- Cochin International Airport
Cochin International Airport
കൊച്ചി അന്താരാഷ്ട്ര വിമാനത്താവളം
The domestic terminal of Cochin International Airport IATA: COK – ICAO: VOCI Summary Airport type Public Owner Cochin International Airport Society Limited Operator Cochin International Airport Limited Serves Kochi, Thrissur, Kottayam Location Nedumbassery, Kerala, India Hub for
- Air India Express
- Blue Dart Aviation
Elevation AMSL 9 m / 30 ft Coordinates Website Runways Direction Length Surface m ft 27/09 3,400 11,155 Asphalt Statistics (Jan 2010 – Dec 2010) Daily Aircraft Movements 114 Passenger volume 4,346,103 Cargo tonnage 35,532 Sources: Official Website of Cochin International
Cochin International Airport (Malayalam: കൊച്ചി അന്താരാഷ്ട്ര വിമാനത്താവളം) (IATA: COK, ICAO: VOCI) is an international airport located in Nedumbassery, a suburb on the outskirts of the city of Kochi about 30 km (19 mi) northeast of downtown Kochi, in the state of Kerala, India. It is the busiest and largest airport in the state of Kerala. For the financial year 2010-11, it was the seventh busiest airport in India in terms of overall passenger traffic carrying 4,340,736 passengers and fourth busiest in terms of international passenger traffic ferrying 2,358,579 passengers. The airport is the primary base for Air India Express operations and is a focus city for Air India, GoAir, IndiGo, Jet Airways, JetLite, SpiceJet and Kingfisher Airlines.
Cochin International Airport is the first airport in India developed under a public-private partnership(PPP) model. The airport pioneered the concept of private investment in the airport sector after being incorporated as a public limited company, receiving investments from nearly 10,000 non-resident Indians (NRIs) from 30 countries.
The airport handled 4.3 million passengers and had air traffic movements (ATM) of about 411 per week for the year 2009–10. The airport handles approximately 800 aircraft per week, with 10,800 passengers each day. 8 domestic airlines and 16 international airlines connect Kochi with nearly 40 destinations nationally and internationally.
The original air facilities in Kochi were an aerodome and airstrip on Willingdon Island, built in 1936 by the British Residency of Kochi Kingdom, intended for transporting British officials involved in the development of Cochin Port. The airstrip was converted into a military airport by the Royal Indian Navy during World War II. The military facility hosted naval fighter planes and was intended to thwart possible Japanese air raids.
After Indian Independence the Indian Navy operated the airport, though it permitted civilian aircraft to use the facility. The Gulf economic boom of the 1980s made it necessary to develop international transportation to Kochi in the interests of expatriates working in the Middle East.
In October 1990 the Kerala Chamber of Commerce, supported by local industry, passed a resolution to expand the Naval airport to accommodate large jets and facilitate direct flights to the Middle East. The resolution was rejected by the Navy for security reasons. A new airport was built near Kochi in 1991 instead.
The original proposal for the airport outlined an estimated cost of 100 crore (US$20.28 million) and an expected date of commission in 1997, approval was granted in May 1993. The funding was envisaged to be from interest-free loans from non-resident Indians working abroad, donations from industrial undertakings, exporters, cooperative societies and loans from the state government. A body called the Cochin International Airport Society, under the chairmanship of the Chief Minister of Kerala, was registered in July 1993 to execute the project. For the purposes of better fund mobilisation, as well as administrative convenience, a public limited company under the name Cochin International Airport Ltd. (CIAL) was registered in March 1994 with an authorised capital of 90 crore (US$18.25 million)
A total of 1,500 acres (6,100,000 m2) acres of land was acquired for the construction of the airport. Approximately 2,300 land owners and 872 families were resettled under a rehabilitation package. Major electric lines and an irrigation canal had to be diverted for the construction.
The facility was formally inaugurated by the President of India on May 25, 1999, and the first commercial service began on June 10, 1999. The operations from the old naval airport were moved to CIAL on July 1, 1999.
Phase 1 and 2
The airport had 250,000 sq ft (23,000 m2) of floor space at its inauguration. CIAL envisioned six phases of expansion over a period of 20 years, the third phase of which was completed in 2009. Most of the expansion has occurred in the international terminal, as it accounts for more than 78% of all traffic. In 2002 the original airport's floor area had risen to 300,000 sq ft (28,000 m2) due to the expansion of the international departures block.
