- Operation Sealion
Infobox Military Conflict
partof=the Western Front of
World War II
Normandy, the Belgiancoast line, the English Channeland the English coast line from Kentto Dorset, Isle of Wightand parts of Devon, but principally in Sussexand Kent.
date=Planned for September 1940, but cancelled
result=Canceled on 17 September 1940, by
Adolf Hitlerdue to a predicted Strategic Axis failure.
combatant1=flagicon|Nazi Germany Germany
Erich Raeder(naval forces) flagicon|Nazi Germany Herman Göring(air) flagicon|Nazi Germany Gerd von Rundstedt(land) [ [http://www.axishistory.com/index.php?id=1145 Axishistory.com. "Order of battle - Unternehmen Seelöwe (Sealion)" (the planned invasion of the United Kingdom, Sep 1940)] ]
Winston Churchill(Prime Minister)
Dudley Pound(1st Sea Lord)
flagicon|United Kingdom Lord Newall (MRAF)flagicon|United Kingdom Edmund Ironside (CIGS)
strength2=~250,000 initially + exiled various forces
Operation Sealion ( _de. Unternehmen Seelöwe) was Germany's plan to invade the
United Kingdomduring World War II, beginning in 1940. The operation was postponed indefinitely on 17 September 1940. [”MHQ volume 6 Number 4, Summer 1994, Hitler’s D-Day”, David Shears ]
Following swift victory in the
Battle of France, Germany believed the war in the west was won. However, the United Kingdom refused peace talks. As a result, more direct measures to break British resistance were considered.
Grand Admiral ("
Großadmiral") Erich Raederof the German Navy (" Kriegsmarine") oversaw numerous studies for a German naval assault across the English Channel. The earliest of these, made around November 1939, identified the conditions for invasion:
# The British
Royal Navymust be eliminated.
# The British
Royal Air Forceair strength must be eliminated.
Coastal defencesmust be destroyed.
submarineaction against landing forces must be prevented.
The German Army High Command ( _de. "
Oberkommando des Heeres", or OKH) originally planned an invasion on a vast scale, extending along most of the English Channel, from Dorsetto Kent. This was far in excess of what the Navycould supply transportation for and final plans were more modest, calling for nine divisions to land by sea with around 67,000 men in the first echelon and an airborne division to support them. [Schenck, Peter C., "Invasion of England 1940: The Planning of Operation Sealion", p. 231. Conway, London, 1990. ISBN 0-85177-548-9] The chosen invasion sites ran from Rottingdeanin the west to Hythe in the east.
The battle plan called for German forces to be launched from Cherbourg to
Lyme Regis, Le Havreto Ventnorand Brighton, Boulogne to Eastbourne, Calaisto Folkestone, and Dunkirkand Ostendto Ramsgate. German paratroopers would land near Brighton and Dover. Once the coastline was secured, they would push north, taking Gloucesterand encircling London. [The Illustrated History of World War II by Owen Booth and John Walton. 1998. Page 70.] There is reason to believe that the Germans would not attempt to assault the city but besiege it, and bombard it [ German Invasion Plans for the British Isles 1940, Ed Rob Wheeler, Bodleian Library 2007, page 9] . German forces would secure England up to the 52nd parallel (approximately as far north as Northampton), anticipating that the rest of the United Kingdom would then surrender. Adolf Hitler's initial warning order on 16 July 1940, reflected the most current thinking and set out the revised minimum pre-conditions. He prefaced his order by stating:"I have decided to prepare a landing operation against England and, if necessary, to carry it out". [Hall, Mark M: "Irish Secrets.", page 102. Irish Academic Press, 2003]
Hitler's conditions for invasion were:
* The RAF was to be "beaten down in its morale and in fact, that it can no longer display any appreciable aggressive force in opposition to the German crossing".
* The English Channel was to be swept of British mines at the crossing points, and the
Straits of Dovermust be blocked at both ends by German mines.
* The coastal zone between occupied
Franceand England must be dominated by heavy artillery.
Royal Navymust be sufficiently engaged in the North Seaand the Mediterraneanso that it could not intervene in the crossing. English home squadrons must be damaged or destroyed by air and torpedo attacks.
This placed responsibility for "Sealion"'s success on the shoulders of Naval High Command ("
Oberkommando der Marine", or OKM) Grand Admiral ("Großadmiral") Erich Raederand Air Force High Command (" Oberkommando der Luftwaffe", or OKL) Imperial Marshal (" Reichsmarschall") Herman Göring.
Benito Mussolinioffered to send Italian troops to participate in the projected invasion, but Hitler declined his offer. [Macksey, Kenneth, "Beda Fomm: The Classic Victory", p. 35. Ballantine, New York, 1971.] However, the Italian Air Corps (" Corpo Aereo Italiano", or CAI) did participate towards the end of the Battle of Britain.
