Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
native_name=Thrissur ( Thrissivaperoor)
official_name = Thrissur
latd = 10.52 | longd=76.21
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Prof. R. Bindu
population_as_of = 2001
population_total = 317,474| population_density = 3100
area_magnitude = sq.km
area_total = 101.43
footnotes =Temperature Range: 22.5°C -35 °C
:"For the district with the same name, see
Thrissur district".Thrissur / Trichur / Trissur) audio|Thrissur.ogg|pronunciation ( Malayalam: തൃശ്ശൂര്) is a city situated in central Kerala( Malayalam: േകരളം) state, India. It is the headquarters of Thrissur District. It is known as the 'Cultural Capital of Kerala'. The city is also a major financial and commercial hub. It is famous for the Thrissur Pooram(festival) and has a large number of well-known temples. It was officially called Trichur, its British Colonial name, until the 1990s.
The name Thrissur is derived from 'Thiru-Shiva-Perur' (
Malayalam: തൃശ്ശിവേപരൂര്) , which literally translates to "The city with the name of the Lord Siva". Thrissur was also known as "Vrishabhadripuram" and "Then Kailasam" (Kailasam of the south) in ancient days.Fact|date=September 2008 Another interpretation is 'Tri-shiva-peroor' or the big land with 3 Shivatemples, which refers to the 3 places where Lord Shiva resides - namely Punkunnam Siva temple, Kottapuram Siva templeand Vadakkunnathan temple.
Thrissur has traditionally been a centre of learning. With the decline of
Buddhismand Jainismdue to the growing supremacy of Brahminism during the revival of Hinduism, Thrissur became an important centre of SanskritlearningFact|date=February 2007. It is believed that the great Hindu saint, Adi Shankara, was born in answer to the prayer made by Arayambal and Sivaguru at Vadakkunnathan temple. Sankara's disciples Hastamalaka, Thotaka, Padmapada and Sudhachara established four Madoms in the city, namely the Northern Madom, the Middle Madom, the In-Between Madom and the Southern Madom, respectivelyFact|date=February 2007. Thrissur had been visited by other religious icons like Swami Vivekanandaand St. Thomas. Sree Narayana Guru, who fought against the caste system in Hindu religion, founded his first temple in KoorkancheryFact|date=February 2007.
In 1790, Raja Rama Varma, popularly known as Sakthan Thampuran, ascended the throne of Cochin. Raja Rama Varma re-built Thrissur from destruction after attacks from
Tipu Sultan's army Fact|date=January 2008, clearing the magnificent teak forest around the Vadukunathan Temple. Sakthan Thanpuran is hence known as the architect of Thrissur town. For a brief period, Thrissur was the capital of the Kochi kingdom and gained prominence. The Shaktan Thampuran palace was the abode of the Cochin king.
Sakthan Thampuran shifted his residence to Thrissur because of its salubrious climate and for safety from the depredations of the naval powers of the West. Sakthan Thampuran settled several Syrian Christian families in the town from their business centres in adjoining areas. Soon Thrissur was built into a flourishing centre of internal trade in Kerala.
Thrissur has played a significant part in the political history of
South India. During the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1921, several people from the city took active part and courted arrest. Thrissur district can also claim the honour of having been in the forefront of the countrywide movement for temple entry and abolition of untouchability.
Geography and climate
Thrissur is situated in south western India coord|10.52|N|76.21|E| and is in the central part of
Keralastate, India. Thrissur is at sea level and spans an area of about 66.15 km². The centre of the city is the Swaraj Round, lying around the small hillock called Thekin Kaadu Maidan on which the famous Vadakkumnathan templeis located. Once upon a time, the vast open area around the Vadakkumnatha temple was a magnificent teak forest called Thekkinkaadu.
The city has a tropical climate; monsoons start in June and the months of April-May are rather humid. This is also one of the best times to visit the city for the famed
Thrissur Pooram. The best weather is from October to February.
Historians say that Sakthan Thampuran invited
Brahminsfrom the neighbouring Pandya Kingdom, established them at Oottupura (Mass Feeding centres) and encouraged them to do business in textiles.