With a rising number of airlines operating at the airport, CIAL decided to construct an exclusive terminal for international arrivals which increased the floor space to 420,000 sq ft (39,000 m2), increasing passport controls and baggage carousels in addition to expanding the international departures floor space. As part of phase two of the expansion plans, an airline center complex of 58,000 sq ft (5,400 m2) was constructed on the western side of the terminal to accommodate offices of airlines operating from the airport and CIAL's administrative offices. The cargo terminal was also expanded in the second phase.
Work on the third phase was intended to accommodate 5 million passenger movements annually and was started in 2007. The third phase involved the commissioning of a central block, connecting the domestic and international terminals, and enlarging the airside area to accommodate more gates and waiting areas along with increased shopping areas. This increased the built up area by another 160,000 sq ft (15,000 m2). The airside area of the international arrivals and departures blocks were integrated together and glass walls were installed to allow for more natural light. The runway was re-surfaced in 2008. The parking areas were increased from 12 to 18, including 2 dedicated for cargo airlines. The third phase also completed the expansion of the cargo village and a second aircraft taxi-way to the MRO facility.
The fourth phase of expansion was originally planned to upgrade the domestic terminal, which has remained untouched in past 3 phases. However the plans got completely changed since the new UDF Government took over the administration of the state in May 2011.
As per the announced plans, the current international terminal is planned to convert completely into Domestic terminal, while a new state-of-the-art international terminal being planned. As per new plans announced by Board of Directors in September 2011, the new international terminal would come up at eastern side of existing structure. The built up space of new terminal would be 1,000,000 sq ft (93,000 m2) (I million Sqft) having segrated departures and arrivals at different levels. The terminal will have 16 aero-bridges and additional 30 parking bays. The new terminal have a capacity to handle 4000 passengers at any given point of time. The arrivals will have 10 baggage carousels and increased immigration facilities. The new terminal is expected to be commissioned by last quarter of 2014.
With completion of 4th phase, the total built up area of the airport would increase to 1,600,000 sq ft (150,000 m2), making the airport to be third largest in the country, in terms of size.
The current domestic terminal would be converted into Royal Pavilion, for handling VIP and private chartered flights and jets. The current international terminal, once converted into domestic terminal, will have 5 aero-bridges and 6 boarding gates facility, apart from increased parking bays.
Cochin airport is the first in India to be built in a public–private partnership and is owned by a public limited company called Cochin International Airport Limited, better known as CIAL, floated by the government of Kerala in 1994. The Kerala government owns a stake of 33.36%, a consortium of multinational companies also hold significant stakes including: the Abu Dhabi based Emke Group; the Oman based Galfar Group; UAE based Majeed Bukatara Trading; Kochi based Synthite Group; and several local businesses. Central government enterprises like Air India, Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL), Airports Authority of India (AAI) and scheduled commercial banks such as the Federal Bank, State Bank of Travancore (SBT), and Canara Bank also own stakes in the company. The remaining shares are held by the general public. Over 10,000 personal investors from 29 countries, mostly non resident Indians, hold shares in the company. In the financial year 2009–10 the airport recorded a gross income of 211.63 crore (US$42.92 million), a growth of 22.3% over the previous year. The profit after tax was 77.51 crore (US$15.72 million), which was a growth of 30.7% over the previous year.
The domestic terminal has an area of 100,000 sq ft (9,300 m2) and is designed to handle up to 500 passengers at peak times. The departure hall has 20 Common Use Terminal Equipment (CUTE) enabled check-in counters, including 5 premium check-in counters. It also has 5 security gates and a common waiting area that can accommodate 400 passengers at a time. A family lounge and a premium lounge for business class passengers are also present. A children's play area and small food court are housed in the waiting area. Four gates facility are available for domestic passengers. The arrivals hall has 2 baggage carousels.
After the construction of the new international terminal, it is planned to convert the existing international terminal to a domestic terminal and reserve the current domestic terminal for business jets.
The international terminal covers an area of 478,000 sq ft (44,400 m2). Both the departure and arrival halls of the international terminal are designed to accommodate 1500 people each at any given time. The departure hall is equipped with 37 CUTE enabled check-in counters, including 5 premium check-in counters. The airport is the fifth airport in India to install advanced in-line baggage screening systems, replacing conventional x-ray based manual screening. It also has 30 passport control counters, 10 security gates and 6 customs counters. There are two premium lounges for first class and business class passengers. There are 8 gates and 5 jetways. The arrival hall has 23 passport control counters and 4 baggage carousels.