Operation "Eagle" and air superiority
The aerial battles which resulted from _de. "Unternehmen Adler" (Operation Eagle) later became known as the
Battle of Britain. "Adler"s objective was for the _de. " Luftwaffe" to achieve air superiorityover the Royal Air Force and allow the German invasion fleet to cross the English Channel. However, the change in emphasis of the bombing from RAF Basesto bombing London turned "Adler" into a strategic bombingoperation. This switch afforded the RAF, reeling from _de. "Luftwaffe" attacks on its bases, time to pull back and regroup. British intelligenceerroneously believed the _de. "Luftwaffe" had a 4:1 advantage in aircraftFact|date=August 2008. This led to the Royal Air Force mobilising the last of its reservesFact|date=August 2007 and accelerating the rate of Spitfire production.
The main difficulty for Germany was the small size of its navy. The _de. "
Kriegsmarine" had lost a sizable portion of its large modern surface units in the Norwegian Campaign, either as complete losses or battle damage. In particular, losses of destroyers were crippling. The U-boats, the most powerful arm of the _de. "Kriegsmarine", were not suitable for operations in the relatively shallow and restricted English Channel. Although the Royal Navy could not bring the whole of its naval superiority against the _de. "Kriegsmarine" to bear (most of the fleet was engaged in the Atlantic and Mediterranean) the British Home Fleetstill had a very large advantage in numbers. This is not to say that ships were not vulnerable in the case of enemy air superiority, as demonstrated during the Dunkirk evacuationand by the later sinking of "Prince of Wales" and "Repulse". However, the 22-mile width of the English Channel, and the overall difference in power between the British and German naval forces, made the amphibious invasion plan very risky, regardless of victory or defeat in the air during the Battle of Britain. In addition, the Kriegsmarine had allocated its few remaining larger and modern ships to diversionary operations in the North Sea.
The French fleet, one of the most powerful and modern in the world, might have tipped the balance against Britain if operated by the _de. "Kriegsmarine". The destruction of the French fleet by the British during the
attack on Mers-el-Kébir, as well as the scuttling of the French fleet in Toulontwo years later, ensured that this could never occur.
Even had the Royal Navy been neutralised, the chances of making a successful amphibious invasion across the channel were remote. The transport ships to be used by the Germans for landing were primarily river
barges since the Germans had no specialised landing craft. This would have limited the quantity of artillery and tanks that could have been transported, and restricted operations to times of good weather. The barges were not designed for the open sea in any event, even with almost perfect conditions progress would have been slow and the craft would have been very vulnerable to attack. Nor were there enough barges to transport the first invasion wave and the following waves and their equipment. Without specialised landing craft, the Germans would have needed to immediately capture one of the ports, an unlikely situation considering the strength of the British coastal defences around the south-eastern harbours at that time. The British also had several contingency plans, including the planned use of poison gas, which would have made an invasion even more difficult.
On 17 September 1940, Hitler held a meeting with Reichsmarschall
Hermann Göringand Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt. Hitler became convinced that the operation was doomed. Control of the skies was unavailable, and coordination among three branches of the armed forces was out of question. Later that day, Hitler ordered the postponement of the operation.
It was only a postponement at that stage. Prototypes of two designs of pefabricated jetty, similar in function to
Mulberry Harbours, were built and successfully overwintered in the North Sea in 1941/42.Alderney at War. Brian Bonnard. 1993.ISBN 0-7509-0343-0. pp106-108. Alan Sutton Publishing Ltd.] After cancellation, they were installed on the Island of Alderney, where they remained until being demolished in 1978.
Not until 13 February 1942, after the disaster on the Russian front, were forces earmarked for the operation released to other duties. [Fleming, Peter.,"Invasion 1940" (Readers Union, London, 1958), p. 273.]
The postponement coincided with a rumour that there had been an attempt to land on British shores at
Shingle Street, but it had been repulsed with large German casualties. This was reported in the American press but was officially denied. British papers, declassified in 1993, have suggested this was a successfully-engineered example of British black propagandato improve morale in Britain, America and occupied Europe. [cite news
last = Rigby
first = Nic
title = Was WWII mystery a fake?
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/2243082.stm
accessdate = 2007-09-23 ]
Chances of success
Military historians are divided on whether Operation "Sealion" might have succeeded; some such as
Michael Burleigh, Andrew Mollo, and Kenneth Mackseybelieve success was possible, others such as Peter Fleming, Derek Robinsonand Stephen Bungaybelieve the operation would have most likely resulted in a disaster for the Germans if attempted. Adolf Galland, commander of _de. "Luftwaffe" fighters at the time, claimed invasion plans were not serious and that there was a palpable sense of relief in the _de. " Wehrmacht" when it was finally called off.
