The Rhineland ("Rheinland" in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river
Rhinein the west of Germany. After the collapse of the French Empire in the early 19th century, the German-speaking regions at the middle and lower course of the Rhine river were annexed to the kingdom of Prussia. The Prussian administration reorganised the territory as the Rhine Province(also known as Rhenish Prussia), a term continuing in the names of the German states of Rhineland-Palatinateand North Rhine-Westphalia. Following the First World Warof the early 20th century, the western part of Rhineland was occupied by Entente forces, then demilitarized under the Treaty of Versailles. German forces remilitarized the territory in 1936, as part of a diplomatic test of will, three years before the outbreak of the Second World War.
The Rhineland is in the western part of Germany, and abuts international boundaries with France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands. The River
Rhineforms the region's eastern boundary south (upstream) of a point north of Bingen.
The southern and eastern parts are mainly hill country (
Westerwald, Hunsrück, Taunusand Eifel), cut by river valleys, principally the Rhine and Mosel. The north takes in the Ruhrvalley.
Some of the larger cities in the Rhineland include
Aachen, Bonn, Cologne, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Essen, Koblenz, Krefeld, Leverkusen, Ludwigshafen, Mainz, Mannheim, Mönchengladbach, Wiesbadenand Wuppertal.
The political entity
Rhine Provincewas created in 1824 by joining the provinces of Lower Rhineand Jülich-Cleves-Berg. Its capital was Koblenz; it had 8.0 million inhabitants by 1939. In 1920, the Saar was separated from the Rhine Province and administered by the League of Nationsuntil a plebiscite in 1935, when the region was returned to Germany. At the same time, in 1920, the districts of Eupenand Malmedywere transferred to Belgium(see German-Speaking Community of Belgium). In 1946, the Rhine Province was divided up between the newly-founded states of North Rhine-Westphaliaand Rhineland-Palatinate. The town of Wetzlarbecame part of Hesse.
Today, the German region of Rhineland consists of the states of
Saarland, the southwestern half of North Rhine-Westphalia, and the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. North Rhine-Westphalia is one of the prime German industrial areas, containing significant mineral deposits ( coal, lead, lignite, magnesium, oil and uranium) and water transport. In Rhineland-Palatinate agriculture is more important, including the vineyards in the Ahr, Mittelrhein, Mosel, Nahe, Pfalz (Palatinate) and Rheinhessen regions.
Following World War I
Following the Armistice of 1918, Allied forces occupied the Rhineland as far east as the river with some small bridgeheads on the east bank at places like
Cologne. Under the terms of the Treaty of Versaillesof 1919 the occupation was continued. The treaty specified three occupation Zones, which were due to be evacuated by Allied troops five, ten and finally 15 years after the formal ratification of the treaty, which took place in 1920, thus the occupation was intended to last until 1935. In fact, the last Allied troops left Germany five years prior to that date in 1930 in a good-will reaction to the Weimar Republic's policy of reconciliation in the era of Gustav Stresemannand the Locarno Pact.
Sections of the Rhineland bordering Belgium were annexed from Germany by the
Treaty of Versailles. The cantons of Eupen, Malmedyand Sankt Vith though entirely German in culture and language became the East Cantonsof Belgium.
The French troops especially had become notorious for their harsh treatment of the local civilian population. The French in a clear breach of the Treaty tried to separate the occupied areas from Germany by establishing an independent
Rhenish Republicas a French puppet state. Separatist riots were encouraged and supported by the French, who tried to exploit traditional anti-Prussian resentments in the overwhelmingly Catholic region. In the end, the separatists failed to gain any decisive support among the population.
The Treaty of Versailles also specified the de-militarization of the entire area to provide a buffer between Germany on one side and
France, Belgiumand Luxembourg(and to a lesser extent, the Netherlands) on the other side, which meant that no German forces were allowed there after the Allied forces had withdrawn. Furthermore (and quite unbearably from the German perspective) the treaty entitled the Allies to reoccupy the Rhineland at their will, if the Allies unilaterally found the German side responsible for any violation of the treaty.
