infantry were forced to reduce one fort after another. Some 65 Sturmgeschütz III assault guns were available to support them.[26]

The infantry were passed around a battalion strength; infantry assault groups supported by a platoon of engineers and a few assault guns. Two pioneer battalions were attached to each division to spearhead the attack and breakthrough fixed and fortified defences. The eight battalions in LIV Corps contained around 386 men on average and was equipped with 10–12 flame throwers, 28–30 mine detectors, 3,000 kg of high explosives, 2,200 hand grenades, and 500 smoke grenades. The 300th Panzer Battalion, a remote-controlled tank unit using the Goliath tracked mine, was made available for breaking open fortifications.[26] The total number artillery pieces came to 785 German and 112 Romanian medium and heavy guns. Most of these were under the command of LIV Corps, the main assault force. To increase this arsenal, the 600mm and 800mm railway guns were made available. Two 600 mm guns (Thor and Odin) and one 800 mm (Dora) were capable of delivering a 2.4 ton shell and destroying any fortification. However, they had a range of only 4,000 metres which made it vulnerable to counter-battery fire. Moreover, only 122 rounds of 600 mm and 48 round of 800 mm ammunition was available. Most of it was used up before the infantry assault.[27]

He 111H on a torpedo training exercise, 10 October 1941. KG 26 gave the Luftwaffe some hitting power against the Black Sea Fleet.

More useful to the German infantry were the two 280 mm rail guns. Two 420 mm, two 355 mm howitzers were available with four 305 mortars. Both of the 420 mm guns were First World War vintage, short in range with limited ammunition. Some nine 283 mm mortars were also available, but they were pre-1914 weapons and six had burst due to firing. Some Czech-built artillery was available. At divisional level, 268 105 mm and 80 160 mm weapons were in service including 126 Nebelwerfer rocket launchers. Overall the German 11th Army's artillery was a collection of modern, obsolete and foreign-built weapons.[28] For the offensive 183,750 rounds of 105 mm and 47,300 rounds of 150 mm ammunition was stockpiled, enough for 12 days firing.[29]

To reinforce the German army the Romanians were committed to assault. The Romanian 18th Infantry Division was at full strength and plenty of Romanian infantry were available but the 18th division was inexperienced and made up of reservists. The Romanian 1st Mountain Division was considered an elite force and its addition proved useful. They had 112 guns available, but virtually no engineers. The weakness of their artillery and supporting arms made the Romanian X Corps reliant on the Germans in anything other than set-piece attacks.[29]

The Luftwaffe had to compensate for the Axis limitations in artillery. A powerful air corps was assembled. Under Fliegerkorps VIII, von Richthofen assembled six Kampfgruppen (Bomber Groups) from six Kampfgeschwader (Bomber Wings); KG 51, KG 76, KG 100 and III./LG 1. Dive-bomber support from StG 77 was also handed over to Richthofen. He could call upon three gruppen of Ju 87s. Jagdgeschwader (Fighter Wings) JG 3 and JG 77 were available for air superiority operations. II./KG 26 was also available for anti-shipping operations, away from the air-land effort carried out by Fliegerkorps VIII.[8]

The Luftwaffe could not support the land assault and maintain pressure on Soviet sea communications alone. With only KG 26 engaged in anti-shipping operations against Soviet sea communications the OKW looked to the Kriegsmarine to supply Schnellboot (S-Boat) motor torpedo boats to help eliminate Soviet shipping supplying and evacuating the port. The time it took to dismantle and move the 92 ton boats to Romanian ports was going to be too long. In a rare appeal for help, the Germans turned to their Italian allies, aware of their expertise with motor torpedo boat operations. The Regia Marina sent the 101st Squadron which brought nine torpedo boats and nine mini-submarines under the highly competent Capitano di Fregata Francesco Mimbelli. The Italian boats were only 24 tons and the submarines, 35 tons which made them easier to transport by truck and barge. The Squadron were based at Feodosiya and Yalta, which made it the only Axis naval force to participate in the siege.[30]


