Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution operating full ocean depth autonomous underwater vehicles
(AUVs) owned by the Waitt Institute discovered, by means of sidescan sonar, a large portion of debris field believed to be that of flight AF447. Further debris and bodies, still trapped in the partly-intact remains of the aircraft's fuselage, were located in water depths of between 3,800 to 4,000 metres (2,100 to 2,200 fathoms; 12,000 to 13,000 ft). The debris was found to be lying in a relatively flat and silty area of the ocean floor (as opposed to the extremely mountainous topography that was originally believed to be AF447's final resting place). Other items found were engines, wing parts and the landing gear
The debris field was described as "quite compact", measuring some 200 by 600 metres (660 by 2,000 ft) and located a short distance to the north of where pieces of wreckage had been recovered previously, suggesting that the aircraft hit the water largely intact. The French Ecology and Transportation Minister Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet stated the bodies and wreckage would be brought to the surface and taken to France for examination and identification. It was not yet possible to quantify how many bodies had been discovered. The French government chartered three vessels – the deep-ocean cable-laying and the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and operations crew experienced in the recovery of aircraft for the United States Navy were on board the Île de Sein.
The BEA announced that on 26 April, after a 12-hour dive by the Remora 6000, the flight data recorder chassis had been found, although without the crash-survivable memory unit, which is the actual data storage medium. On 1 May the memory unit was found and lifted on board the Île de Sein by the ROV. According to the BEA's director Jean-Paul Troadec, the photos of the memory module showed that it had suffered little exterior corrosion, but it was not possible to say whether the memory chip remained readable. The plane's cockpit voice recorder was found at 2150 UTC (GMT) on 2 May 2011, and was raised and brought on board the Île de Sein the following day.
On 7 May the flight recorders, under judicial seal, were taken aboard the French Navy patrol boat La Capricieuse for transfer to the port of Cayenne. From there they were transported by air to the BEA's office in Le Bourget near Paris for data download and analysis. One engine and the avionics bay, containing onboard computers, had also been raised. On 5 May 2011, efforts to recover the bodies of passengers from the sea bed began. 51 bodies had been previously recovered from the sea.
The BEA confirmed on 16 May that all the data from both the flight data recorder and the cockpit voice recorder had been successfully downloaded. The data would be subjected to detailed in-depth analysis taking several weeks, after which another interim report would be released during the summer. The download was completed in the presence of two Brazilian investigators of the Aeronautical Accidents Investigation and Prevention Center (CENIPA), two British investigators of the Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB), two German investigators of the German Federal Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Investigation (BFU), one American investigator of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), an officer of the French judicial police, and a court expert. The entire download was filmed and recorded.
On 3 June, the last 27 bodies from the wreckage were recovered. With this, the number of bodies recovered from the wreckage reached 104 and the total number of recovered bodies was 154. The remaining 74 bodies from the flight were not found.
East-west cross-section of Atlantic Ocean portion in which Air France Flight 447 was thought to have crashed, showing depth of the sea floor. The vertical scale is exaggerated by a factor of 100 relative to the horizontal.
Investigators have not yet determined a cause of the accident, but preliminary investigation found that the crash could have been caused by erroneous airspeed indications, if the pitot tubes had iced over during the flight. Although the full sequence of events is not yet clear, based on the timing of the events and the shape and distribution of debris, it appeared that the aircraft rapidly lost altitude (possibly going into a stall) and hit the ocean surface with its underside at a vertical speed of 150 kph (90 mph) 4 minutes later, breaking up on impact.
The French government opened two investigations:
- A criminal investigation for manslaughter is under way (this is standard procedure for any accident involving a loss of life and implies no presumption of foul play), which since 5 June 2009 is under the supervision of Investigating Magistrate Sylvie Zimmerman from the Paris Tribunal de Grande Instance. The judge gave the investigation to the Gendarmerie nationale, which would conduct it through its aerial transportation division (Gendarmerie des transports aériens or GTA) and its forensic research institute (the "Institut de Recherche Criminelle de la Gendarmerie Nationale", FR).
- In June 2009, the DGSE (the external French intelligence agency) revealed that the names of two registered passengers on board corresponded to the names of two individuals thought to be linked to Islamic terrorist groups.
- In March 2011, a French judge filed preliminary manslaughter charges against Air France and Airbus over the crash.
- A technical investigation, the goal of which is to enhance the safety of future flights. As the aircraft was of French registration and crashed over international waters, this is the responsibility of the French government, under the ICAO convention. The Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la Sécurité de l'Aviation Civile (BEA) is in charge of the investigation. Representatives from Brazil, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States became involved under the provisions of ICAO Annex 13; representatives of the United States were involved since the engines of the aircraft were manufactured there, and the other representatives could supply important information. The People's Republic of China, Croatia, Hungary, Republic of Ireland, Italy, Lebanon, Morocco, Norway, South Korea, Russia, South Africa, and Switzerland appointed observers, since citizens of those countries were on board. The BEA released a press release on 5 June 2009, that stated: 
A large quantity of more or less accurate information and attempts at explanations concerning the accident are currently being circulated. The BEA reminds those concerned that in such circumstances, it is advisable to avoid all hasty interpretations and speculation on the basis of partial or non-validated information. At this stage of the investigation, the only established facts are:
- the presence near the airplane’s planned route over the Atlantic of significant convective cells typical of the equatorial regions;
- based on the analysis of the automatic messages broadcast by the plane, there are inconsistencies between the various speeds measured.