On 24 September 2011, Chief Minister Oommen Chandy announced the decision to build a new international terminal at the Cochin International Airport at a cost of 400 crore. According to the proposal given by CIAL, a state-of-the-art new international terminal will be capable of handling 10 million passengers per annum with a peak hour capacity of 4,000 passengers. The terminal will have 16 parking bays with full aerobridge connectivity. The bays will be constructed in a phased manner and the airport will have a total of 40 parking bays. The terminal is expected to cater to the traffic requirements of the airport for the next 15 years.
Cochin Airport has a dedicated cargo center located on the eastern side of the airport complex. The cargo center is one of the largest facilities in the country with a total floor space of 120,000 sq ft (11,000 m2) in 50 acres (200,000 m2) of land. The cargo terminal handled around 40,000 MT last year[which?], with more than 25% growth. There are three complexes in the cargo village:
- The Center for Dry Cargo (CDC), with an area of 50,000 sq ft (4,600 m2), has a dedicated warehousing facility and air-customs inspection facility for both import and export.[dead link]
- The Center for Perishable Cargo (CPC) is the largest dedicated cold storage center for perishable goods in the country, has a floor area of about 22,000 sq ft (2,000 m2) and can handle approximately 25,000 metric tonnes of cargo. It was commissioned in 2008 at a cost of 38 crore (US$7.71 million) jointly by CIAL, Government of India through Agricultural and Food Promotion Export Development Authority (APEDA) and Government of Kerala.[unreliable source?]
- The Transshipment Cargo Complex is a dedicated warehouse allocated for transshipment cargo. The import and export cargo from the customs warehouses in the catchment area, as well as from airports like Chennai, Bangalore, Coimbatore etc., are handled and stored at this centre for export.
In addition, an exclusive domestic cargo complex has also been constructed for private domestic logistics firms and India Post services.
Air traffic control
The air traffic control (ATC) tower is 45 m (148 ft) tall. Cochin ATC controls flights below an altitude of 15,000 ft (4,600 m). The airport has an instrument landing system (ILS) using distance measuring equipment (DME). The ATC uses Doppler VHF omni range I and II.
Airport Surveillance Radar
The airport has signed agreement with AAI to install an advanced airport surveillance radar (ASR) as well as Monopulse Secondary Surveillance Radar (MSSR). In addition, the airport coming is installing a Surface Movement Radar for effective monitoring of flights in the runway and parking bays. The new radar system will make it possible to reduce the holding time of the aircraft before landing from the present level of 12 minutes to three minutes. This means that four aircraft can land within 12 minutes whereas it takes about 40 minutes for this currently. The radar will also allow more accurate alignment tracking for landing of the aircraft. The radars will be installed near the runway. The radar at Cochin airport will be networked with the systems at the Chennai, Mangalore and Thiruvananthapuram airports. The radar is expected to cost about 25 lakh and it will be imported from France.
With a length of 3,400 m (11,200 ft) and width of 45 m (148 ft), the runway is equipped to operate any type of aircraft in commercial service. It has a full length parallel taxiway of 3,400 m (11,200 ft). The runway is spread over the panchayat areas of Nedumbasserry, Sreemoolanagaram and Kanjoor.
Cochin Airport has one helipad for dedicated use of helicopters, meant for air-taxi purposes. Plans for constructing a heliport are underway.
Airlines and destinations
Airlines Destinations Terminal Air Arabia Sharjah International Air India Bangalore, Calicut, Chennai, Coimbatore, Delhi,Hydedabad, Mumbai, Trivandrum Domestic Air India Dammam, Jeddah, Mumbai, Muscat, Riyadh, Sharjah International Air India Express Abu Dhabi, Al Ain, Bahrain, Dammam, Delhi, Doha, Dubai, Kozhikode, Kuwait, Mumbai, Muscat, Salalah, Sharjah International Air India Regional Agatti, Chennai, Kozhikode Domestic AirAsia Kuala Lumpur International Bahrain Air Bahrain International Emirates Dubai International Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi International GoAir Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Delhi,Mumbai Domestic Gulf Air Bahrain International IndiGo Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Mumbai, Thiruvananthapuram Domestic Jet Airways Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Mumbai, Nagpur, Vishakhapatnam Domestic Jet Airways Doha, Muscat, Sharjah International JetLite Delhi, Hyderabad Domestic Kingfisher Airlines Agatti, Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Goa, Mumbai Domestic Kingfisher Airlines Colombo
Kuwait Airways Kuwait International Oman Air Muscat International Qatar Airways Doha International Saudi Arabian Airlines Dammam, Jeddah, Riyadh International SilkAir Singapore International SpiceJet Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Mumbai Domestic SriLankan Airlines Colombo International
Airlines Destinations Air India Cargo Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Mumbai Blue Dart Aviation Chennai Emirates Skycargo Dubai, Hong Kong Kingfisher Xpress Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Hyderabad
In pursuit of earning more non-aeronautical revenue, CIAL has set up shopping facilities. The Cochin duty-free shop in the international terminal is the first full-scale duty free shop in India, and one of the largest managed by Alpha Kreol, a joint venture between Alpha UK and Kreol Middle East. The arrivals hall has a large duty-free shopping area of 13,000 sq ft (1,200 m2) spread over two floors. The departure block duty-free area is under construction, though a last-minute shopping counter of 2,000 sq ft (190 m2) allows passengers to buy selected products. A book shop and ethnic Indian Khādī products promoted by KVIC Kerala, selling traditional Kerala souvenirs and Khadi clothes.