In violation of the Treaty of Versailles and the spirit of the
Locarno Pact, Nazi Germanyremilitarized the Rhineland on Saturday, March 7, 1936. The occupation was done with very little military force, the troops entering on bicycles, and no effort was made to stop it (See Appeasement of Hitler). Francecould not act due to political instability at the time, and, since the remilitarisation occurred at a weekend, the British Government could not find out or discuss actions to be taken until the following Monday. As a result of this, the governments were inclined to see the remilitarisation as a "fait accompli".
Hitler took a risk when he sent his troops to the Rhineland. He told them to 'turn back and not to resist' if they were stopped by the French Army. The French did not try to stop them because they were currently holding elections and no president wanted to start a war with Germany.
The British government agreed with the act in principle, "The Germans are after all only going into their own back garden" "Lord Lothian", but rejected the Nazi manner of accomplishing said act.
Winston Churchill, however, advocated military action through cooperation by the British and the French.
The remilitarization of the Rhineland was favoured by some of the local population, because of a resurgence of German nationalism and harboured bitterness over the Allied occupation of the Rhineland until 1930 (
A side-effect of the French occupations was the offspring of French soldiers and German woman. These children, who were seen as the continuing French pollution of German culture, were shunned by the broader German society and were known as "
Rhineland Bastards". Children fathered by French colonial troops (who were generally of African ancestry) were especially despised and became targets of Nazi sterilisation programmes in the 1930s. The American poet Charles Bukowskiwas born in 1920 in Andernachas the son of a German mother and a Polish-American US soldier, serving among the occupation troops.
The 1944–1945 military campaigns
Two different military campaigns were fought in the Rhineland.
For five months, from September 1944 until February 1945, the
U.S. First Armyfought a costly battle to capture the Hurtgen Forest. The heavily forested and ravined terrain of the Hurtgen negated Allied combined arms advantages( close air support, armor, artillery) and favoured German defenders. The U.S. Army lost 24,000 troops. The military necessity of their sacrifice has been debated by military historians.
In early 1945, after a long winter stalemate, military operations by most Allied armies in Northwest Europe resumed with the goal of reaching the Rhine. From their winter positions in The Netherlands, the
First Canadian Armyunder General Henry Crerar reinforced by elements of the British Second Armyunder General Miles Dempsey, drove through the Rhineland beginning in the first week of February 1945.
Operation "Veritable" lasted several weeks, with the end result of clearing all German forces from the west side of the Rhine river. The supporting operation by the First US Army, Operation "Grenade", was planned to coincide from the River Roer, in the south. This was delayed for two weeks however, by German flooding of the Roer valley.
March 7, 1945a company of armoured infantry of the U.S. 9th Armored Divisioncaptured the last intact bridge over the Rhine at Remagen. General George Patton's Third US Army also made a crossing of the river the day before the much anticipated Rhine crossings by the 21st Army Group ( First Canadian Armyand the British Second Army) under Field Marshal Montgomery in the third week of March 1945.
Operation "Varsity" was a massive airborne operation in conjunction with Operation "Plunder", the amphibious crossings. By early April, the Rhine had been crossed by all the Allied armies operating west of the river, and the battles for the Rhineland were over.
In the official histories of the British and Canadian armies, the term Rhineland refers only to fighting west of the river in February and March 1945, with subsequent operations on the river and to the east known as "Rhine Crossing". Both terms are official Battle Honours in the Commonwealth forces.
*Walter Marsden: "The Rhineland". Hastingshouse/Daytrips Publ., ISBN 0803820704 ( [http://books.google.de/books?id=G26N6aGzPdsC online version (Google Books] )
*Ken Ford, Tony Brian: "The Rhineland 1945: The Last Killing Ground in the West". Osprey Publishing 2000, ISBN 1855329999
* [http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761574786/Rhineland.html Rhineland at
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