- Ontario Highway 407
Express Toll Route Route information Maintained by 407 ETR Concession Company Limited, a Cintra company Length: 107.2 km (66.6 mi) History: Proposed 1959–1986,
Opened June 7, 1997
Major junctions West end: Highway 403 / Queen Elizabeth Way – Burlington Highway 403 – Mississauga
Highway 401 – Milton
Highway 410 – Brampton
Highway 400 – Vaughan
Highway 404 – Markham
East end: Highway 7 – Pickering Highway system ← Highway 406 Highway 409 →
Highway 407, officially known as the 407 Express Toll Route (ETR), is a privately-operated 400-series highway and tollway in the Canadian province of Ontario. Despite being included as part of the 400-series network, Highway 407 is not part of the provincial highway network. It begins at the junction of the Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW) and Highway 403 in Burlington, and travels 107.2 km (66.6 mi) northeast and east to its present terminus at Highway 7 and Brock Road (Durham Regional Road 1) in Pickering. Plans are currently underway to extend the highway further east through Durham Region to Highway 35/115 near Orono as a provincially-maintained highway.
Leased to a private consortium in 1999, Highway 407 was formerly planned as a 400-series freeway to bypass the Toronto segment of Highway 401, currently the busiest highway in North America.
Major freeway junctions with Highway 407 are located at (from west to east) the Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW), Highways 403, 401, 410, 427, 400, and 404. Other major street junctions include Bronte Road (Halton Regional Road 25), Hurontario Street, Highway 27, Yonge Street and Markham Road (Formerly Highway 48). In all, there are 40 different junctions on Highway 407 connecting the toll road with the main transportation network in the Greater Toronto Area.
Highway 407 is the first electronically operated toll highway opened in the world; there are no toll booths along the length of the highway. Transponders or licence plates are read at entrance and exit points and distances calculated electronically. Drivers are mailed their bill several days later. The tolls on the highway have generated considerable controversy since the highway opened, as well as a lawsuit brought on by the province.
The 407 uses a system of cameras and transponders to toll vehicles automatically. There are no toll booths, hence the name "Express Toll Route" (ETR). It is one of the earliest examples of a highway that exclusively uses open road tolling. Highway 407 is designed as a normal freeway with interchanges connecting directly to surface streets, without the need for toll booth intermediaries (typically via a trumpet interchange) which could otherwise take up significant land. A radio antenna detects when a vehicle with a transponder has entered and exited the highway, calculating the toll rate. For vehicles without a transponder, an automatic number plate recognition system is used. Monthly statements are mailed to users.
The original section of Highway 407, between Highway 410 and Highway 404, was the first highway in almost thirty years since Highway 427 to be surfaced with concrete instead of asphalt, which despite involving a costlier initial investment, lasts significantly longer and has better reflective capabilities (although motorists have a noisier ride). Unlike most American concrete highways where the concrete is a continuous surface on both roadway and bridge surfaces, all 407 bridge decks are covered with an Ontario styled asphalt wearing surface to protect a waterproofing layer placed on top of the underlying concrete deck. Also, some sections of the 407 are paved with asphalt instead of concrete since these sections opened much later (QEW (west terminus)-403; Markham Road-Highway 7 (east terminus). It also has a high-pressure sodium high-mast lighting system installed throughout the length of the freeway; only 4 lamps are needed instead of the usual 8-12 since the concrete pavement reflects light better than asphalt. The 407 (along with other recent suburban and rural Ontario freeways) has been designed with aesthetics in mind, with landscaped embankments and storm drainage ponds at interchanges.
Because of its wide median, it has the capacity to be expanded from six to ten lanes (maximum of eight lanes between Highway 401 in Mississauga and Highway 403 in Hamilton) without having to reconstruct existing bridges and interchanges.
Braided ramps were used to avoid weaving when there were closely spaced interchanges. The high-capacity junction with Highway 400 is currently the only 4-level stack in Ontario. Another four-level interchange with Highway 427 also has the capacity to be expanded to a stack if traffic levels warrant.
On Highway 407 most of the original overhead sign gantries between Highway 401 and McCowan Road are of the Aluminum Tapered Leg (ATL) variety (commonly referred by the MTO as a "Type 1" structure), installed in the early-mid 1990s which marks it the last time that these were used on Ontario freeways. Newer sign gantries added to extensions and upgrades of Highway 407 as well as other Ontario freeways are of the triangular truss type. Many overpasses were constructed with concrete/steel I-beams, though there are quite a few box girder bridges as well.