Air offensive

Von Manstein demanded an all-out assault by the Luftwaffe before the main ground actions began. Situated only 70 km from Sevasatopol, the German formations had barely enough time to reach their altitude before reaching their targets. Fliegerkorps VIII began its bombing campaign along the north and south east of the city. At the same time, German medium bombers conducted rolling attacks on the city, which included all units bar LG 1 which suppressed anti-aircraft installations. Oil, electricity, water pumps, harbour facilities and submarine bases were attacked by StG 77 Ju 87s. Von Richthofen watched the bombing from an observation post close to the front. The targets were badly damaged, and fires broke out all over the port city. The Luftwaffe flew 723 missions and dropped 525 tons of high explosive on the first day. Despite heavy anti-aircraft fire, just one Ju 87 was lost.[31]

While the bulk of the Luftwaffe was busy with the land battle, III./KG 26 sought to break Soviet sea communications. They sank the tanker Mikhail Gromov, but the flotilla leader Tashkent, the destroyer Bezuprechnyy and transport Abkhaziya escaped to bring in 2,785 soldiers into the fortress. The support continued with 643 sorties on 3 June, 585 on 4 June, and 555 on 5 June, with German crews flying daily averages of 18 missions. By the start of the ground attack on 7 June, the Luftwaffe had flown 3,069 sorties and 2,264 tons of explosives and 23,800 incendiary bombs were dropped. Many of the bombs dropped were 1,000 kg SC 1000, 1,400 kg SC 1400, and 2,500 kg SC 2500 bombs. The heavy calibre weapons were aimed at Soviet concrete bunkers. Ivan Laskin, commanding the 172nd Rifle Division in the northern sector recalled, "Bombers in groups of twenty to thirty attacked us without caring for their targets. They came in, wave after wave, and literally ploughed up the earth throughout our defence area".[32] From 3 June to 6 June, the Luftwaffe carried out 2,355 operations.[31]

On 7 June von Manstein ordered the ground assault. The Luftwaffe carried out 1,368 sorties and dropped 1,300 tons of bombs on Soviet positions, but Soviet infantry clung on.[32]

Ground fighting: 7–10 June

Satellite image of the Sevastopol area. Note the dense forest terrain situated on high ground and valleys to the east of the port.

LIV Corps was to strike the main blow. Situated on the north east edge of the city, they struck along the lines of least resistance, across the Belbek river while the German XXX and Romanian Mountain Corps conducted holding attacks in the south and centre respectively. Both the later Corps did not start major operations until the 8 June.

The artillery bombardment targeted bunkers with 105 mm fire; which usually received 10–25 rounds. German 36 and 37mm guns also did an effective job of eliminating machine gun nests. The Germans were also quick to bring up 88 mm artillery guns up to fire directly into bunker apertures. Between the 2 June and 6 June, the German 11th Army expended nine percent of is munitions (42,595 rounds amounting to 2,449 tons of munitions) on pre-advance shelling. The rail guns also fired a few rounds at the main fortifications and rail lines, but most missed by some distance. The closest shell landed 80 metres away from its target. Soviet ammunition dumps were also targeted by these weapons, with no effect. The main fortifications, forts Stalin, Molotov and Maxim Gorky which lay in the path of LIV Corps, remained active. It was not until the afternoon of the 6 June when one shell, from 'Thor' knocked out Maxim Gorky second turret, damaging the weapon. This was the only success of the German super-heavy guns which did not have impact commensurate with their expense. The Luftwaffe had a greater impact, using its Ju 87s to knock out the communications systems of the fort.

In the morning of 7 June 1942 the German infantry began advancing cautiously. XXX Corps attacked the southern positions held by the 7th Naval Brigade and 388th Rifle Division. The German infantry advanced behind air and artillery support. The infantry seemed afraid of their fire support and did not advance close enough behind it. The bombardment also failed to have enough of an effect. The Soviets held their fire until the Germans were in range before opening fire and little progress was made. Von Richthofen was angered by the fear of the infantry and called the day "a real disappointment".[33] The next few days were not much better despite the Luftwaffe flying 1,200 sorties. The pace of operations exhausted the machines and men. Often crews did not get out of their aircraft and made three of four sorties without rest.[34]

LIV Corps began its assault in the north on the seam of the Soviet defence sectors III and IV. The 'Dora' weapon continued to fire against ammunition dumps, which produced no effect. Nevertheless, the 132nd Infantry Division was able to work its way up to the river. 'Odin' and 'Thor' concentrated against the coastal batteries and Maxim Gorky fortress. Meanwhile the German 22nd Infantry Division attacked further to the east. Some 200 Soviet reinforcements of the 79th Naval Infantry Brigade, protecting the sector, was lost in the bombardment but the main defences held out. The brigade held most of its forces in reserve while committing only a single company to cover the hilly terrain on the Belbek river front. German assault groups breached the first and reserve lines by 08:15. The Germans had to negotiate heavily mined areas, slowing them down and allowing the Soviets to make a partial recovery.[35] Supporting operations by the 50th and 24th German Infantry Divisions failed, which cost the Germans 12 StuG assault guns. The remote-control demolition units were not effective as the terrain was unsuitable.[36]