There were a number of errors in German intelligence, and whilst some of these might not have caused problems there were others (such as the inclusion of bridges that no longer existed [ German Invasion Plans for the British Isles, Ed Rob Wheeler, Bodleian Library 2007, Page 10] or mis-understanding the usefulness of minor British roads [Ibid] ) that would have been detrimental to German operations, and would have only added to the confusion caused by the layout of Britain's cities and the removal of road signs. [Ibid, Text of plate 7]
London Blitz, Hitler turned his attention to the invasion of the Soviet Union, and _de. "Seelöwe" lapsed, never to be resumed.
Post-war test of the plan
In wargames conducted at the
Royal Military Academy Sandhurstin 1974, which assumed the _de. "Luftwaffe" had "not" yet won air supremacy, the Germans were able to establish a beachhead in England by using a minefield screen in the English Channel to protect the initial assault. However, the German ground forces were delayed at the "Stop Lines" (e.g., the GHQ Line), a layered series of defensive positions that had been built, each a combination of British Home Guardtroops and physical barriers. At the same time, the regular troops of the British Armywere forming up. After only a few days, the Royal Navy was able to reach the Channel from Scapa Flow, cutting off supplies and blocking further reinforcement. Isolated and facing regular troops with armour and artillery, the invasion force was made to surrender. [The Sandhurst wargame was fictionalised in Richard Cox (ed.), "Operation Sealion" (London: Thornton Cox, 1974. ISBN 0-902726-17-X). An analysis by F-K von Plehwe, "Operation "Sealion" 1940", was published in the Journal of the Royal United Services Institution, March, 1973.]
German occupation of Britain
Had Operation "Sealion" been launched, six _de. "
Einsatzgruppen" were to follow the invasion force to Great Britain. They were provided with a list (known as The Black Bookafter the war) of 2,820 people to be arrested immediately.
There is a large corpus of works set in an alternative past where the German invasion of Britain has been successfully carried out. These include:
**"Against the Day", "Through the Night" and "In the Morning" by
SS-GB" by Len Deighton
**"Invasion: Alternative History of the German Invasion of England, July 1940", by Kenneth Macksey
**, by Stephen Baxter
**"Peace In Our Time" (1946 - first performance 1947) by
*Film and television
Bedknobs and Broomsticks(1971)
It Happened Here"
**"When Hitler Invaded Britain" (2004) [ [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0418320/ When Hitler Invaded Britain (2004) (TV) ] ]
**"Hitler's Britain" (2002) [ [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0365334/ Hitler's Britain (2002) (TV) ] ]
Empire Earth: in the German Campaign, the last mission is to carry out Operation Sealion
**"Axis & Allies": while playing as the Axis powers in campaign mode (which has the Axis powers winning the war), Operation Sealion is the mission following the failed invasion of Normandy.
Alberto Cavalcanti's 1942 film " Went the Day Well?" is centred on a German reconnaissance mission for "Sealion" being eventually repulsed by the efforts of the civilian population of a remote village. A less contemporary dealing with the fear of German invasion concerned the German paratroopers central to the plot of the 1971 film "Dad's Army" who have crashed with photographs vital to the invasion.
British anti-invasion preparations of World War II
RAF Fighter Command Order of Battle 1940
* Operation "Sealion" order of battle
* Operation "Herkules" - The planned German invasion of
* Operation "Tannenbaum" - The planned German invasion of
* Operation "Felix" - The planned German invasion of
* Fall "Grün" - The planned German invasion of
* Hitler had plans for Oxford [http://www.oxfordmail.co.uk/news/1717202.hitlers_oxford_plans_revealed/]
*Macksey, Ken. "Invasion".
*Parkinson, Roger (1977). Summer, 1940: The Battle of Britain. David McKay Co.. ISBN 0679507566
* [http://www.pillboxesuk.co.uk British Invasion Defences]
* [http://www.adolfhitler.ws/lib/proc/direct16.html Operation _de. "Seelöwe" directive No.16]
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20070504034219/http://www.flin.demon.co.uk/althist/seal1.htm Why "Sealion" was not a (realistic) option (essay)]
* Second [http://www.alternatehistory.com/gateway/essays/Sealion.html essay] on the unlikelihood of Sealion
* [http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWsealoin.htm "Sealion": an orthodox view (includes quotes from participants)]
* [http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/wwii/articles/sealionvsoverlord.aspx Comparison of Operation Overlord with Operation Sealion]
* [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0365334/ Hitler's Britain (a 2002 UK TV show)]
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