When the freeway was opened in 1997, many critics complained that it had skimped on safety features to save money. Many of Highway 407's shortcomings were documented in an independent study which included input from the Ontario Provincial Police.
The four-way interchanges with Highway 410 and Highway 404 were intended to be four-level Stack interchanges but they were reduced to three-level stack/cloverleaf junctions, with low-capacity loop ramps serving freeway-to-freeway traffic. Only the interchange with Highway 400 was built as a four-level stack, while the junction with Highway 427 is expected to be converted to a stack when Highway 427 is extended north and traffic levels warrant the upgrade. Experts were also concerned about the decreased loop ramp radii and a lack of protective guardrail at sharp curves. The lack of a concrete median barrier separating the carriageways has also been a worry, considering the high traffic volumes typical of a suburban freeway and because the lighting masts are installed in the median instead of the shoulder. It was argued that the large grass median separating the carriageways was sufficient to prevent cross-over collisions, since Highway 410 has similar features. Most of these concerns were dismissed on the grounds that it would require an extensive reconstruction of the existing freeway.
Inadequate signage leading to 407 has been criticized for being misleading, with motorists incurring bills for accidentally driving onto the 407. Further controversy has centered on the westward extension from Mississauga to Burlington; despite the majority of traffic not using that section of Highway 407, the interchanges at the ends are nonetheless designed with that segment as the mainline through traffic. In the original design, this section was intended to be used for an extension of Highway 403. Because most current Ontario freeways are designed with right-hand exits (while through traffic stays on the left), left-hand exits to the 407 have caused a great deal of confusion with cases of drivers unintentionally driving onto 407 from eastbound 403.
The 407 is operated privately under a 99-year lease agreement with the provincial government. The lease was sold to a consortium of Canadian, Spanish and Australian interests operating under the name 407 International Inc. for approximately $4.1 billion in 1999, a figure that is acknowledged to be far lower than the actual value of the highway.
Highway 407 was the eighth 400-Series Highway planned for Ontario, to serve as a bypass of Highway 401 through Toronto and as a major east-west corridor across the sprawling suburbs to the north of the city. Plans for the "Dual Highway" first appeared in the 1959 plan for Metropolitan Toronto. Land adjacent to a hydro corridor was acquired for Highway 407 in the 1960s but it sat vacant for almost thirty years, as the Ontario government opted instead to widen Highway 401 to a 12-lane collector-express system. The Highway 401 expansion project was considered a success and construction of Highway 407 was shelved until 1987.
The first section was completed in 1987 as a temporary routing for Highway 403 in Mississauga and Oakville (after a change in plans, this segment would be permanently part of Highway 403). The next phase to begin construction was a short connector between Highway 427 and Highway 400, and the upgrading of Highway 7 through Richmond Hill to a six-lane grade-separated expressway, which although originally planned to become incorporated into the 407 routing, today runs parallel to the highway. In addition, cross-street overpasses and ramps for the interchange connections to Highway 427 and Highway 400, and modifications to accommodate the highway at the Highway 403/QEW interchange, were constructed by the Ministry of Transportation in the early 1990s.
The Ontario government's normal process for highway construction was not possible given the financial constraints of the recession of the early Nineties. The Rae government developed the 407 ETR highway by seeking out private sector partnerships and using leading-edge electronic road pricing technology. Two firms bid on the project, with the Canadian Highways International Corporation being selected as the operator of the highway. Financing for the highway would be paid by user tolls lasting 35 years, after which it would return to the provincial system as a toll-free 400-series highway.
The highway opened in 1997, and highway cost roughly $1.6 billion. When it was later leased, one opposition MPP claimed that Ontario had spent $100 billion since the early 1970s acquiring the land that it sits on.
Highway 407 was officially opened to traffic on June 7, 1997 from Highway 410 to Highway 404; tolls were not charged for a month to allow motorists to test-drive the freeway. The next section extended the freeway 13 km (8.1 mi) to the west to meet Highway 401 near Winston Churchill Drive. It was opened on December 13, 1997. Another extension brought this end south to meet Highway 403, and was opened in mid-1998.