A 20,000 sq ft (1,900 m2) departure terminal duty-free area is under construction, with a 2,000 sq ft (190 m2) food-court, a wellness spa and 2 fine dining restaurants and a sports bar. The departures duty-free is expected to open by first quarter of 2012. It is also planned to setup a handicraft retail shop similar to "Dilli Haat" (दिल्ली हात) in New Delhi.
- Food and beverages
The International Departures Terminal have 2 multi-cuisine, fine dining restaurant cum lounge bars. The pre-check in lounge bar is operated by TajSats, located at entrance of Check-in hall, while an open terrace dining cum lounge bar, Firefly, is located on second floor at the departures security hold area. There are also several small cafes and sandwich counters operating in both the domestic and international terminals. A large cafe and a mini food court service the waiting lounge of the domestic terminal. A food court is under construction in the international terminal.
Five airport hotels exist within 200 m from the terminal complex of the airport, including a luxury resort. CIAL is planning to award contracts for a hotel resort and international convention center facility near the airport golf club, for which tenders have been issued.
The airport company has ventured into the tourism and hospitality sector through a wholly owned subsidiary, CIAL Tours and Tourism Limited (CTTL). CTTL provides customized tour packages, holiday services and conducts air-charter services with the collaboration of Bharat Airways, Deccan Aviation and K-Air Charters.
- Ground handling
Ground-handling is controlled by 3 companies, namely AISATS, Bird Worldwide Flight Services-BWFS and Livewel Aviation Services.
- Fuel supply
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) has provided fully fledged state-of-the-art aircraft refueling facilities. A 1400 m long pipeline from the fuel depot to the last aircraft parking bay ensures direct fuel-connectivity. Each aircraft parking bay will have two hydrant pit boxes, pit valves, and emergency isolation valves to international API/IP[clarification needed] standards. A modern fully automated tank-farm is also commissioned within the airport area.
A project to lay underground pipelines to transport aviation turbine fuel (ATF) directly from the BPCL Kochi refinery is under construction. These pipelines will stretch about 33 km, from the refinery to the aircraft turbine fuel station. This would mean there will be no need to depend on trucks for transport. The avoidance of fuel tankers on the roads provides a promising step in decongestion of the city roads. The project is estimated to cost 40 crore (US$8.11 million) and is expected to be operational from April 2011.
BPCL also provides refueling for all airport vehicles, as well as passenger vehicles, through its main petrol station outside the terminal.
- Flight kitchen and caterers
Cochin airport has issued operating permits to Casino Air Flight Services (CAFS), Saj Flight Kitchen and TAJ-SATS Flight services to provide in-flight catering services to all airlines operating from Cochin. In addition, Lulu-Oberoi Inflight Catering services and Ambassador Sky-Chef are scheduled to start their services by July 2012.
- Maintenance, repair and overhaul
Cochin airport, through its subsidiary Cochin International Aviation Services Limited (CIASL), has commissioned a 135,000 sq ft (12,500 m2) maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) facility on 32 acres (130,000 m2), at an initial cost of 80 crore (US$16.22 million). The first phase includes hangars for two narrow-body aircraft, with facilities for a line maintenance run-up bay, workshops, aircraft parking and a taxiway link. The second phase proposes an additional two narrow-body hangars and two wide-body hangars, more parking bays and workshops. CIASL is in partnership talks with an American aircraft maintenance company to construct and operate the MRO facility. Air India has expressed its interest in partnering with CIASL for additional MRO facilities for its aircraft. With this project, CIASL proposes to attract large-scale investments from leading OEMs (original equipment manufacturers) and hopes to reach out to cargo operators and business jets, especially from the growing markets of India, West Asia and South-East Asia.
