Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
type = state
base_map_label = no
state_name = Uttarakhand
native_name = Uttarakhand
latd = 30.05 |longd = 79.31
abbreviation = IN-UL
Hindi, Garhwali, Kumaoni
legislature_type = Unicameral
legislature_strength = 71‡
leader_title_1 = Governor
leader_name_1 = Banwari Lal Joshi
leader_title_2 = Chief Minister
leader_name_2 = B C Khanduri
area_total = 53566
area_rank = 18th
area_magnitude = 10
population_year = 2001
population_total = 8479562
population_rank = 19th
literacy = 72%
districts = 13
website = ua.nic.in
footnotes = † Dehradun is the provisional capital of the state. The new capital has not yet been chosen.
‡ 70 (elected) + 1 (nominated
Hindi: उत्तराखण्ड or उत्तराखंड Uttar + Akhand i.e. North + Section or Segment),is a state located in the northern part of India. It was known as "Uttaranchal" between 2000 and 2006, Uttarakhand became the 27th state of the Republic of Indiaon November 9, 2000[ [http://india.gov.in/business/investment_incentives/uttarakhand/uttarakhand.php Uttarakhand] Govt. of India, Official website.] .
Uttarakhand borders Tibet to the north,
Nepalto the east, and the states of Himachal Pradeshand Uttar Pradesh(of which it formed a part before 2000) in the west and south respectively. The region is traditionally referred to as Uttarakhand in Hindu scriptures and old literature, a term which derives from the Sanskrit for "Northern Country" or "Section". With an area of 20,682 sq mi (53,566 km²).
In January 2007, the name of the state was officially changed from Uttaranchal, its interim name, to Uttarakhand, according to the wishes of a large section of its people. The provisional capital of Uttarakhand is
Dehradunwhich is also a rail-head and the largest city in the region. The small hamlet of Gairsenhas been mooted as the future capital owing to its geographic centrality but controversies and lack of resources have led Dehradun to remain provisional capital. The High Court of the state is in Nainital.
Recent developments in the region include initiatives by the state government to capitalise on
handloomand handicrafts, the burgeoning tourist trade as well as tax incentives to lure high-tech industry to the state. The state also has big-dam projects, controversial and often criticised in India, such as the very large Tehri damon the Bhagirathi-Bhilangana rivers, conceived in 1953 and about to reach completion. [Yadav, K. P. S. (2002). Going Under : Tehri prepares for a watery grave as the controversial dam becomes a grim reality. Its residents are in mourning, their grief compounded by an uncertain future. Down To Earth, 10(16), 20.] Uttarakhand is also well known as the birthplace of the Chipkoenvironmental movement, [Guha, R. (2000). The unquiet woods : ecological change and peasant resistance in the Himalaya (Expanded ed.). Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.] and a myriad other social movements including the mass agitation in the 1990s that led to its formation.
Uttarakhand is both the new and traditional name of the state that was formed from the hill districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. Literally "North Country" or "Section" in
Sanskrit, the name of Uttarakhand finds mention in the early Hindu scriptures as the combined region of Kedarkhand and Manaskhand. Uttarakhand was also the ancient Puranicterm for the central stretch of the Indian Himalayas. Its peaks and valleys were well known in ancient times as the abode of gods and goddesses and source of the Ganga River. Today, it is often called "the Land of the Gods" (Dev Bhoomi) because of the presence of a multitude of Hindupilgrimage spots. The Pauravas, Kushanas, Kunindas, Guptas, Katyuris, Palas, the Chands, and Parmaras or Panwars and the British have ruled Uttarakhand in turns. [Kandari, O. P., & Gusain, O. P. (Eds.). (2001). Garhwal Himalaya : Nature, Culture & Society. Srinagar, Garhwal: Transmedia.]
