:"For the article about the South Australian town see
Balaklava, South Australia. For other uses, see Balaklava (disambiguation)."
official_name = Balaklava or Balaclava
other_name = Балаклава
image_shield =Balakl s.gif
subdivision_name2 = Sevastopol|
pushpin_map_caption =Location of Balaklava within the Crimea, Ukraine
pushpin_map_caption1 =Location of Balaklava
latd=44 |latm=30 |lats=0 |latNS=N
longd=33 |longm=36 |longs=0 |longEW=E
elevation_m = 10
population_total = 30000|population_footnotes=
year| = 2001
postal_code = 99xxx
blank_info = Cembalo (until 1475), Yamboli, Symbolon|blank_name=Former name|
crimearegion = Sebastopol
website = http://balaklava.crimea.ua/
Balaklava ( _uk. Балаклава, _ru. Балаклава, _cr. Balıqlava) is a
townin the Crimea, Ukrainewhich has an official status of a district of the cityof Sevastopol. It was a city in its own right until 1957when it was formally incorporated into the municipal borders of Sevastopol by the Soviet government.
Balaklava has changed hands many times during its history. A settlement at its present location was originally founded under the name of Symbolon (Συμβολον) by the Ancient Greeks, for whom it was an important commercial city. During the
Middle Ages, it was controlled by the Byzantine Empireand then by the Genoese who conquered it in 1365. The Byzantines called the town Yamboli and the Genoese named it Cembalo. The Genoese built a large trading empire in both the Mediterraneanand the Black Sea, buying slaves in Eastern Europeand shipping them to Egyptvia the Crimea, a lucrative market hotly contested with by the Venetians. It is believed that it was on board a Genoese trading cog sailing back to Genoa from Balaklava (or Kaffa, according to some chronicles) that the Black Deathfirst arrived in Europein the mid-14th c. The ruins of a Genoese fortress positioned high on a clifftop above the entrance to the Balaklava Inlet are a popular tourist attraction and have recently become the stage for a Medieval festival. The fortress is a subject of Mickiewicz's penultimate poem in his 1825 cycle of "Crimean Sonnets".
1475the growing Ottoman Empiretook possession of Balaklava renaming it "Balıklava" ("a fish nest" in Turkish [ [http://www.tdk.org.tr/TR/SozBul.aspx?F6E10F8892433CFFAAF6AA849816B2EF4376734BED947CDE&Kelime=bal%u0131klava TDK Online - Balıklava entry] ] ), which was slowly corrupted over time to its present form. During the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774, the Russian troops conquered the Crimea in 1771. Thirteen years later, Crimea was definitively annexed by the Russian Empire. After that, Crimean Tatar and Turkish population was replaced by Greeks from the Archipelago. In 1787the city was visited by Catherine the Great. [Some rural communities surrounding Balaklava remained populated by Crimean Tatars until their deportation in 1944.]
The town became famous for the
Battle of Balaclavaduring the Crimean Warthanks to the suicidal Charge of the Light Brigade, a British cavalrycharge due to a misunderstanding sent up a valley strongly held on three sides by the Russians, in which about 250 men were killed or wounded, and over 400 horses lost, effectively reducing the size of the mounted brigade by two thirds and destroying some of the finest light cavalry in the world to no military purpose. The British poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson immortalized this battle in verse. The balaclava, a tight knitted garment covering the whole head and neck with holes for the eyes and mouth, also takes its name from this settlement, where soldiers first wore them.
Second World War, Balaklava was the southernmost point in the Soviet-German lines. In 1956Balaklava, together with the whole Crimea, passed from Russia to Ukraine. It became part of the independent state of Ukrainein 1991. Today there are over 50 monuments in the town dedicated to the remembrance of military valour in past wars, including the Great Patriotic War, the Crimean Warand the Russian Civil War.
Nuclear submarine base
One of the monuments is an underground, formerly classified
submarine basethat was operational until 1993. The base was said to be virtually indestructible and designed to survive a direct atomic impact. During that period, Balaklava was one of the most secret residential areas in the Soviet Union. Almost the entire population of Balaklava at one time worked at the base; even family members could not visit the town of Balaklava without a good reason and proper identification. The base remained operational after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 until 1993 when the decommissioning process started. This process saw the removal of the warheads and low-yield torpedoes. In 1996, the last Russian submarine left the base, which is now open to the public for guided tours around the canal system, the base, and a small museum, which is now housed in the old ammunition warehouse deep inside the hillside.
* [http://www.allworldwars.com/Balaclava%20and%20the%20Sevastopol%20Inquiry.html Balaklava and the Sevastopol Inquiry, 1855, by Commander W.Gordon, R.N.]
* [http://www.balaklava.net Balaklava Photoalbum]
* [http://archeologia.narod.ru/krim/balak.htm Genoese fortress in Balaklava]
* en icon [http://balaklava.ws Balaklava - Official Site]
* Russian underground Submarine Base [http://englishrussia.com/?p=1794] (photos)
* [http://www.crimeaconsulting.com/cities/Balaclava.html Balaklava attractions]
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