In the east, an extension to Markham Road, at what was then the southern terminus of Highway 48, was completed in early 1998. However, at the protesting of local residents and officials (a scenario which is currently being revisited in Oshawa), the freeway was opened to traffic only as far as McCowan Road on February 18. The short segment from McCowan Road to Markham Road remained closed for over a year, as locals feared the funneling of traffic onto Main Street, which Markham Road narrows into north of the freeway. Both Markham and McCowan were widened to four lanes between Highway 407 and Steeles Avenue at this time. This did not alleviate concerns, and the extension opened to continued protest on June 24, 1999.
As part of a controversial plan to balance the budget, and just prior to the Harris government's re-election campaign, the highway was leased to a conglomerate of private companies in 1999 for $3.1 billion, who renamed the route 407 ETR. The company, known as 407 International Inc., is owned by a consortium of Cintra Concesiones de Infraestructuras de Transporte (major shareholder) from Spain, Macquarie Infrastructure Group, and Montreal-based engineering firm SNC-Lavalin. The deal included a 99-year lease agreement, unlimited control over the highway and its tolls and a restriction under which the government may not build any nearby freeways which might potentially compete with 407 ETR; however, the Government maintained the ability to build a light transit system along the 407 right-of-way.
When purchased, the highway ran from the junction of Highway 403 in Mississauga to Markham Road in Markham. Extensions westward to the Queen Elizabeth Way and eastward to Highway 7 and Brock Road in Pickering were constructed by the corporation, as mandated in the lease agreement. Both of these extensions were not part of the original Highway 407 plans; rather, these protected corridors were to be future, non-tolled 400-Series highways. The westward extension from Highway 403 in Mississauga to the Queen Elizabeth Way in Burlington was initially intended to be an extension of Highway 403. (Highway 407 was originally slated to assume the temporary routing for Highway 403 in Mississauga-Oakville and end at the QEW.)
On October 5, 2010, the Canadian Pension Plan announced that an agreement was reached with the owners of the roadway to purchase 10% stake for $894 million Canadian dollars. This implies a value of close to $9 billion for the highway in its current state.
The Ontario provincial government has quarrelled with 407 ETR over toll rates and customer service. On February 2, 2004, the government delivered notice to 407 ETR that they are considered to be in default of their contract because of 407 ETR's decision to raise toll rates without first obtaining the government's permission. The court's initial decision sided with 407 ETR: on July 10, 2004, an independent arbitrator affirmed that 407 ETR has the ability to raise toll rates without first consulting the government. The government filed an appeal of this decision but was overruled by an Ontario Superior Court decision released on January 6, 2005; however, a subsequent ruling by the Ontario Court of Appeal on June 13, 2005 granted the government permission to appeal the decision.
The 407 ETR is contractually responsible for maintaining high traffic levels as justification for increasing tolls. The 407 ETR conducts its own traffic studies, and reports that traffic on the 407 ETR has grown steadily since it first opened, with over 360,000 trips taken on the average workday. Regardless, parallel roads that Highway 407 would have supplemented continue to grow congested. Despite the self-reported growth of traffic on 407 ETR, the Ontario government had to revisit costly widening projects of Highway 401 and the QEW.
Critics have complained that the rising toll rates have made Highway 407 more of a "luxury" rather than a bypass on existing congested roads as it was initially intended.
An environmental assessment (EA) to consider an extension of Highway 407 through Durham Region from its current Brock Road terminus in Pickering, Ontario to Highway 35/115 in Clarington, Ontario is underway. Also being studied in the assessment are two north-south connecting highways between Highway 407 and Highway 401 to the south, one located in the general vicinity of western Whitby, Ontario and the other near Courtice, Ontario.
A preferred route was announced in June 2007, and the EA is expected to be complete in June 2009.
On March 6, 2007, as part of the FLOW initiative, the Government of Canada and the Province of Ontario confirmed the extension of the 407 to Highway 35/115 in Clarington, including the connector highways, with an announced completion date of 2013.
On January 27, 2009, the provincial government announced that the extension would be a tolled highway but owned by the province and with tolls set by the province. The announcement also indicated that the province expected to issue a Request for Proposals later in the year.
