- Fire balloon
A fire balloon (風船爆弾 fūsen bakudan , lit. "balloon bomb"), or Fu-Go, was a weapon launched by Japan during World War II. A hydrogen balloon with a load varying from a 12-kilogram (26 lb) incendiary to one 15 kg (33 lb) antipersonnel bomb and four 5 kg (11 lb) incendiary devices attached, they were designed as a cheap weapon intended to make use of the jet stream over the Pacific Ocean and wreak havoc on Canadian and American cities, forests, and farmland.
The balloons were relatively ineffective as weapons but were used in one of the few attacks on North America during World War II.
Between November 1944 and April 1945, Japan launched over 9,300 fire balloons. About 300 balloon bombs were found or observed in North America, killing six people and causing a small amount of damage.
From late 1944 until early 1945, the Japanese launched over 9,300 of these fire balloons, of which 300 were found or observed in the U.S. Despite the high hopes of their designers, the balloons were ineffective as weapons, and caused only six deaths (from one single incident)—a kill rate of 0.067%—and a small amount of damage.
Japanese bomb-carrying balloons were 10 m (33 ft) in diameter and, when fully inflated, held about 540 m3 (19,000 cu ft) of hydrogen. Their launch sites were located on the east coast of the main Japanese island of Honshū.
Japan released the first of these bomb-bearing balloons on November 3, 1944. They were found in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Arizona, Idaho, Montana, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, Texas, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, Michigan and Iowa, as well as Mexico and Canada.
General Kusaba's men launched over 9,000 balloons throughout the course of the project. The Japanese expected 10% (around 900) of them to reach America, which is also what is currently believed by researchers. About 300 balloon bombs were found or observed in America. It is likely that more balloon bombs landed in unpopulated areas of North America.
The last one was launched in April 1945.
The balloon campaign was the fourth attack the Japanese had made on the American mainland. The fūsen bakudan campaign was, however, the most earnest of the attacks. The concept was the brainchild of the Imperial Japanese Army's Ninth Army's Number Nine Research Laboratory, under Major General Sueyoshi Kusaba, with work performed by Technical Major Teiji Takada and his colleagues. The balloons were intended to make use of a strong current of winter air that the Japanese had discovered flowing at high altitude and speed over their country, which later became known as the jet stream.
The jet stream reported by Wasaburo Oishi blew at altitudes above 9.15 km (30,000 ft) and could carry a large balloon across the Pacific in three days, over a distance of more than 8,000 kilometers (5,000 mi). Such balloons could carry incendiary and high-explosive bombs to the United States and drop them there to kill people, destroy buildings, and start forest fires.
The preparations were lengthy because the technological problems were acute. A hydrogen balloon expands when warmed by the sunlight, and rises; then it contracts when cooled at night, and falls. The engineers devised a control system driven by an altimeter to discard ballast. When the balloon descended below 9 km (30,000 ft), it electrically fired a charge to cut loose sandbags. The sandbags were carried on a cast-aluminium four-spoked wheel and discarded two at a time to keep the wheel balanced.
Similarly, when the balloon rose above about 11.6 km (38,000 ft), the altimeter activated a valve to vent hydrogen. The hydrogen was also vented if the balloon's pressure reached a critical level.
The control system ran the balloon through three days of flight. At that time, it was likely over the US, and its ballast was expended. The final flash of gunpowder released the bombs, also carried on the wheel, and lit a 19.5 meter (64 ft) long fuse that hung from the balloon's equator. After 84 minutes, the fuse fired a flash bomb that destroyed the balloon.
The balloon had to carry about 454 kilograms (1,000 lb) of gear. At first the balloons were made of conventional rubberized silk, but improved envelopes had less leakage. An order went out for ten thousand balloons made of "washi", a paper derived from mulberry bushes that was impermeable and very tough. It was only available in squares about the size of a road map, so it was glued together in three or four laminations using edible konnyaku (devil's tongue) paste. Hungry workers stole the paste and ate it. Many workers were nimble-fingered teen-aged school girls. They assembled the paper in many parts of Japan. Large indoor spaces, such as sumo halls, sound stages, and theatres, were required for the envelope assembly.
Similar, but cruder, balloons were also used by Britain to attack Germany between 1942 and 1944.
Initial tests took place in September 1944 and proved satisfactory. However, before preparations were complete, B-29s began their raids on the Japanese home islands. The attacks were somewhat ineffectual at first but still fueled the desire for revenge sparked by the Doolittle Raid.
The first balloon was released in early November 1944. Major Takada watched as the balloon flew upward and over the sea: "The figure of the balloon was visible only for several minutes following its release until it faded away as a spot in the blue sky like a daytime star."
The Japanese chose to launch the campaign in the beginning of fall, when the jet stream is strongest. This limited the chance of the incendiary bombs causing forest fires, as by that time of year, the forests were generally too damp to catch fire easily or covered in snow.