By 17:15 the town of Belbek is secured. The German 22nd Infantry Division made considerable progress further to the breaking through the Soviet 25th Rifle Division. The German 50th Infantry Division supported the 22nds left flank. Now facing the Germans was the Haccius Ridge, on which the fortress Maxim Gorky was located. It was flanked by several smaller forts to the east.[37]

A burning Soviet position.

Now the 132nd was ordered to conduct a converging pincer move on the Maxim Gorky fortress in conjunction with the 22nd and 50th Infantry Divisions, to trap it against the coast. The 132nd pushed into the 95th Rifle Divisions positions north of the fort, while the other two divisions attacked in a flanking move. While the Germans did make progress, nearing the main railway station, just south east of Maxim Gorky, they were stopped from achieving a full-scale breakthrough by the Soviet 172nd Rifle Division. The 22nd and 50th German divisions had been heavily shelled by mortar fire from the 25th Rifle Division facing them east of the Haccius Ridge, which caused heavy casualties. By 18:00 hours, the German attack was spent.[38]

LIV Corps' losses on 7 June amounted to 2,357 casualties in four divisions, including 340 killed. It had also expended 3,939 tons of ammunition. The 132nd Division had exhausted all of its basic munition load by midday. On the other side, the formidable Soviet defence lines east and south east of Belbek had been overrun and the Germans succeeded in advancing 2 km through dense Soviet defences. The Soviet casualties had also been severe. It estimated that they lost three battalions effectively destroyed.[38]

Von Manstein recognised the seriousness of the failure on 8 June. He was worried that the 132nd Infantry Division, locked in combat with the 79th Naval Brigade, 95th and 172nd Rifle Divisions north of the city on the Belbek river front, was "approaching the end of its strength".[32] Once again the army turned to the Luftwaffe for support. Richthofen responded by ordering attacks against Soviet supply lines. The same day German bombers, including KG 100 began attacks on Soviet shipping. They sank the destroyer Sovershennyy and the survey vessel Gyuys with the 4,727 ton transport Abkhaziya and destroyer Svobodnyy following them on 10 June.[32]

The period 8–12 June descended into a battle of attrition. Several Soviet counter attacks were repulsed with heavy losses. The German LIV Corps extended the salient on the seam of the III and IV sector to 3 km, determined to breakthrough before Petrov reinforce his lines. The 132nd Infantry Division cleared the Haccius Ridge while the 22nd Infantry Division overran most of the Soviet 79th Naval Infantry Brigade. The Soviet unit tried counter attacking on 10 June, but was repulsed. The Soviet formation was effectively destroyed, with the support of the Luftwaffe which used anti-personnel bombs against Soviet infantry caught in the open. Only one battalion (the Soviet 1st Batt./241st Rifle Regiment) was in a position to block the Germans from encircling the Maxim Gorky fort. Still, on 8 June LIV Corps had lost 1,700 men. In return the lodgement in Soviet lines was extended to 3 km deep and 5 km wide.[39]

In the south, XXX Corps made no progress in four days of attacks. They suffered 496 casualties at the hands of the Soviet 109th Rifle Division. The German 28th Light and 72nd Divisions had succeeded in puncturing the Soviet lines opposite the 109th and 388th Rifle Divisions. The outer defences were broken in some parts, but the most were still in Soviet hands on 12 June. The main belt on Sapun Ridge (Sapun-gora) was unbroken. Soviet casualties amounted to 2,500 including 700 captured. By 13 June XXX Corps had lost 2,659 men including 394 killed.[40]

Air-land operations: 11–15 June

A StuGIII. These vehicles helped knock out Fort Stalin.