The region was originally settled by Kols, an aboriginal people of the
Dravidianphysical type who were later joined by Indo-Aryan Khastribes that arrived from the northwest by the Vedic period. At that time, present-day Uttarakhand also served as a haunt for Rishisand Sadhus. It is believed that Sage Vyasascripted the Mahabharatahere as the Pandavasare believed to have traveled and camped in the region. Among the first major dynasties of Garhwaland Kumaonwere the Kunindas in the 2nd century B.C. who practiced an early form of Shaivism. They traded salt with Western Tibet. It is evident from the Ashokan edict at Kalsi in Western Garhwal that Buddhismmade inroads in this region. Folk shamanicpractices deviating from Hindu orthodoxy also persisted here. However, Garhwal and Kumaon were restored to nominal Brahmanicalrule due to the travails of Shankaracharyaand the arrival of migrants from the plains. In the fourth century, the Kunindas gave way to the Naga Dynasties. Between the 7th and 14th centuries, the Katyuri dynasty of Khas origin dominated lands of varying extent from the Katyur (modern day Baijnath) valley in Kumaon. Other peoples of the Tibeto-Burmangroup known as Kiratasare thought to have settled in the northern highlands as well as in pockets throughout the region, and believed to be the ancestors to the modern day Bhotiya, Raji, Buksha, and Tharupeoples. [Saklani, D. P. (1998). Ancient communities of the Himalaya. New Delhi: Indus Pub. Co.] By the medieval period, the region was consolidated under the
United Province, 1903
Garhwal Kingdomin the west and the Kumaon Kingdomin the east. From the 13th-18th century, Kumaon prospered under the Chand Rajas who had their origins in the plains of India. During this period, learning and new forms of painting (the Paharischool of art) developed. [Pande, B. D. (1993). History of Kumaun : English version of "Kumaun ka itihas". Almora, U.P., India: Shyam Prakashan : Shree Almora Book Depot.] Modern-day Garhwal was likewise unified under the rule of Parmar/Panwar Rajas, who along with a mass migration of Brahminsand Rajputs, also arrived from the plains. [Rawat, A. S. (1989). History of Garhwal, 1358-1947: an erstwhile kingdom in the Himalayas. New Delhi: Indus Pub. Co.] In 1791, the expanding Gurkha Empire of Nepal, overran Almora, the seat of the Kumaon Kingdom. In 1803, the Garhwal Kingdom also fell to the Gurkhas. With the conclusion of the Anglo-Nepalese Warin 1816, a rump portion of the Garhwal Kingdom was reestablished from Tehri, and eastern "British" Garhwal and Kumaon ceded to the British as part of the Treaty of Sugauli.
In the post-independence period, the Tehri princely state was merged into
Uttar Pradeshstate, where Uttarakhand composed the Garhwal and Kumaon Divisions. [Saklani, A. (1987). The history of a Himalayan princely state : change, conflicts and awakening : an interpretative history of princely state of Tehri Garhwal, U.P., A.D. 1815 to 1949 A.D (1st ed.). Delhi: Durga Publications.] Until 1998, Uttarakhand was the name most commonly used to refer to the region, as various political groups including most significantly the Uttarakhand Kranti Dal(Uttarakhand Revolutionary Party est. 1979), began agitating for separate statehood under its banner. Although the erstwhile hill kingdoms of Garhwaland Kumaonwere traditional rivals with diverse lingual and cultural influences due to the proximity of different neighbouring ethnic groups, the inseparable and complementary nature of their geography, economy, culture, language, and traditions created strong bonds between the two regions. [Aggarwal, J. C., Agrawal, S. P., & Gupta, S. S. (Eds.). (1995). Uttarakhand: past, present, and future. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co.] These bonds formed the basis of the new political identity of Uttarakhand, which gained significant momentum in 1994, when demand for separate statehood (within the Union of India) achieved almost unanimous acceptance among the local populace as well as political parties at the national level. [Kumar, P. (2000). The Uttarakhand Movement: Construction of a Regional Identity. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers.] Most notable incident during this period was the Rampur Tiraha firing caseon the night of October 1, 1994, which led to public uproar and eventually to the division of the state of Uttar Pradeshin 1998 [ [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/104312.cms Rampur Tiraha firing] The Times of India, 31 Jul 2003.] .
However, the term "Uttaranchal" came into use when the
BJP-led central and Uttar Pradesh state governments initiated a new round of state reorganization in 1998 and introduced its preferred name. Chosen for its allegedly less separatist connotations, the name change generated enormous controversy among the rank and file of the separate state activists who saw it as a political act [Negi, B. (2001). "Round One to the Lobbyists, Politicians and Bureaucrats." Indian Express, January 2.] , however they were not quite as successful as Jharkhandstate that successfully thwarted a similar move to impose the name "Vananchal". Nevertheless, the name Uttarakhand remained popular in the region, even while Uttaranchal was promulgated through official usage.
In August 2006, India's Union Cabinet assented to the four-year-old demand of the Uttaranchal state assembly and leading members of the Uttarakhand movement to rename Uttaranchal state as Uttarakhand. Legislation to that effect was passed by the State Legislative Assembly in October 2006, [UNI. (2006). "Uttaranchal becomes Uttarakhand." Tribune (India), October 12.] and the Union Cabinet brought in the bill in the winter session of Parliament. The bill was passed by Parliament and signed into law by the President in December 2006. Since then, Uttarakhand denotes a state in the Union of India.