Thrissur is also referred to as the gold capital of
India, as Rs. 700 crore of gold jewellery is traded annually in the cityFact|date=February 2007. Almost every major jewellery shop in Keralahas branches in the city. It is one of the main manufacturing centres of plain gold jewellery in South India. 70% of Kerala's jewellery is manufactured in this city.
The headquarters of three major scheduled banks, South Indian Bank, Catholic Syrian Bank and Dhanalakshmi Bank Ltd are situated here. There are over 4200 chit companies around the city doing roaring business.
The other industries are diamond polishing and automobile tyre moulding.
Government and politics
Thrissur has one Member of Parliament. The current MP is Sri C.K. Chandrappan.
The M.L.A of Thrissur City is Sri Therampil Ramakrishnan.
The city mayor is Professor R Bindu. The Corporation of Thrissur was established on 30th September 2000. 50 members are elected to the corporation council from 50 wards.
Thrissur is well connected to other cities in
Keralaby both rail and road. It is located 55 km from the new Kochi International Airport and 80 km from the KozhikodeAirport. Thrissur Railway Station is on the artery of the railway line that connects the Southern part of Keralawith the rest of India. Thrissur lies on National Highways NH-47 and NH-17. It is well-connected to nearby cities and towns like Kochi, Kozhikode, Coimbatoreand Palakkad. Thrissur has one KSRTC Bus Station and three private bus stands viz. the Sakthan Stand in S.T. Nagar, the Vadakke Stand (Northern Bus Stand), the Municipal Bus Stand or old Bus Stand on M.O. Road.
The poulation of this city, as per 2001 census, is 3,17,526. Males constitute 48.6% and females constitute 51.4% of the total population. Thrissur has an average literacy rate of 86.5%: male literacy rate is 87% whereas female literacy rate is 86%. [http://www.indianetzone.com/7/thrissur.htm] .
Thrissur, often hailed as the cultural capital of Kerala, is built around a hillock crowned by the famous
Vadakkunnathan(Siva) Temple, believed to have been founded by legendary Parasurama. The temple is a classic example of Kerala style of architecture, and houses several sacred shrines. Asia's largest church (Puthenpally) Basilica of Our Lady of Dolours, (Lourdepally) Our Lady of Louedes's Metropolitan Cathedralof Syrian Catholics is noted for its imposing interior. The nain attraction is an underground shrine which is a masterpiece of architectural designing, the SACRED HEART LATIN CHURCHof Latin Catholics and the (Vellipally) Mart Mariam Big Churchof Chaldean Syrians is also situated at Thrissur. It is believed that Aadhi Shankaraspent his last days here.
The major cultural attraction is the
Thrissur Pooramfestival, celebrated during April - May. The Elephant - Umbrella Display competition is spectacular, as richly caparisoned elephants carrying ceremonial umbrellas take the deity around the main temple. The passionate drum concerts and the spectacular firework displays are all part of the Pooram celebration. Another attraction of this city is the " Puli Kali" ("Puli" = Tiger & "Kali" = Play) on the fourth day of Onamcelebrations ("Nalaam Onam"). It is a procession of different clubs from all over the city; participants, with tiger-striped body paint captivate the onlookers with their energetic dances. The festival attracts thousands to the city. Thrissur is widely acclaimed as the land of elephant lovers.
[http://www.keralasahityaakademi.org/ Kerala Sahitya Akademi] , [http://www.keralasangeethanatakaakademi.info/ Kerala Sangeetha Nataka Akademi] and Kerala Lalithakala Akademi are headquartered at Thrissur. Kerala Sahitya Akademi was established to promote the growth of Malayalam language and literature. Kerala Sangeetha Nataka Akademi promotes dance, music, drama and folk arts of Kerala. Kerala Lalitakala Akademi was established to promote fine arts and artistic heritage.
Jos Theater, the first theater in Kerala equipped with a movie projector, is in this city. Malayalam, Tamil, English and Hindi movies are shown in the eight major theatres in the city. For the last few years, the city has been hosting the International Film Festival of Thrissur (IFFT). Around 100 films from 35 countries are included in the festival. It is the second largest film festival in Kerala; the largest is in Thiruvananthapuram. In 2006, another International Film Festival started in Thrissur, namely Thrissur International Film Festival (TIFF).