On June 9, 2010, the ministry approved the extension, but it would only be going as far east as Simcoe Street in Oshawa for the time being, as they want the extensions to be built in phases. However, there were complaints on how it would impact traffic if the 407 ETR ended there. After a motion that was rejected by the Ontario Legislature on having the 407 ETR going to Highway 35/115, the government issued a compromise on March 10, 2011, where the first phase would end as far east as Harmony Road in Oshawa by 2015 and then beginning the second phase where it would extend towards Highway 35/115 by 2020. The extension section in the Durham Region will also see the tolls going to the Ontario treasury.
A controversial point is the billing practice in which Highway 407 ETR customer service representatives and even collection agencies may continue to contact customers to pay bills, even in cases where the bill is incorrect or has not been incurred. Vehicles towing trailers can often be double billed or billed in the wrong weight category. Critics[who?] of the privatization of 407 complain that the operators use these tactics as a means of gouging money illegally from consumers in order to make up for losses incurred from non-paying drivers.
Drivers with transponders must be alert and listen for the exit tones from the transponder when leaving the 407, and be vigilant with making 407 customer service aware of transponder malfunction when it occurs. Otherwise, they can face "Video Toll" charges. Excepting motorcycles the "Video Toll" charge will be applied, per trip, to any vehicle that does not have a transponder. A monthly account fee is also charged to vehicles without a transponder in each month a trip is taken. Except for motorcycles, vehicles without a transponder are therefore charged the Video Toll charge + Account fee on their first trip each month.
For drivers without transponders, the automatic number plate recognition system is linked to several provincial and U.S. state motor vehicle registries. Currently, only the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, and the states of Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Ohio, New York, Maryland, Maine, Georgia, Florida and possibly several adjacent states and provinces provide 407 ETR access to their registry databases due to the privacy laws of these states. This has resulted in untold numbers of motorists from other jurisdictions being able to travel on 407 ETR without receiving a bill.
Following a judicial decision by the Ontario Divisional Court on November 7, 2005, the Ontario Registrar of Motor Vehicles was ordered to begin denying the validation or issue of US and Canadian license plates and vehicle permits for 407 ETR users who have failed to pay owed fees for at least 125 days. On November 7, 2005, Ontario's Transportation Minister Harinder Takhar said in a press release, "That is very serious... when it occurs through no fault of their own, but because the 407 ETR electronic system made a mistake." 
On November 24, 2005, the MTO announced that it would appeal the decision but would begin to deny plates until the appeal was decided. On February 24, 2006, the Ontario Court of Appeals denied the government leave to appeal the November 7, 2005 decision. As a result, plate denial is once again in place.
Previously, in February 2000, the Ontario government would suspend driver licenses for unpaid 407 bills; however, this practice was quickly suspended by the Ontario government and the new owner of the highway after receiving many complaints from customers about erroneous billing. Between 2000 and 2005 the company said it improved its billing system to minimize the chance of plate denial errors.
The Highway 407 Act, Section 22, gives the owner of the 407 ETR the ability to deny license plate renewal of drivers who have refused to pay their toll for more than 125 days after the toll first incurred. Before the 407 can notify the Registrar of Motor Vehicles to deny plate renewal or refuse to issue a new plate for a driver, the Highway 407 Act specifies how this process would work.
According to the Highway 407 Act, Section 13(1), the 407 can only charge a driver under two conditions: the name of the person whom the plate portion of the vehicle is issued to, or the name of the person whom the transponder unit affixed in the vehicle is issued to. When a driver enters the 407, if he or she does not have a valid transponder in the vehicle, the 407 snaps a picture of the license plate and receives information about the person the plate is registered to, including the name and address, from the Ontario Ministry of Transportation. The 407 would then mail a bill to the address that is on file at the Ministry of Transportation. Drivers will have 37 days from the billing date on the statement to pay their tolls.
As the 407 ETR does not implement in a timely fashion the updates it receives from the Ministry of Transportation about a driver's contact information, the 407 ETR may send bills to an address where the driver no longer resides, resulting in accumulating charges and penalties without the driver ever seeing a bill. To prevent this from happening, Ontario drivers who use the 407 ETR, especially those who do not have a transponder leased from the 407 ETR (customers who lease transponders have already given the 407 ETR their billing information and as such are less likely to be affected by this), are required to keep their contact information updated with 407 ETR as they indicate that they no longer receive updates from the Ministry of Transportation. Originally, the instruction that the customer had to keep their contact information updated was only printed on the payment envelope sent with the statement. This information was later added to information printed on the statement itself.