According to 2001 India census, Uttarakhand had a population of approximately of 8.48 million. A population exceeding 10 million is expected by the next census of 2011. The native people of Uttarakhand are generally called either
Garhwalior Kumaonidepending on their place of origin in either the Garhwal or Kumaon region. Colloquially they are also referred to as Paharimeaning "hill person". Many Punjabis, make up the majority of the Terai population. Nepalis, Bengalis, and Tibetans of Eastern Tibet region (Khampa) have also settled in the state. Another well known category is Gujjar, cattle herders in the southwestern Terai. Kumaoniand Garhwalidialects of Central Pahariare spoken in Kumaonand Garhwalregion respectively. Jaunsari and Bhotiyadialects are also spoken by tribal communities in the west and north respectively. The urban population however converses mostly in Hindi.
Hindus form the majority of the population at 85.0%, Muslims form 12.0%, Sikhs 2.5% and Christians, Buddhists, Jains and others about 0.5%. It has male-female ratio of 964 and has a
literacy rateof 72%. The largest cities in the state are : Dehradun(530,263), Haridwar(220,767), Haldwani(158,896), Roorkee(115,278) and Rudrapur(88,720). The state government recognizes 15,620 villages and 81 cities and urban areas.
Uttarakhand has a total geographic area of 51,125 km², of which 93% is mountainous and 64% is covered by
forest. Most of the northern parts of the state are part of Greater Himalaya ranges, covered by the high Himalayan peaks and glaciers, while the lower foothills were densely forested till denuded by the British log merchants and later, after independence, by forest contractors. Recent efforts in reforestation, however, have been successful in restoring the situation to some extent. The unique Himalayan ecosystem plays host to a large number of animals (including bharal, snow leopards, leopards and tigers), plants and rare herbs. Two of India's mightiest rivers, the Ganga and the Yamunatake birth in the glaciers of Uttarakhand, and are fed by myriad lakes, glacial melts and streams in the region. [Negi, S. S. (1991). Himalayan rivers, lakes, and glaciers. New Delhi: Indus Pub. Co.]
Uttarakhand lies on the south slope of the mighty
Himalayarange, and the climate and vegetation vary greatly with elevation, from glaciers at the highest elevations to tropical forests at the lower elevations. The highest elevations are covered by ice and bare rock. The Western Himalayan Alpine Shrub and Meadows ecoregionlies between 3000-3500 and 5000 meters elevation; tundra and alpine meadows cover the highest elevations, transitioning to " Rhododendron"-dominated shrublands below. The Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests lie just below the tree line; at 3000-2600 meters elevation they transition to the Western Himalayan broadleaf forests, which lie in a belt from 2,600 to 1,500 meters elevation. Below 1500 meters elevation lies western end of the drier Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands belt, and the Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests. This belt is locally known as Bhabhar. These lowland forests have mostly been cleared for agriculture, but a few pockets remain. [Negi, S. S. (1995). Uttarakhand: land and people. New Delhi: MD Pub.]
Indian National Parks in Uttarakhand include the
Jim Corbett National Park(the oldest national park of India) at Ramnagar in Nainital District, Valley of Flowers National Park and Nanda Devi National Parkin Chamoli District, Rajaji National Parkin Haridwar District, and Govind Pashu Vihar National Parkand Gangotri National Parkin Uttarkashi District.
Government and Politics
The Chief Minister is
B.C. Khanduri. The last state elections in Uttarakhand were held on February 21, 2007. The Bharatiya Janata Partyemerged as the largest party with 34 seats in the 70-seat legislature. One seat short of forming a majority, the BJP have had to rely on support from the Uttarakhand Kranti Daland the three independents to form the government. The Indian National Congressis the official opposition, holding 21 seats.
There are 13 districts in Uttarakhand which are grouped into two divisions. Garhwal division includes Chamoli, Dehradun, Haridwar,
Pauri Garhwal(commonly known as Garhwal), Rudraprayag, Tehri Garhwaland Uttarkashi whereas Kumaon division includes Almora, Bageshwar, Champawat, Nainital, Pithoragarh, Udham Singh Nagar.