Thrissur has also has had its fair share of philosophers and movements sprout from its rich collegiate environment. It can quite easily be called the cradle of Indian Communism. Famous thinkers such as Joseph Mundassery, C. Achuthamenon and many other progressive philosophists were from this city.Current Books and House of Knowledge were two prominent bookstores in the 1950s-80s of Thrissur history.
Thrissur is also the birth place of Kerala's
Indian Coffee Housemovement. The first ICH of the state opened in Thrissur in 1959, with Advocate T.K. Krishnanand Nadakkal Parameswaran Pillaithe founders.
The laid-back business culture of Thrissur is well known amongst the rest of Kerala. Known for their quick-witted repartee and accents, they still maintain a daily working schedule of 10am-7pm.
Thekkinkadu Maidan is full of card players and evening political debates take place here every day.
There are a number of well-regarded universities and training schools in Thrissur. Among them are Kerala Agricultural University, the
Government Engineering College, Thrissur, the Government Medical College, Thrissur, Jubilee Mission Medical College, Amala Medical College, Government Law College, Ayurveda College, Government Fine Arts College, College of Co-operation & Banking and Management, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, College of Horticulture, College of Forestry, Maharaja's Technological Institute (Polytechnic), a number of Arts Colleges such as St. Thomas College (one of the oldest in Kerala), Sri Kerala Varma College, St. Mary's College, Vimala College, St. Aloysious College and several private engineering institutes are situated in the city. This city is considered to be the most appropriate place for entrance (Medical) coaching in Kerala.
The first newspaper published in Thrissur was "Lokamanyan" in 1920Fact|date=February 2007 and the second was "Deenabandhu" in 1941Fact|date=February 2007. Today, leading newspapers like
Malayala Manorama, Express, Mathrubhumi, Deshabhimani, Kerala Kaumudi, Deepika, Madhyamamand Mangalamhave Thrissur editions. Doordarshan and a number of private Malayalam channels have regional studios in the city. The Press Club of Thrissur [http://www.thrissurpressclub.com] is situated at Round North. Private FM radio stations in the city are Radio Mango 91.9 (Malayala Manorama Co Ltd), Club FM 94.3 (Mathrubhumi Printing And Publishing Co Ltd), S FM 93.5 (Sun Network) and Best FM 95.0 (Asianet Communications Ltd). All India Radio AM/MW Radio Station Thrissur (630) has been broadcasting for several decades.Telephone services are provided by various players like Airtel, Idea cellular, Vodafone, Reliance Infocomm, Tata Indicom and BSNL.
Thrissur has a floodlit Football stadium, known as The Corporation Stadium. There are three more stadiums (Thope, Kerala Varma College and Agricultural University). It also has two indoor stadiums (V.K.N.Menon Indoor Stadium & Thope Stadium) and a Sports Authority of India (SAI) maintained
swimmingpool with international facilities.
The largest & highest temporary stadium in the world (as per the Guinness Book of World Records) was built here in 1991, with a capacity of 40,000 and a height of 70 feet. It was designed by Er. T.J. Antony. The veteran footballer
I.M Vijayan(former Indian captain) & Joe Paul Ancheryhail from this city.
Mannathazhath Balakrishna Menon (1893-1975) of this city organized the first International Foot Ball Tournament (Asian Foot Ball Tournament) held at Ernakulam in 1949, which had participants from Iran, Iraq, Pakistan and India. H.H. Maharaja of Cochin State presented a Silver Cup for his contribution to Kerala Sports & Games.
Thrissur has contributed many national and international body building stars to India, such as T.V.Poly and V.M.Basheer.
pecialities Of Thrissur City
Kerala Police AcademySpread over an area of 348 acres, the Academy, built at a cost of Rs. 220 million, has the capacity for training 1950 trainees of various ranks (1500 constables, 400 officers and 50 women constables) at a time, which is the highest in India and second highest in Asia.
KILAThe Kerala Institute of Local Administration (KILA) under the control of both Central and State Governments is situated at Mulankunnathukavu, Thrissur. It is the only institute for residential training of Grama Panchayath/Municipality/Corporation elected members and its staff. The trainees are from India and abroad. Now it is an international institute.