Notice of Failure to Pay
If a driver has a 407 bill that is outstanding for more than 37 days, the 407 ETR will mail a “Notice of Failure to Pay” to the address they have on file for that driver. Unless the driver leases a transponder from the 407 ETR, all contact information about the driver is received from the Ministry of Transportation. At this point outstanding accounts will start accumulating interest (26.82% APR, compounded monthly). Additional administrative fees may also be charged on the account. If a driver receives a "Notice of Failure to Pay", he or she can either pay the outstanding toll or, within 30 days of receiving the "Notice of Failure to Pay", deliver the 407 (preferably by registered mail) a Notice of Dispute listing one or more of the permitted grounds as set in the Highway 407 Act, Section 17(1). The Notice of Dispute is available for download from the 407 ETR's website.
A dispute may not be filed on the basis that the 407 ETR failed to notify a driver of charges. A dispute may only be filed under the following circumstances:
The toll was already paid in full;
The amount of the toll is incorrect;
The vehicle, plate, and/or transponder of the vehicle in question was stolen at the time the toll incurred;
The driver in question is not the person responsible for the toll under Section 13(1) of the Highway 407 Act.
Once a driver files a dispute with the 407, the 407 will have 30 days to respond to the dispute. If the 407 fails to respond for whatever reason, the disputed amount can’t be sent to plate denial. However, if the 407 informs the driver that it does not agree with the dispute, the driver may appeal the 407’s decision to an independent arbitrator appointed by the Ontario government. The 407 will have 15 days to file a written submission once informed by the arbitrator of the filed dispute.
During the arbitration process the plate denial process is not stopped. The 407, however, will not use collection agencies or file a claim for the disputed amount in court. As the plate denial process is not halted during the arbitration process, drivers are encouraged to pay the amount owing or make arrangements to pay as soon as possible. If the arbitrator rules in favor of the driver, the 407 is required to pay the driver the amount ruled plus interest.
If the arbitrator rules in favour of the 407 then the driver is responsible for the toll charges as well as any interest and other administrative or collection fees charged by the 407 if he or she has not yet paid the amount owing. The arbitrator’s decision is final and cannot be appealed. It should be noted that even while the dispute is being processed by an arbitrator, once 90 days pass after the Notice of Failure to Pay was sent and the account remains unpaid, the 407 will notify the Registrar of Motor Vehicles to deny plate renewal and issuance of new plates for the name of the person who the plate portion attached to the vehicle incurring the toll is issued to, or the name of the person who the transponder in the vehicle incurring the toll is registered to. By law, the Registrar of Motor Vehicles must comply and place that person on plate denial. At the same time, the 407 must send that person a “Notice of Plate Denial” by registered mail or courier. Once the person pays the outstanding amount, the 407 must notify the Registrar of Motor Vehicles immediately to remove that person from plate denial.
If a property changes hands it will still receive the bills for fees incurred by previous owners/tenants if they do not register an updated address with the Ministry of Transportation.
When plate denial was finally reinstated by the courts in 2006, as part of an agreement reached with the Ontario government to drop its legal appeal against the 407's use of plate denial, the 407 introduced a payment plan for drivers who owe significant amount of tolls and fees. The payment plan allows a person to pay the amount owing over time in payments as opposed to paying it all off at once. Qualification for the payment plan, as well as any terms attached to it, is at the sole discretion of the 407.
To become eligible, a driver must owe more than $1000 CAD in tolls and fees and have no other alternative vehicle. The driver must also prove that paying the entire toll at once will basically amount to financial suicide. If the 407 decides that a driver qualifies for this plan, there are specific terms that have to be met. Interest charges will continue to accumulate, in some cases the driver must agree not to use the highway until the amount owing is significantly reduced or paid off entirely, and perhaps most interesting of all is giving the 407 the right to register a lien against your vehicle. In addition, if you decide the accept the payment plan, the 407 will charge a one-time $30 "Payment Plan Application Processing Fee" to your account. This fee too will be subjected to interest. It is added to the rest of the balance on the account.