As the Germans made slow progress toward the main train station, Petrov pulled out the battered 172nd Rifle Division and replaced it with 345th Rifle Division. The 95th Soviet Division halted the 132nds progress in the north. Although a relatively quiet day, the 10 June saw the elimination of the Soviet 79th Naval Brigade and LIV Corps lost 2,772 men. Counter attacks by the Soviet 345th Division aimed at the hinge between the German 132nd and 50th Divisions were repulsed by the Luftwaffe. On 11–12 June, LIV Corps lost another 1,957 men. But the Soviets had now committed all of their reserves and were stretched thin. One more push might collapse the northern sector. But at this time, the tired German infantry were running out of reinforcements and ammunition.[41]

In contrast, the Black Sea Fleet was bringing in reinforcements in spite of the threat of the Luftwaffe. On 12 June the cruiser Molotov and destroyer Bditel'nyy brought in 2,314 soldiers, 190 tons of ammunition and 28 artillery pieces. The Luftwaffe turned its attentions to the supply convoys again. On 13 June it sank the transports Gruzyia, TSch-27, patrol boat SKA-092, motor boat SP-40, five barges and a floating crane. On 15 June another 3,400 soldiers, 442 tons of ammunition, 30 tons of fuel and 12 tons of provisions were delivered. With this reinforcement, the German army was reliant more than ever upon the Luftwaffe on land.[32]

The Luftwaffe had flown 1,044 sorties on the 11 June, dropping 954 tons of bombs. The consumption rate of ammunition was putting von Richthofen’s logistical network under pressure and he could no longer afford to fly massed bombing raids. On 11 June, he surmised there was less than two days ammunition left. It required a change of tactics. Instead of carpet bombing, fewer targets would be attacked simultaneously, and aircraft would strike at designated targets in long and narrow lines. This was designed to maintain accurate pressure without wasting ordnance. Even this failed to cure the problem in the long term. By 17 June, aviation fuel shortages meant the Luftwaffe dropped only 800 instead of the planned 1,000 tons. In the event, von Richthofen was transferred to prepare the Corps’ Headquarters near Kursk support the nearing Operation Blue. He retained formal command, at least until given control of Luftflotte 4, but Wolfgang von Wild took over air operations over Sevastopol.[42]

The main target for the 22nd Infantry Division on 13 June was Fort Stalin, blocking the advance to Severnaya Bay. It was a tought position. Bunkers allowed the Soviets to move around artillery and machine gun posts which protected the fort from southern and eastern attacks, but it was vulnerable from a northern assault. Moreover, just 200 men from the 345th Rifle Division were stationed there. The German 22nd Division assaulted at 03:00 on 13 June. The assault was to be made by just 813 men. The 3rd Battalion would suppress Soviet machine gun and mortar positions located on the south east. The 1st Battalion, supported by five StuG assault guns, two 37mm guns and an engineer company were to make the main effort. Some 200 and 110 men were committed respectively in each unit.[43]

The bombardment began on 12 June. Artillery fire from ‘Dora’ had failed to neutralise the fort. Nevertheless a combined arms attack from 11 420 mm mortars and dive-bombing by Ju 87s of StG 77 knocked out the forts main armament (three of the four 76.2 mm guns). At 19:00 the 22nds divisional artillery began shelling the fort and its smaller supporting fortress, Volga, located to Stalin’s rear, with 210, 280 and 305 mm weapons. At 03:00 the German infantry attacked. The fog of war intervened. The Soviet mortar teams were not suppressed, and a bloody battle developed which lasted until 05:30. The Germans, with the support of five assault guns and a few 37 mm weapons, eliminated the fort, bunker by bunker. In the heavy fighting a large number of company commanders were killed.[43]

As the Germans seized this vital fort, the neighbouring Volga fort realised it had fallen and shelled the position. A company-sized counter attack was wiped out by German small arms fire. The Germans declared the position secured at 07:00, though some bunkers held out until 15:00. German casualties amounted to 32 dead, 126 wounded and two missing – half of the force committed. Soviet casualties amounted to 20 captured, the remainder were killed.[44] With only 91 men in left near the fort, Petrov did not order a recovery attempt. It was a grave mistake.[44]

The fall of Fort Stalin meant the Soviet defences in the north were on the verge of collapse. Hansen ordered LIV Corps to divert its attention to Fort Maxim Gorky and the elimination of the 95th Rifle Division defending its front. The 95th Rifle Division had been attacking the 132nd Infantry Division's progress since the start of the offensive. They were reinforced by one Regiment from the idle 46th German Infantry Division near Kerch. The German 24th, 50th and Romanian 4th Mountain Divisions were to maintain pressure in the central sector while they pushed towards the Mekensia and Gatani Valley and the Chernaya River opening at Severnaya Bay. For three days, 14–16 June, the battle continued as the Axis ground towards Sevastopol. On 15 June the 132nd was within 900 metres of the Maxim Gorky's outer bastion (Bastion I). The front opposite the 25th Soviet Rifles was still strong, but the northern flank was giving way. The 79th Naval Brigade had only 35 percent of its strength left. Blocking the way to Maxim Gorky was just 1,000 men of the 95th Rifle Division and 7th Naval Brigade.