The balloons continued to arrive in Oregon, Kansas, Iowa, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Alberta, the Yukon, Northwest Territories , Washington, Idaho, South Dakota, Nevada (including one that landed near Yerington that was discovered by cowboys who cut it up and used it as a hay tarp, another by a prospector near Elko who delivered it to local authorities on the back of a donkey, and another that was shot down by Army Air Corps planes near Reno). In all, seven fire balloons were turned in to the Army in Nevada, Colorado, Texas, Northern Mexico, Michigan, and even the outskirts of Detroit. Fighters scrambled to intercept the balloons, but they had little success; the balloons flew very high and surprisingly fast, and fighters destroyed fewer than 20. Among the US units which fought the fire balloon was the 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion.
By early 1945, Americans were becoming aware that something strange was going on. Balloons had been sighted and explosions heard, from California to Alaska. Something that appeared to witnesses to be like a parachute descended over Thermopolis, Wyoming. A fragmentation bomb exploded, and shrapnel was found around the crater. A P-38 Lightning shot a balloon down near Santa Rosa, California; another was seen over Santa Monica; and bits of washi paper were found in the streets of Los Angeles.
In February and March 1945, P-40 fighter pilots from 133 Squadron, Royal Canadian Air Force operating out of RCAF Patricia Bay (Victoria, British Columbia), intercepted and destroyed two fire balloons, On 21 February, Pilot Officer E. E. Maxwell While shot down a balloon, which landed on Sumas Mountain, in Washington State. On 10 March, Pilot Officer J. O. Patten destroyed a balloon near Saltspring Island, BC.
On March 10, 1945, one of the last paper balloons descended in the vicinity of the Manhattan Project's production facility at the Hanford Site. This balloon caused a short circuit in the powerlines supplying electricity for the nuclear reactor cooling pumps, but backup safety devices restored power almost immediately.
Two landed back in Japan but caused no damage. Two paper balloons were recovered in a single day in Modoc National Forest, east of Mount Shasta. Near Medford, Oregon, a balloon bomb exploded in towering flames. The Navy found balloons in the ocean. Balloon envelopes and apparatus were found in Montana, Arizona, Saskatchewan, in the Northwest Territories, and in the Yukon Territory. Eventually, an Army fighter managed to push one of the balloons around in the air and force it to ground intact, where it was examined and filmed. Japanese propaganda broadcasts announced great fires and an American public in panic, declaring casualties as high as 10,000.
Despite their low success, the authorities were worried about the balloons. There was the chance that they might get lucky. Much worse, the Americans had some knowledge that the Japanese had been working on biological weapons, most specifically at the infamous Unit 731 site at Pingfan in Manchuria, and a balloon carrying biowarfare agents could be a real threat.
Nobody believed the balloons could have come directly from Japan. It was thought that the balloons must be coming from North American beaches, launched by landing parties from submarines. Wilder theories speculated that they could have been launched from German prisoner of war camps in the U.S., or even from Japanese-American internment centers.
Some of the sandbags dropped by the fusen bakudan were taken to the Military Geology Unit of the US Geological Survey for investigation. Working with Colonel Sidman Poole of U.S. Army Intelligence, the researchers of the Military Geological Unit began microscopic and chemical examination of the sand from the sandbags to determine types and distribution of diatoms and other microscopic sea creatures, and its mineral composition. The sand could not be coming from American beaches, nor from the mid-Pacific. It had to be coming from Japan. The geologists ultimately determined the precise beaches in Japan the sand had been taken from. By this time, it was mostly irrelevant, since by early spring the balloon offensive was almost over.
The bombs caused little damage, but their potential for destruction and fires was large. The bombs also had a potential psychological effect on the American people. The U.S. strategy was to keep the Japanese from knowing of the balloon bombs' effectiveness. In 1945 Newsweek ran an article titled "Balloon Mystery" in their January 1 issue, and a similar story appeared in a newspaper the next day. The Office of Censorship then sent a message to newspapers and radio stations to ask them to make no mention of balloons and balloon-bomb incidents, lest the enemy get the idea that the balloons might be effective weapons. Cooperating with the desires of the government, the press did not publish any balloon bomb incidents. Perhaps as a result, the Japanese only learned of one bomb's reaching Wyoming, landing and failing to explode, so they stopped the launches after less than six months.
The press blackout in the U.S. was lifted after the first deaths to ensure that the public was warned, though public knowledge of the threat could have possibly prevented it.
Japanese abandon the project
With no evidence of any effect, General Kusaba was ordered to cease operations in April 1945, believing that the mission had been a total fiasco. The expense was large, and in the meantime the B-29s had destroyed two of the three hydrogen plants needed by the project. The last fire balloon was launched in April 1945.
Single lethal attack
Killed near Bly, Oregon 1. Elsie Mitchell, age 26 2. Edward Engen, age 13 3. Jay Gifford, age 13 4. Joan Patzke, age 13 5. Dick Patzke, age 14 6. Sherman Shoemaker, age 11
On May 5, 1945, a pregnant woman and five children were killed when they discovered a balloon bomb that had landed in the forest of Gearhart Mountain in Southern Oregon. Pastor Archie Mitchell and his pregnant wife Elsie drove up to Gearhart Mountain with five of their Sunday school students (aged 11–14) to have a picnic, and Elsie and the children got out of the car at Bly, Oregon, while Archie drove on to find a parking spot. As Elsie and the children looked for a good picnic spot, they saw a strange balloon lying on the ground. As the group approached the balloon, a bomb attached to it exploded and Elsie and all five children were killed. Archie witnessed the explosion and immediately ran to the scene and used his hands to extinguish the fire on his wife's and the children's clothing, but he could not save them. These are the only known deaths caused by the balloon bombs, and also the only known deaths in the continental U.S. as the result of enemy action during World War II.