Swaraj RoundAlso known as Thrissur Round, which is at the heart of the city, is the largest ring road in India.
Vadakumnathan TempleOne of the oldest Mahadeva temples, situated in the centre of the city around which the city is built, is more than 2000 years old.
Basilica of Our Lady of DoloursAlso known as Puthan Pally, this is the biggest and tallest church in Asia, situated in the heart of the city. It is famous for its Gothic style architecture.
Lulu International Convention CenterIt is the second largest convention centre in India, with helipad facilities.
Dog Training CenterThe second Dog Training Center in India after the one in Tekanpur, Madhya Pradesh is in this city. It is the only one in South India.
Head OfficesMany government and private organizations have headquarters in Thrissur. Three nationalized banks (the South Indian Bank, the Catholic Cyrian Bank, the Dhanalakshmi Bank), the Kerala State Development Corporation For SC/ST Ltd, the Kerala State Financial Enterprises Limited (KSFE), the Pharmaceutical Corporation (I.M) Kerala Limited (Oushadhi) and the Kerala fishermen's Welfare Fund Board are headquartered in this city.
Places of interest in Thrissur City
Shakthan Thampuran PalaceNamed as Vadakkekara Palace, was reconstructed in Kerala-Dutch style in 1795 by Sri. Ramavarma Thampuran of the erstwhile Princely State of Cochin, well as Sakthan Thampuran(Greatest ruler of the Cochin dynasty) is preserved by Archaeological Department.
*Archeological & Art Museum It has a good collection of wood carvings, metal sculptures and ancient jewels.
Thrissur ZooIt is a major attraction for children and students, and holds a variety of animals.
*Kerala Sahitya Academy Kerala Sahitya Academy was established on August 15, 1956. It aims at the development of Malayalam Language and Literature and works in co-operation with the Kendra Sahitya Academy in New Delhi. There is a good library attached to the Academy consisting of two sections, the General Section and the Research Section.
Kerala Lalitakala AcademyThis was established in 1962. The aim of the Academy is to promote sculpture, painting and visual arts.
*Kerala Sangeetha Nadaka Academy It is also located in the city and was established on April 12, 1938. Its aim is to foster and develop Kerala Dance, Drama and Music and to promote the cultural unity of Kerala. It works in close collaboration with the Kendra Sangeetha Nataka Academy in New Delhi, for the enrichment of Indian culture. A regional theatre has been constructed in Thrissur with all modern facilities.
Appan Thampuran SmarakamEstablished in 1976 at Ayyanthole, where Sri. Ramavarma Appan thampuran lived in the Kumarapuram Palace. This is also a cultural Museum.
Vilangan KunnuThis hillock has been converted by the tourism department as an amusement park. While grownups relish the scenic splendor from the hill top, children can relax and play to their hearts' content.
* Brahmaswam Madhom (Rigvedic school)
East FortEastern side entrance to Thrissur Round
West FortWestern side entrance to Thrissur Round
VadakkechiraThis is one of the largest pond located north.
* [http://maps.google.com/maps/ms?ie=UTF8&hl=en&t=k&msa=0&msid=114038809751246788218.000440d8cff499fc85a7c&ll=10.526843,76.215742&spn=0.013101,0.018003&z=16 Satellite image of Thrissur]
* [http://thrissur.nic.in/ Government Portal for The Thrissur City]
* [http://www.tsr.kerala.gov.in/ Government Portal for the district of Thrissur]
* [http://www.doloursbasilica.com/ Our Lady of Dolour's Basilica]
* [http://www.thrissurpolice.com/ Website of Thrissur Police]
* [http://www.gectcr.edu/ Government Engineering College Thrissur]
* [http://www.prd.kerala.gov.in/prd2/keralam/dis_tsr.htm For more information]
* [http://www.indianetzone.com/7/thrissur.htm/ Article at indianetzone]
* [http://www.ebenezermarthomachurchthrissur.org/ Ebenezer Marthoma Church Thrissur]
* [http://wikitravel.org/en/Thrissur/ Travel]
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