The harbour after the battle (July 1942)

In the south the 109th and 388th Rifle divisions were forced back along the coast by the 72nd and 170th German divisions while the Romanian Corps' 18th Mountain Division protected its flank by dislodging the Soviet 386th Rifle Division threatening XXX Corps' right flank. The battles continued to grind on until the 20 June. In six days XXX Corps had lost 2,646 men. In exchange the outer defences of the 388th Rifle division had been penetrated and the formation effectively destroyed. Still, the German advance on Balaklava had been halted. The Germans had not yet reached its outer defences and the Sapun Ridge to the east of the town were still in Soviet hands. Nevertheless, by the 15 June, some 1,000 Soviet soldiers and 1,500 mortar bombs had been captured indicating the Soviets had plenty of ammunition after two weeks of battle.[45]

The Luftwaffe had played a significant part in the success the German operations. From 13 June, up until the 17 June, it had flown 3,899 sorties and dropped 3,086 tons of bombs, in spite of shortages in fuel and ordnance. This average of 780 sorties per day was only a slight drop from the opening 11 days.[46] Mass attacks were made on the city of Sevastopol itself. Bombing targeted hangars, port facilities, flak and artillery batteries, barracks, supply depots with high explosive bombs. Most of the city was burning. The smoke rose to 1,500 metres and stretched to Feodosiya, 150 kilometres away.[47]

Ground fighting: 16–28 June

destroyed Soviet "Maxim Gorky" Naval Artillery

As Hansen poised his corps for the breakthrough against the 95th Rifle Division 27 Ju 87s of II./StG 77 attacked Maxim Gorky's main battery. The Germans believed the strike had knocked it out as it stopped firing its artillery. The Soviets claimed the fort withstood the bombing, and the fort ran out of ammunition. Still, the artillery bombardment began on 16 June. In the morning the attack by the reinforced 132nd Division collapsed the line. The Soviet garrison held out in underground tunnels, capitulating only on the 20 June.

The 22nd and 24th German Divisions advanced from the north east. They employed their Gotha remote control demolition vehicles with success against timber bunkers. One exploded prematurely and two were knocked out by a minefield. Two Panzer III control vehicles were knocked out by Soviet anti-tank fire. By 19:30, Forts Maxim Gorky, Molotov, Schishkova, Volga and Siberia were overrun. The 24th Infantry Division in particular made extensive use of its Nebelwerfer rockets. The 95th and 172nd Rifle Divisions had been lost, as well as the majority of the fortifies defences. Only the 25th Rifle remained in the line. Petrov rushed up the 138th Naval Brigade with an extra 2,600 men, which was landed on the 12–13 June. It prevented German forces reaching Severnaya Bay that day.[48]

The Luftwaffe was also busy applying pressure to Soviet naval forces. On 18 June the cruiser Kharkov was severely damaged. Attacks on 19 June by KG 51 destroyed the anti-aircraft platform in Severnaya Bay, allowing air operations to continue unheeded. The lack of ant-aircraft cover made it impossible for the minelayer Komintern to enter the harbour with reinforcements. The lack of supplies ensured Soviet ammunition and fuel supplies to slip to critical levels on 20 June. The Luftwaffe was experiencing shortages of its own. The daily average of sources was now reduced by 40 percent. Due to the shortages of bombs, all ordnance had to be dropped individually to minimise wastage. Some experienced crews had to conduct dive-bombing attacks 25-30 times a day. KG 51's Ju 88 crews in particular had felt the strain.[32]