Uttarakhand's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $6 billion in current prices. Born out of partition of Uttar Pradesh, the new state of Uttarakhand produces about 8% of the output of the old Uttar Pradesh state. Consolidated Finvest and Holdings, a "S&P CNX 500" conglomerate has its corporate office in Uttarakhand. It reported a gross income of Rs.137 million for 2005. Fact|date=February 2007
In 2003, a new industrial policy for the state with generous tax benefits for investors was initiated that has led to a massive upsurge of capital investment. [http://sidcul.com/ SIDCUL] , the State Industrial Development Corporation of Uttaranchal (sic) has established seven industrial estates in the southern periphery of the state, while dozens of hydroelectric dams are being built in the upper reaches. However, hill development remains an uphill challenge as out migration of local peoples continues from the highland hinterlands.
Leisure, adventure, and religious tourism play a prominent role in Uttarakhand's economy, with the Corbett National Park and Tiger Reserve and the nearby hill-stations of
Nainital, Mussoorie, Almoraand Ranikhetbeing amongst the most frequented destinations of India. The state also contains numerous peaks of interest to mountaineers, although Nanda Devi, the highest and best-known of these, has been off-limits since 1982. Other national wonders include the Valley of Flowers, which along with Nanda Devi National Park, form a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
To Uttarakhand, long called "abode of the gods" ("Devbhumi"), belong some of the holiest Hindu shrines, and for more than a thousand years, pilgrims have been visiting the region in the hopes of salvation and purification from sin.
Gangotriand Yamunotri, the sources of both the Gangesand Yamunafall in the upper reaches of the state and together with Badrinath(dedicated to Vishnu) and Kedarnath(dedicated to Shiva) form the Chardhamof Uttarakhand, one of Hinduism most spiritually auspicious pilgrimage circuits. Rishikeshnear Haridwar is known as the preeminent yoga centre of India while the spectacular view from Hemkundis of special significance to Sikhs. In addition, the state has an abundance of temples and shrines, many dedicated to local deities or manifestations of Shivaand Durga, references to many of which can be found in Hindu scriptures and legends. [Dilwali, A., & Pant, P. (1987). The Garhwal Himalayas, ramparts of heaven. New Delhi: Lustre Press.] The architecture of most of these temples is typical of the region and slightly different from other parts of India, the ancient temples at Jageshwar being the most prominent for their distinct architectural features. Tibetan Buddhismhas also made itself felt with the recent reconstruction of Mindroling Monasteryand its Buddha Stupa, touted as the world's highest [PTI. (2002). "Dalai Lama Inaugurates World's Highest Stupa." October 28.] , southwest of Dehradun.
Uttarakhand has educational institutions of major importance to India and the world. It is home to the oldest engineering college in
Asia, the Indian Institute of Technologyat Roorkee(formerly University of Roorkee). Other universities and institutes of prime importance include University of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun,a domain Specific University in the field of Energy, Transportation and infrastructure, H.N.B. Garhwal University in Srinagar, Kumaun University in Nainital and Almora, G. B. Pant University in Pantnagar, Gurukula Kangri University in Haridwar, new Doon University in Dehradun, Govind Ballabh Pant Engineering College,Pauri, and Kumaon Engineering College ,Dwarhat. Garhwal and Kumaun Universities were founded in 1973 as part of the upsurge of regional sentiment that led to the Uttarakhand statehood.
The hill stations of Uttarakhand are also home to several reputed boarding schools including the Doon School (Dehradun), Woodstock School (Mussoorie), Birla Vidya Niketan (Nainital),
G D Birla Memorial School(Ranikhet), St. Joseph's College(Nainital) and Sherwood College(Nainital). Several Indian luminaries attended these schools including former prime ministers and film stars.
Historically, Uttarakhand is believed to be the land where the
Vedasand the Shastraswere composed and the great epic, the Mahabharata, was written. Rishikeshis widely considered the Yogacapital of the world.
Uttarakhand Solidarity Network
*Husain, Z. (1995). "Uttarakhand movement: the politics of identity and frustration, a psycho-analytical study of the separate state movement, 1815-1995". Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot. ISBN 8185897174
*Śarmā, D. (1989). "Tibeto-Himalayan languages of Uttarakhand". Studies in Tibeto-Himalayan languages, 3. New Delhi, India: Mittal Publications. ISBN 8170991714
*Fonia, K. S. (1987). "Uttarakhand, the land of jungles, temples, and snows". New Delhi, India: Lancer Books.
*Mukhopadhyay, R. (1987). "Uttarakhand movement a sociological analysis". Centre for Himalayan Studies special lecture, 8. Raja Rammohunpur, Dt. Darjeeling: University of North Bengal.
* [http://gov.ua.nic.in Official web-site of Uttarakhand Government]
* [http://uttara.in Uttarakhand Government Portal]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.