You are not eligible to apply for the plan if you owe less than $1000 CAD, if there's sufficient public transportation in your vicinity, if it's possible for you to rent or find a replacement vehicle, or if you already made payment arrangements in the past and failed to honour them.
Drivers who think they qualify for the plan have to download an application from the 407 ETR's website. The final decision rests with the 407 ETR’s Ombudsman. Drivers who have been approved for the plan will be contacted by the 407.
- All dollar amounts listed are Canadian dollars.
As of February 1, 2011, the base tolls for driving on the 407 are as follows:
Off-Peak Light duty Heavy duty Multi-Unit Heavy Entire Highway 19.35 cents/km 38.70 cents/km 58.05 cents/km Peak Period 1 Rates Light duty Heavy duty Multi-Unit Heavy Light Zone 21.25 cents/km 42.50 cents/km 64.35 cents/km Regular Zone 22.75 cents/km 45.50 cents/km 68.85 cents/km Peak Period 2 Rates Light duty Heavy duty Multi-Unit Heavy Light Zone 21.45 cents/km 42.90 cents/km 64.35 cents/km Regular Zone 22.95 cents/km 45.90 cents/km 68.85 cents/km Other Tolls Light duty Heavy duty Multi-Unit Heavy Trip Toll 50 cents/trip 60 cents/trip 85 cents/trip Video Toll (no transponder) $3.65/trip $15.00/trip $15.00/trip Monthly Account Fee (no transponder) $2.75 $2.75 $2.75 Monthly Transponder Lease $2.75 $2.75 $2.75 Annual Transponder Lease $21.50 $21.50 $21.50 Peak Hours Minimum Trip Toll Charge (up to) N/A $11.00/trip $19.50/trip Off-Peak Hours Minimum Trip Toll Charge (up to) N/A $10.50/trip $18.50/trip
- The toll rate that applies to a specific trip is determined by the time in which the vehicle enters the highway.
- Peak Period 1 Rates are in effect from 6am-7:30am, 8:30am-10am, 3pm-4pm and from 6pm-7pm, Monday through Friday except for holidays.
- Peak Period 2 Rates are in effect from 7:30am–8:30am and from 4pm-6pm, Monday through Friday except for holidays.
- The Regular Zone refers to sections of 407 ETR from QEW to Highway 410, from Highway 427 to Highway 400, and east of Markham Road.
- The Light Zone refers to all other segments of the road (from Highway 410 to Highway 427, from Highway 400 to Markham Road).
- Heavy Duty vehicles are assessed a minimum toll regardless of the length of their trip.
- Light duty vehicles without transponders are assessed an additional Video Toll. Heavy duty vehicles are legally required to have transponders in order to use the highway. Motorcycles are not charged a video toll because there is rarely a reasonable place to mount a transponder.
Changes to tolling
- Originally, the part of the highway west of Markham Road was considered the Regular Zone while the part east of Markham Road was designated the Light Zone. The current zoning was instituted February 1, 2011.
- The Trip toll was first introduced in 2009, at 25 cents per trip. This was increased last time in February 2011 to its current rate.
- Afternoon Peak Rates were originally only in effect until 6pm.
The 407 ETR claims that toll increases are necessary to keep the highway maintained and improve traffic flow by adding new lanes. Doing so is part of their lease agreement with the Ontario government. Despite the improvements, however, critics point out that toll increases have far outpaced the rate of inflation since the highway was leased to a private consortium. The cost of driving on the highway has effectively more than doubled from when the highway first opened in 1997. On their website, it is claimed that $70 million was budgeted for new construction in 2010.
Interestingly enough, MSN Autos concluded the most expensive toll road in North America was a 16-kilometre stretch of SR-91 in California . The toll on this road comes to 0.578 per km. However if one compares the actual cost of a trip on the 407 (including surcharges, such as for not having a transponder and a once a month levy of $2.50), a short trip of some 6 km comes to 1.395 per km, well over the California surcharge.  Needless to say, these charges have generated a lot of controversy.