The pressure tolled, and between the 18–23 June, the entire Soviet defence line in the north collapsed. The remnants of the 95th Soviet Rifle Division was huddled into a 2 km square portion of coast line near Coastal Battery 12, north of the Bay. At 09:00 the battery and the division surrendered to the 132nd Infantry Division. Further south the German 24th Infantry Division captured Bartenyevka, on the mouth of the Bay. The 22nd Infantry had reached the north of the Bay on the same day. The Soviet 138th Naval Brigade counter attacked, but it was destroyed without artillery and air air support. On 20 June, the 24th Infantry Division tackled the main obstacle remaining on the north side of the Bay. The Lenin anti-aircraft position protected by the Northern Fort, a position which had 5 metres wide anti-tank ditched, 1,000 mines, 32 concrete bunkers, seven armoured cupolas, and 70 earth-and-timber bunkers making it a formidable defensive position. The Lenin defences surrendered, having already lost three of their four 76 mm weapons. The Germans tried to use the remote-controlled mines to break into the North Fort, but they were knocked out. At 11:30 on the 21 June the Fort fell after a sustained infantry attack. Around 182 Soviet prisoners were taken.[49] The Germans began mopping up operations and clearing the northern shore. Most Soviet units were exhausted and out of ammunition, surrendering quickly. Others made attempts at a last stand. Some tried to evacuate across to the southern side by boat, but they were picked off by German artillery.[50]

While the main actions were playing out in the north XXX Corps alternated between attack and defence. The Soviets held the Sapun Ridge and could observe German movements. On occasion they could deliver effective counter battery fire. Between the 21–28 June, the Germans lost 10 artillery pieces, including five 150 mm s.FH 18 medium howitzers. In the centre, the Romanians took up the slack. The 18th Infantry, 1st and 4th Mountain division, supported by 100 guns, advanced gradually up the Chernaya River towards the mouth of the river and Severnaya Bay. With support from LIV Corps on its left, the Axis captured all the Soviet defensive lines east of the Chernaya River.[51]

The Luftwaffe had contributed 4,700 sorties in seven days up until 26 June. They dropped 3,984 tons of bombs. The daily average sorties had decreased 15 percent from the week before and 10 percent the week before that. The increasing operational readiness (49.8 to 64.5 percent) revealed the severity of bomb and fuel shortages.[52] Von Wild, despite the withdrawal of some Geschwader for Operation Blue, did succeeded in bring in much needed reinforcements to bring the strength levels up to a standard not seen since the start of the offensive. The Luftwaffe continued the intense bombardment. On 26 June, its attacks supporting XXX Corps, devastated Soviet defences on the Sapun Ridge. It was the last Soviet defensive line between the Axis and Sevastopol.[53]

Axis land, sea and air offensive: 29 June

Fall of Sevastopol: 30 June-4 July

As the German 11th Army closed in, Stalin himself made it categorically clear that top commanders, Party and administrative officials be brought out by submarine. Oktyabrskii and Petrov were flown out at the last moment.[54]


The Mount Sapun memorial

The Germans claimed over 90,000 Red Army soldiers had been taken prisoner, and an even greater number killed. However these claims seems an overstatement, as according to Soviet sources the Soviet garrison defending Sevastopol totaled 106,000 men beforehand, and received only 3,000 in reinforcements during the attack, while it is known that 25,157 persons were evacuated, the overwhelming majority being either wounded soldiers or officers evacuated on Stalin's orders.

Soviet accounts claim that there were very few Soviet troops who survived the German onslaught; Von Manstein himself records that the Soviets preferred to blow themselves up along with the German soldiers closing in on their positions rather than surrender. Von Manstein ascribed this behavior to the ruthlessness of the "commissars" and to the basic "contempt for human life of this Asiatic power". Another explanation for the Soviet unwillingness to surrender, was the fear Soviet servicemen had for their treatment if they were taken prisoners of war by the Wehrmacht.

Von Manstein put his own losses at 24,000, a claim that may seem low. This figure excludes all Romanian losses, though the Romanians fought well and hard in Sevastopol, rendering an indispensable contribution to the victory. It also excludes all German losses sustained during the "mopping up" fighting after the capture of Cape Khersones. The fall of Sevastopol resulted in Von Manstein's promotion to Generalfeldmarschall, as promised. Hitler and others were deeply impressed by what they perceived as his hardness.

Although a success in the end, the operation had taken much longer than the Germans had imagined. Operation Blau, Army Group South's advance towards Stalingrad and Caucasus was just beginning, and the German offensive would not have the 11th Army to support them. Instead of having the 11th Army to help it on its quest to capture Stalingrad, the German 6th Army under Paulus would be without crucial support that ultimately resulted in its defeat.