Cochin International Airport is listed amongst the 12 major airports of India and the safety and security of the airport is handled by the Bureau of Civil Aviation Security through the Central Industrial Security Force#Airport security (CISF). Cochin airport was the third international airport, and the first private airport, in the country to come under the cover of CISF in 2001, after the Central Government decided to hand over airport security to CISF in the wake of the hijacking of Indian Airlines IC-814. Security was handled by the Special Branch of Kochi Police prior to the CISF. The airport company's Aviation Safety Wing (ASW) oversees security facilities and equipment. The ASW is also responsible for the fire and emergency services.
CIAL is the only airport in the country with internally trained private security agents, specializing in intelligence gathering and passenger profiling. Security management training is provided by CIAL's Aviation Academy and personnel are employed by the company as security agents; deployed in baggage screening rooms, entry gates, the general cargo area, and the lounge areas. CIAL ASW also employs Army-trained sniffer dogs to check for explosives in baggage areas, the only Indian airport to have such a facility. CIAL has also introduced 3 state-of-the-art ION scanning detectors that can identify small amounts of material, down to nanograms of explosives. The external security in parking areas, visitors lounges, cafes and other non-sensitive areas outside the terminal are handled by a private security company.
The airport is under the direct protection of the Kochi City Police, who have a police station outside the terminal. CISF maintains 2 armed squadrons and one Bomb Detection & Disposal Squad[where?]. CISF also has a command center located 250 metres outside the terminal, with an intelligence division and mobilization cell. The Air Customs division also operates a narcotics detection squad in the terminal. The CIAL ASWs are working on installing a fully automated perimeter intrusion detection system that will detect any possible case of intrusion on the perimeter of the airport, using sensors that will provide critical time for the security forces to react. Phase one of the intrusion prevention system is in place with barricades, automatic retractable bollards, surveillance cameras, parking gate management systems and the introduction of biometric ID cards for staff. The immigration department is handled by Special Branch officials trained by the Bureau of Immigration.
Education and training
Since 2008 CIASL has been the first airport to venture into providing higher education in aviation management and technical areas, to overcome the shortage of skilled manpower in the aviation industry. CIASL has teamed up with the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) to start two schools in aviation education:
- CIAL Aviation Academy provides 2 year management degrees in aviation and airport management, operations, economics, finance and human resources, along with short-term aviation oriented vocational diplomas. The academy also trains technical manpower required for airport operations. Air India Express currently have its temporary Stewards Grooming and training center in the facility.
The airport is located between National Highway 47 (NH 47), one of the main highways of South India, and the Main Central Road (MC Road), one of the State Highways of Kerala. An expressway is planned from NH 49 to the MC Road to facilitate faster transport. The main railway line is approximately 500 meters from the airport. An airport railway station, approved by Indian Railways, will be situated 300 meters away from the terminal. As of now[when?], the nearest railway stations are Angamaly and Aluva.
Cochin airport has dedicated air-taxi services for passengers to travel to major pilgrim destinations in Kerala as well as to cities like Thiruvananthapuram and Kozhikode. The airport, in association with Bharat Airways, provides scheduled air-taxi services to Sabarimala.
Buses are the primary means to connect the airport with major parts of the city. Services are mainly operated by the Kerala State Road Transport Corporation which operates two class[clarification needed] of bus services. The nearest bus-stations are Angamaly Bus Depot and Aluva Rajiv Gandhi Municipal Bus Station from where local, long distance and inter-state buses operate.
The following is a list of bus services to and from the airport:
Service Destination Frequency KSRTC Orange Bus 601, 603 Fort Kochi via City Center 45 Minutes interval 602, 604 Aluva Interchange Fast Passenger- Non AC North Line Angamaly Bus Depot Interchange 5 Minutes interval South Line Cherthala via Aluva, Vyttila 20 Minutes interval East Line Vaikom via Vyttila, Thrippunithura 45 minutes interval
Cochin airport manages a fleet of its own cabs, operating as the Cochin Airport Taxi Society (CATS), providing prepaid and regular cab facilities. CATS taxis can be booked at prepaid counters in the arrivals sections of both the international and domestic terminals.