Military personnel arrived on the scene within hours, and saw that the balloon itself still had snow underneath it, while the surrounding area did not. They concluded that the balloon bomb had drifted to the ground several weeks earlier, and had lain there undisturbed until found by the group.
Elsie Mitchell is buried in the Ocean View Cemetery in Port Angeles, Washington. A memorial, the Mitchell Monument, is located at the point of the explosion, 110 kilometers (70 mi) northeast of Klamath Falls in the Mitchell Recreation Area. It was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 2001. Several Japanese civilians have visited the monument to offer their apologies for the deaths that took place here, and several cherry trees have been planted around the monument as a symbol of peace.
Post World War II
The remains of balloons continued to be discovered after the war. Eight were found in the 1940s, three in the 1950s and two in the 1960s. In 1978, a ballast ring, fuses and barometers were found near Agness, Oregon and are now part of the collection of the Coos Historical & Maritime Museum.
- Attacks on North America during World War II
- Battle of Los Angeles
- E77 balloon bomb
- History of Military Ballooning
- Operation Outward - World War II British balloons carrying incendiaries and trailing wires
- Bly, Oregon
- ^ The Fire Balloons
- ^ Ancona, Gaspar F. (2001). Where The Star Came to Rest. Strasbourg Cedex 2, France: Éditions du Signe. pp. 90–91. ISBN 2746803178. "On January 23, 1945...It landed on the farm of Chris Stein near the intersection of 146th Avenue and 21st Street in northern Allegan County"
- ^ a b c d e f Webber, Bert (1975). Retaliation: Japanese attacks and Allied Countermeasures on the Pacific Coast in World War II. Oregon State University. pp. 99–108. ISBN 0-87071-076-1.
- ^ Lewis, John M. (2003), "Oishi's Observation: Viewed in the Context of Jet Stream Discovery.", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 84: 357–369
- ^ Webber, Bert (1975). Retaliation: Japanese attacks and Allied Countermeasures on the Pacific Coast in World War II. Oregon State University. p. 104. ISBN 0-87071-076-1.
- ^ Crump, Jennifer (2010). Canada Under Attack. Chapter 12: Dundurn Press Ltd.. pp. 167–177. ISBN 1554887313. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZgLenRqBcYsC&pg=PA177&dq=balloon.
- ^ McPhee, John (February 9, 2009). "Checkpoints". the New Yorker: pp. 56–63.
- ^ rcaf.com, 2010, "Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawks of the RCAF". Access date: March 3, 2011.
- ^ History of the Plutonium Production Facilities at the Hanford Site Historic District, 1943-1990 Retrieved 27 April 2007 Archived November 10, 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ a b Smith, Jeffery Alan (1999). War & Press Freedom: The Problem of Prerogative Power -. Language Arts & Disciplines.
- ^ [author missing] (2011 [last update]). "Mitchell Monument Southern Oregon Names of Victims | Flickr - Photo Sharing!". flickr.com. http://www.flickr.com/photos/southernoregon/3984871740/. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- ^ Kravets, David. "May 5, 1945: Japanese Balloon Bomb Kills 6 in Oregon". Wired.com. http://www.wired.com/thisdayintech/2010/05/0505japanese-balloon-kills-oregon/. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
- ^ a b Sol, Ilana (2008) On Paper WingsDocumentary Film, www.onpaperwingsthemovie.com
- ^ *Peebles, Curtis (1991). The Moby Dick Project. Smithsonian Books. ISBN 1-56098-025-7.
Campaigns of World War II
- The Fire Balloons from Greg Goebel's AIR VECTORS
- Robert C. Mikesh, Japan's World War II Balloon Bomb Attacks on North America, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1973.
- "The Great Japanese Baloon Offensive" by MSgt. Cornlius W. Conley, USAF, Air University Review, Vol. XIX, No. 2 (January–February 1968): 68-83. 
- "Balloons Of War" by John McPhee, The New Yorker, January 29, 1996, 52-60.
- "Japan At War: An Oral History" by Haruko Taya Cook and Theodore F. Cook, New Press; Reprint edition (October 1993). Includes a personal account by a Japanese woman who worked in one of the fire balloon factories.
- Utah Was Spared Damage By Japan's Floating Weapons www.sltrib.com. 1995-05-05. Accessed 2009-05-15.
- Bert Webber, Retaliation: Japanese Attacks and Allied Countermeasures on the Pacific Coast in World War II, Oregon State University Press, 1975.
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- http://www.allworldwars.com/Japanese-Balloon-and-Attached-Devices.html Report by US Technical Air Intelligence Center, May 1945
- http://www.archive.org/details/gov.archives.arc.13084 Declassified WWII US Navy training film "Japanese Paper Balloon."
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