  1. ^ Hayward 1998, pp. 50-51: Allowed German and Italian warships to use Bulgarian ports for operations in the Black Sea.
  2. ^ a b Forczyk 2008, p. 90.
  3. ^ Dear and Foot 2005, p. 774.
  4. ^ Bergstrom 2007, p. 43.
  5. ^ Forczyk 2008, p. 6.
  6. ^ Forczyk 2008, p. 8–9.
  7. ^ Dear and Foot 2005, p. 775.
  8. ^ a b c Bergstrom 2007, p. 42.
  9. ^ Forczyk 2008, p. 48.
  10. ^ Hayward 1998, pp. 50-51.
  11. ^ a b Forzcyk 2008, p. 32.
  12. ^ a b Forzcyk 2008, p. 29.
  13. ^ Forzcyk 2008, pp. 30–31.
  14. ^ Forzcyk 2008, pp. 33–34.
  15. ^ a b Forzcyk 2008, p. 34.
  16. ^ Forczyk 2008, pp. 8–9.
  17. ^ Bergstrom 2007, p. 103.
  18. ^ Forczyk 2008, pp. 10-11.
  19. ^ Bergstrom 2007, p. 104.
  20. ^ Forczyk 2008, p. 11.
  21. ^ Forczyk 2008, p. 12.
  22. ^ Forczyk 2008, p. 13.
  23. ^ Hayward 2001, p. 102.
  24. ^ Brookes 2003, p. 80.
  25. ^ a b Forczyk 2008, p. 31.
  26. ^ a b Forczyk 2008, p. 26.
  27. ^ Forczyk 2008, pp. 27-28.
  28. ^ Forczyk 2008, p. 28.
  29. ^ a b Forczyk 2008, p. 29.
  30. ^ Forczyk 2008, p. 41.
  31. ^ a b Hayward 2001, p. 96.
  32. ^ a b c d e f Bergstrom 2007, p. 43. Stalingrad.
  33. ^ Hayward 2001, pp. 98-99
  34. ^ Hayward 2001, p. 99.
  35. ^ Forzcyk 2008, p. 51.
  36. ^ Forczyk 2008, p. 54.
  37. ^ Forzcyk 2008, p. 53.
  38. ^ a b Forzcyk 2008, p. 55.
  39. ^ Forzcyk 2008, pp. 58-59.
  40. ^ Forzcyk 2008, p. 61.
  41. ^ Forzcyk 2008, pp. 60-61 and Bergstrom 2007, p. 43. Stalingrad
  42. ^ Hayward 2001, p. 101.
  43. ^ a b Forzcyk 2008, pp. 62-63.
  44. ^ a b Forzcyk 2008, p. 66.
  45. ^ Forzcyk 2008, p. 67.
  46. ^ Hayward 2001, p. 108.
  47. ^ Hayward 2001, p. 109.
  48. ^ Forzcyk 2008, p. 70.
  49. ^ Forzcyk 2008, p. 71.
  50. ^ Forzcyk 2008, p. 75.
  51. ^ Forzcyk 2008, pp. 76-77.
  52. ^ Hayward 2001, p. 110.
  53. ^ Bergstrom 2007, p. 45. Stalingrad
  54. ^ Erickson, Road to Stalingrad, 2003 Cassel Military Paperbacks Edition, p. 351
  • Bergström, Christer. Barbarossa - The Air Battle: July–December 1941. London: Chervron/Ian Allen. ISBN 978-1-85780-270-2.
  • Bergström, Christer. Stalingrad - The Air Battle: 1942 through January 1943. Midland Puplishing, Hinkley, 2007. ISBN 978-1-85780-276-4
  • Brookes, Andrew. Air War Over Russia. Ian Allen Publishing. 2003. ISBN 978-0-7110-2890-6
  • Forcyzk, Robert. Sevastopol 1942: Von Manstein's Triumph. Osprey, Oxford, 2008. ISBN 978-1-84603-221-9
  • Hayward, Joel S.A. Stopped at Stalingrad: The Luftwaffe and Hitler's Defeat in the East, 1942–1943. University Press of Kansas, 1998. ISBN 978-0-7006-1146-1
  • Hooton, E.R.. Eagle in Flames: The Fall of the Luftwaffe. Arms & Armour Press. 1997. ISBN 978-1-86019-995-0

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