Location km Exit Destinations Notes Burlington 0.0 Highway 403 / Queen Elizabeth Way – Hamilton, Niagara Falls, Brantford Westbound exit and eastbound entrance 5.5 5 Regional Road 5 (Dundas Street) 9.4 9 Appleby Line Oakville 13.5 13 Regional Road 25 (Bronte Road) – Oakville, Milton 18.4 18 Neyagawa Boulevard 21.5 21 Regional Road 3 (Trafalgar Road) – Oakville, Hornby, Georgetown 24.0 24 Highway 403 – Oakville Milton, Mississauga 28.1 28 Britannia Road 31.1 31 Regional Road 7 (Derry Road) 33.0 34A Highway 401 east – Toronto Eastbound exit and westbound entrance Halton Hills Brampton, Mississauga 34.5 34B Highway 401 west – London Signed as exit 34 westbound 39.0 39 Regional Road 1 (Mississauga Road) Brampton 42.2 42 Mavis Road 44.4 44 Hurontario Street Formerly Highway 10 46.6 46 Highway 410 48.9 48 Regional Road 4 (Dixie Road) 50.4 50 Bramalea Road Westbound exit and eastbound entrance 53.5 53 Regional Road 7 (Airport Road) 54.9 54 Goreway Drive Westbound exit and eastbound entrance Vaughan 58.2 58 Highway 427 – Toronto, Pearson International Airport 59.4 59 Regional Road 27 – Toronto, Barrie Former Highway 27 63.5 63 Regional Road 57 (Pine Valley Drive) 65.6 65 Regional Road 56 (Weston Road) Eastbound exit and westbound entrance 66.4 66 Highway 400 – Toronto, Barrie 67.6 67 Regional Road 55 (Jane Street) 69 Regional Road 6 (Keele Street) 73 Regional Road 53 (Dufferin Street) 75 Regional Road 38 (Bathurst Street) 77 Regional Road 1 (Yonge Street) Former Highway 11 Richmond Hill, Markham 79 Regional Road 34 (Bayview Avenue) Markham 81 Regional Road 12 (Leslie Street) Eastbound exit and westbound entrance 82 Highway 404 – Toronto, Newmarket 84 Regional Road 8 (Woodbine Avenue) 86 Regional Road 65 (Warden Avenue) 88 Regional Road 3 (Kennedy Road) 90 Regional Road 67 (McCowan Road) 92 Regional Road 68 (Markham Road) – Whitchurch-Stouffville Former Highway 48 94 Regional Road 69 (9th Line) New ramps being added 2010 - Westbound ramp from northbound Ninth Line 96 Regional Road 48 (Donald Cousens Parkway) 98 Regional Road 30 (York-Durham Line) Pickering 100 North Road Future interchange on existing freeway 102 Pickering Airport Connector Future interchange on existing freeway 103 Pickering Sideline 24 Future interchange on existing freeway 106 Regional Road 1 (Brock Road) Currently at-grade intersection; end of freeway 108 Highway 7 Current eastern terminus; at-grade intersection Ajax 111 Regional Road 31 (Westney Road) To be owned by the province 112 Salem Road 115 Regional Road 23 (Lake Ridge Road) Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; to be owned by the province Whitby 116 West Durham Link (proposed freeway) To be owned by the province 118 Cochrane Street Eastbound entrance and westbound exit; to be owned by the province 120 Highway 12 (Baldwin Street) To be owned by the province 122 Regional Road 26 (Thickson Road) Oshawa 126 Regional Road 2 (Simcoe Street) 129 Regional Road 33 (Harmony Road) Clarington 134 Regional Road 34 (Enfield Road) 136 East Durham Link To be owned by the province; proposed connector freeway to Highway 401 138 Durham Regional Road 57 To be owned by the province 145 Darlington-Clarke Townline 149 Highway 35/115 Proposed eastern terminus of Highway 407; to be owned by the province
- Electronic toll collection
- Private highway
- Maryland Route 200, a similar toll road under construction in Maryland, United States.
- ^ a b c Sewell, John (2009). The Shape of the Suburbs: Understanding Toronto's Sprawl. University of Toronto Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-8020-9884-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=dFA2YUVA57wC&lpg=PA70&dq=%22Highway%20403%22&pg=PA72#v=onepage&q=%22Highway%20403%22&f=false. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- ^ a b Mitchell, Bob (June 6, 1997). "At Last — Opening Bell Tolls for the 407". The Toronto Star: pp. A1, A6.
