Peter Carl Goldmark

Peter Carl Goldmark
Peter Carl Goldmark

Peter Carl Goldmark
Born December 2, 1906(1906-12-02)
Budapest
Died December 7, 1977(1977-12-07) (aged 71)
Port Chester, Westchester County, New York
Nationality Hungarian
Work
Institution memberships Columbia Records
Significant projects long-playing (LP)

Peter Carl Goldmark (Hungarian: Goldmark Péter Károly) (December 2, 1906 – December 7, 1977) was a German-Hungarian engineer who, during his time with Columbia Records, was instrumental in developing the long-playing (LP) microgroove 33-1/3 rpm vinyl phonograph disc, the standard for incorporating multiple or lengthy recorded works on a single disc for two generations. The LP was introduced by Columbia's Goddard Lieberson (April 5, 1911 – May 29, 1977) in 1948. Lieberson was later president of Columbia Records from 1956–71 and 1973–75.

Goldmark got his first exposure to television in 1926 while in graduate school in Vienna. He later hoped to work with John Logie Baird but was turned down for a job after meeting Baird for lunch in London. In 1936, Goldmark joined CBS Laboratories, and one year later he became a naturalized citizen of the United States.

In addition to his work on the LP record, Goldmark developed a technology for color television while at CBS. The system, first demonstrated on August 29, 1940, and shown to the press on September 3 [1] used a rapidly rotating color wheel that alternated transmission in red, green and blue. The system transmitted on 343 lines, about 100 less than a black and white set, and at a different field scan rate, and thus was incompatible with television sets currently on the market without an adapter.[2]

Although CBS did broadcast in color with the Goldmark system in 1950–1951, the "compatible color" technology developed for RCA and NBC (by a team led by Richard Kell, George H. Brown and others) was compatible with existing black and white TVs. Goldmark and others have pointed out that the CBS color wheel system did provide better picture quality (although lower image resolution) than RCA's system, but the compatibility problem proved its downfall. An improved RCA/NBC color system submitted in July 1953 became the industry standard chosen by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in December 1953. Ironically, cameras using the color wheel system continued to be used for scientific research for several more decades, including the color lunar surface TV cameras during all the 1970s NASA Apollo moon landings.[3]

After the success of the LP record, Goldmark spent the next two decades at CBS Laboratories working on various inventions, chief of which was EVR, the Electronic Video Recorder. This futuristic home video playback device used reels of film stored in plastic cassettes to electronically store audio and video signals, and was first announced in 1967. A B&W prototype was demonstrated in 1969 (promising color playback in future models), but the invention floundered when it proved to be difficult and costly to manufacture. CBS was also concerned about the potential of competition from home video devices, particularly those that could record — a fear that eventually proved prescient. As with color television, Goldmark's EVR film-based system was superseded by another technology, in this case Sony's U-Matic 3/4" videocassette format in late 1971, since the cassette tape format was cheaper and more effective. However, Goldmark's vinyl long-playing records remained the standard in the music industry until the CD replaced the LP in the late 1980s.

He was awarded the Elliott Cresson Medal in 1969.

Approaching the mandatory company retirement age of 65, Goldmark left CBS Laboratories in 1971, and formed Goldmark Communications, where he pursued research on the use of communication technologies to provide services like teleconferencing and remote medical consultations to people in rural areas. Funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation in the early 1970s, the "New Rural Society Project" was housed at Fairfield University in Fairfield, Conn., and conducted pilot studies across the state in Eastern Connecticut's relatively rural Windham region.

On November 22, 1977, President Jimmy Carter presented Goldmark with the National Medal of Science "For contributions to the development of the communication sciences for education, entertainment, culture and human service."[4]

Goldmark died in an automobile accident on December 7, 1977 in Westchester County, New York.

See also

  • German inventors and discoverers

Sources

  • Coleman, Mark (2005) PLAYBACK: From the Victrola to MP3, 100 Years of Music, Machines and Money, Published by Da Capo Press (ISBN 0-306-81390-4)
  • Fisher and Fisher, "The Color War", Invention and Technology, Winter 1997
  • Goldmark, Peter (1973) "Maverick Inventor: My Turbulent Years at CBS", published by Saturday Review Press (ISBN 0841500460)
  • Reitan, Jr., Edward Howrd, "Ed Reitan's Color Television History," http://novia.net/~ereitan/, retrieved July 1, 2007.

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Peter Carl Goldmark — noun United States inventor (born in Hungary) who made the first TV broadcast in 1940 and invented the long playing record in 1948 and pioneered videocassette recording (1906 1977) • Syn: ↑Goldmark, ↑Peter Goldmark • Instance Hypernyms: ↑inventor …   Useful english dictionary

  • GOLDMARK, PETER CARL — (1906–1977), U.S. television engineer. Born in Hungary, Goldmark went to the U.S. in 1933 and joined CBS as chief TV engineer in 1936, becoming president of its laboratories division in 1954. He developed systems of color television, one of which …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Goldmark, Peter Carl — born , Dec. 2, 1906, Budapest, Hung. died Dec. 7, 1977, Westchester county, N.Y., U.S. Hungarian U.S. engineer. He earned a doctorate from the University of Vienna before immigrating to the U.S. in 1933. From 1936 to 1972 he worked at the… …   Universalium

  • Goldmark, Peter Carl — (2 dic. 1906, Budapest, Hungría–7 dic. 1977, cond. de Westchester, N.Y., EE.UU.). Ingeniero húngaro estadounidense. Obtuvo un doctorado de la Universidad de Viena antes de emigrar a EE.UU. en 1933. Desde 1936 hasta 1972 trabajó en los… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Peter Goldmark — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Peter Carl Goldmark (Budapest, Hungría, Westchester Country, 2 de diciembre de 1906 7 de diciembre de 1977), fue un ingeniero húngaro, nacionalizado estadounidense en 1937 que en el tiempo en el que trabajó para la… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Peter Goldmark — may refer to:*Peter Carl Goldmark, engineer and inventor *Peter J. Goldmark, rancher, geneticist and politician …   Wikipedia

  • Goldmark — can refer to:*German Goldmark, coinage of the German Empire *Karl Goldmark (Hungarian: Károly Goldmark ), composer *Rubin Goldmark, composer *Peter Carl Goldmark, scientist and inventor …   Wikipedia

  • Goldmark (Begriffsklärung) — Goldmark steht für: Goldmark, die Währung des Deutschen Kaiserreiches ab 1871 Personen: Karl Goldmark (1830–1915), österreichisch ungarischer Komponist, Musiklehrer und Violinist Peter Carl Goldmark (1906–1977), US amerikanischer Ingenieur Rubin… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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