One of the future projects for the airport is the CIAL Aerotropolis, or Airport City, with a total area of 500 acres (2.0 km2). The aerotropolis was proposed by its founder, V J Kurien, to ensure additional revenue sources for the growth of the company and to increase airport traffic through tourism and allied activities. The proposed Aerotropolis will be located in Nedumbassery and nearby villages, aiming to convert into a self-sustainable town, with the airport forming the core element along with a residential zone. Work on the aerotropolis commenced in 2007.
Manufacturing and business zone
The master plan envisages the creation of a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) for aircraft-allied industries, especially spare parts and OEM manufacturing units, an airline research and development center, workshops, and service zones. In addition to this an Information Technology Park, with dedicated airline support technology, design and development centers is also proposed. An integrated logistics center and central container freight station are planned at the cargo village.
CIAL's proposal for establishing the SEZ was approved by the Board of Approval of SEZs in 2008; however, work is yet to start due to the global recession. The project is estimated to begin by August 2011.
Phase one of the airside zone has completed with commissioning of the MRO facilities.
Incidents and accidents
- On 25 April 2010, Emirates Flight EK 530, a Boeing 777–200 from Dubai, dropped around 200 feet (61 m) during heavy turbulence as the aircraft entered a thick cumulonimbus cloud while on its descent. 20 passengers were injured and some internal damage was caused to the plane. The aircraft was on descent into Kochi, roughly between Mumbai and Chennai air spaces when the incident occurred. There were 350 passengers and 14 crew on board.
- On 25 August 2011, a 13 year old boy was found roaming around the Runway area, raising questions about the security system of the airport.
- On 29 August 2011, Gulf Air Flight GF 270, an Airbus 320 from Bahrain, carrying 137 passengers skidded off the runway at 3.55 am during its descent. The reason for the crash is suspected to be the heavy rain at the time of the incident. The aircraft has been said to slipped off the runway and landed nose first. The aircraft broke one of its wings while landing and stalled air traffic for hours. Passengers after the crash, in chaos were reported to have jumped from the aircraft through emergency exit doors even before stairways were brought into place. The crash caused seven minor injuries and two serious injuries due to the chaos that followed.
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- ^ Passenger Terminal Today "Sniffer dogs at airport". 2010-12-14. http://www.webcitation.org/5uyQMFtya.
- ^ CIAL introduces ION Scan | | | Indian Express "ION scanning detectors". 2010-12-14. http://www.webcitation.org/5uyQMoqSZ.
- ^ "Enhanced security equipment at Cochin airport". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 19 January 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-12-14. http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Kochi/article82651.ece.
- ^ Radhakrishnan, S. Anil (15 June 2010). "Airport facing lack of immigration officials". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Archived from the original on 2010-12-14. http://beta.thehindu.com/news/cities/Thiruvananthapuram/article456494.ece.
- ^ "CIAL academy". The Times Of India. Archived from the original on 2010-12-14. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/News-By-Industry/Transportation/Cial-Academy-first-to-be-started-by-an-airport-in-India/articleshow/4246353.cms.
- ^ "Aviation academy: CIAL ties up with IGNOU". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 11 March 2009. Archived from the original on 2010-12-14. http://www.hindu.com/2009/03/11/stories/2009031161560300.htm.
- ^ Cochin International Aviation Services Ltd "Cochin International Aviation Services Ltd". 2010-12-14. http://www.webcitation.org/5uyQSWccf.
- ^ Expressway to the airport "Expressway to the airport". 2010-12-14. http://www.webcitation.org/5uyPpydSL.
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- ^ Helicopter service launched for pilgrims in Kochi "Helicopter service launched for pilgrims in Kochi". 2010-12-14. http://www.webcitation.org/5uyQUNl7R.
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- ^ Kochi Aerotropolis "Kochi Aerotropolis". 2010-12-14. http://www.webcitation.org/5uyQVQNH4.
- ^ 'Emirates pilot couldn't avoid Cumulonimbus cloud'- TIMESNOW.tv – Latest Breaking News, Big News Stories, News Videos "Emirates pilot couldn't avoid Cumulonimbus cloud". 2010-12-14. http://www.webcitation.org/5uyQWSDL5.
- ^ Boy trespasses into Kochi Airport - southindia - Kochi - ibnlive
- ^ Gulf Air skids off runway at Kochi Airport NDTV, 29 August 2011
- Cochin International Airport at Airports Authority of India web site
- Cochin Airport Official Website
- Airport information for VOCI at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006.
- Accident history for COK at Aviation Safety Network
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