- ^ "Map / Toll Calculator". 407 ETR. February 1, 2011. http://www.407etr.com/highway/map.html. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
- ^ http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/html/statutes/english/elaws_statutes_98h28_e.htm#BK14 Highway 407 Act, 1998, Sections 12(1) and 12(2)
- ^ Maier, Hanna (October 9, 2007). Long-Life Concrete Pavements in Europe and Canada (Report). Federal Highway Administration. http://international.fhwa.dot.gov/pubs/pl07027/llcp_07_02.cfm. Retrieved May 1, 2010. "The key high-volume highways in Ontario are the 400-series highways in the southern part of the province. The most important of these is the 401, the busiest highway in North America, with average annual daily traffic (AADT) of more than 425,000 vehicles in 2004, and daily traffic sometimes exceeding 500,000 vehicles."
- ^ 
- ^ 
- ^ 
- ^ Roadtalk Highway 407 November 2008
- ^ http://hansardindex.ontla.on.ca/hansardeissue/36-2/l047.htm Ontario Government Hansard - Wednesday 21 October 1998 - 1520, 1550. Estimates range from $104-107 billion total taxpayer investment as of 31 March 1998
- ^ Mitchell, Bob (December 13, 1997). "Highway 407 Extends to West". The Toronto Star: p. A5. "Highway 407's 13 kilometre western extension opens today from Highway 410 in Brampton to Highway 401 in Mississauga."
- ^ Mitchell, Bob; Keung, Nicholas (February 18, 1998). "Highway 407 Grows a Controversial 7 Kilometres". The Toronto Star: p. B1, B3. "Highway 407 grows again today with the opening of a controversial seven-kilometre stretch from Highway 404 to McCowan Road. As of 2:30 p.m., motorists will be able to travel Canada's first tollway from Highway 401 on the Mississauga/Milton border to McCowan Rd. in Markham."
- ^ Swainson, Gail (June 28, 1999). "Highway Bypass Put on Fast Track". The Toronto Star: p. B5. "The eastern section of Highway 407, running from McCowan Rd. to Markham Rd., opened Thursday to howls of protest from Markham residents."
- ^ CPP to Buy 10% of 407 Toll Road OCT2010
- ^ Highway 407 East Technically Recommended Route
- ^ Canada’s New Government announces investment to cut commute times, clear the air and drive the economy in the Greater Toronto Area, Web site of the Prime Minister of Canada, retrieved March 7, 2007
- ^ Province to Own Highway 407 Extension, CNW, retrieved January 27, 2009
- ^ Liberals to extend Highway 407
- ^ http://autos.ca.msn.com/editors-picks/worlds-most-amazing-record-breaking-roads?cp-documentid=30109984&page=8
- ^ https://www2.407etr.com/TollCalculator/tolls_calculator.aspx -- Assume trip from Dixe Rd to 427 Highway; passenger car; no transponder; peak hours 6am - 10am; first trip of the month
- 407/ETR Official Website
- 407 East Extension Environmental Assessment
- Ontario Ministry of Transportation
- Highway 407 Act, 1998
- Highway 407 at OntHighways.com
- Google Maps: Highway 407 route
- Book: "If You Build It..."
Controlled-access highways of Ontario 400-series highways Other highwaysCurrent: 2A · 11 · 58 · 115 · 137 · Conestoga Pkwy. · Dougall Pkwy. · E.C. Row Expwy. · Hanlon Pkwy. · Queensway · Thunder Bay Expwy.
Municipal: Black Creek Dr. · Burlington St. · Cootes Dr. · Don Valley Pkwy. · Gardiner Expwy. · Harbour Expwy. · Highbury Ave. · Lincoln M. Alexander Pkwy. · Queensway · Red Hill Valley Pkwy. · Vets Mem. Pkwy. · W.R. Allen Rd.
Proposed: GTA West Corridor · Halton–Peel Freeway · Mid-Peninsula Highway · Bradford Bypass · West Durham Link · East Durham LinkCounty roads in Ontario · Ontario numbered highways · Expressways and 400-series highways · King's Highways · Secondary highways · Tertiary and 7000-series highways · List of Ontario provincial highways · List of former provincial highways in Ontario · Highways in Ontario · List of Ontario expressways · Trans-Canada Highway · Connecting Link · Emergency Detour Route
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