By June 2009 the main task occupying the investigators was the recovery of aircraft parts, primarily the flight recorders. BEA chief Paul-Louis Arslanian said that he was not optimistic about finding them since they might be under as much as 3,000 m (9,800 ft) of water and the terrain under this portion of the ocean was very rugged. Investigators were hoping to find the aircraft's lower aft section, since that was where the recorders were located. Although France had never recovered a flight recorder from such depths, there was precedent for such an operation: in 1988, an independent contractor was able to recover the cockpit voice recorder of South African Airways Flight 295 from a depth of 4,900 m (16,100 ft) in a search area of between 80 and 250 square nautical miles (270 and 860 km2). The Air France flight recorders were fitted with water-activated acoustic underwater locator beacons or "pingers", which should have remained active for at least 30 days, giving searchers that much time to locate the origin of the signals.
On 2 July 2009, the BEA released an intermediate report, which described all known facts, and a summary of the visual examination of the rudder and the other parts of the aircraft that had been recovered at that time. According to the BEA, this examination showed that:
- the airliner was likely to have struck the surface of the sea in a normal flight attitude, with a high rate of descent;[Note 5]
- There were no signs of any fires or explosions.
- The airliner did not break up in flight. The report also stresses that the BEA had not had access to the post-mortem reports at the time of its writing. Some of these might have suggested otherwise.
On 16 May 2011, Le Figaro reported that the BEA investigators had ruled out an aircraft malfunction as the cause of the crash, according to preliminary information extracted from the Flight Data Recorder. The following day, the BEA issued a press release explicitly describing the Le Figaro report as a "sensationalist publication of non-validated information". They stated that no conclusions had yet been made, that investigations were continuing, and that no interim report was expected before the summer. On 18 May the head of the investigation clarified this contradictory information, stating that no major malfunction of the aircraft had been found so far in the data from the flight data recorder, but that minor malfunctions had not yet been ruled out.
On 27 May 2011, the BEA released a short factual report of the findings from the data recorders without any conclusions. A first analysis of the data was to be expected for the end of July.
In the minutes before its disappearance, the aircraft's onboard systems had sent a number of messages, via ACARS, indicating disagreement in the indicated airspeed (IAS) readings. A spokesperson for the BEA claimed that "the air speed of the aircraft was unclear" to the pilots and, on 4 June, Airbus issued an Accident Information Telex to operators of all its aircraft reminding pilots of the recommended Abnormal and Emergency Procedures to be taken in the case of unreliable airspeed indication. French Transport Minister Dominique Bussreau said "Obviously the pilots [of Flight 447] did not have the [correct] speed showing, which can lead to two bad consequences for the life of the aircraft: under-speed, which can lead to a stall, and over-speed, which can lead to the aircraft breaking up because it is approaching the speed of sound and the structure of the plane is not made for resisting such speeds".
Paul-Louis Arslanian, of France's air accident investigation agency, confirmed that there had been previous problems affecting the speed readings on other A330 aircraft stating, "We have seen a certain number of these types of faults on the A330 ... There is a programme of replacement, of improvement". The problems primarily occurred on the Airbus A320, but, awaiting a recommendation from Airbus, Air France delayed installing new pitots on A330/A340, yet increased inspection frequencies.
On 6 June 2009, Arslanian said that Air France had not replaced pitot probes as Airbus recommended on F-GZCP, saying that "it does not mean that without replacing the probes that the A330 was dangerous." Air France issued a further clarification of the situation:
Malfunctions in the pitot probes on the A320 led the manufacturer to issue a recommendation in September 2007 to change the probes. This recommendation also applies to long-haul aircraft using the same probes and on which a very few incidents of a similar nature had occurred.
The recommendation from Airbus was that the Thales model AA pitot tubes which had been installed on the Air France fleet during manufacture should be replaced by Thales model BA pitot tubes, in order to address the problem of water ingress which had been observed. Since it was not an Airworthiness Directive (AD), the guidelines allow the operator to apply the recommendations at its discretion. Air France implemented the change on its A320 fleet where the incidents of water ingress were observed, and decided to do so in its A330/340 fleet only when failures occurred.
Starting in May 2008 Air France experienced incidents involving a loss of airspeed data in flight (...) in cruise phase on A340s and A330s. These incidents were analysed with Airbus as resulting from pitot probe icing for a few minutes, after which the phenomenon disappeared.
After discussing these issues with the manufacturer, Air France sought a means of reducing these incidents, and Airbus indicated that the new pitot probe designed for the A320 was not designed to prevent cruise level ice-over. In 2009, tests suggested that the new probe could improve its reliability, prompting Air France to accelerate the replacement program, but this work had not been carried out on F-GZCP. By 17 June 2009, Air France had replaced all pitot probes on its A330 type aircraft.
On 11 June 2009, a spokesman from the BEA reminded that there was no conclusive evidence at the moment linking pitot probe malfunction to the AF447 crash, and this was reiterated on 17 June 2009 by the BEA chief, Paul-Louis Arslanian.
Example of a heated pitot probe on a small aircraft.
In July 2009, Airbus issued new advice to A330 and A340 operators to exchange Thales pitot tubes for tubes from Goodrich Sensors and Integrated Systems.
On 12 August 2009, Airbus issued three Mandatory Service Bulletins, requiring that all A330 and A340 aircraft be fitted with two pitot tubes manufactured by Goodrich Sensors and one Thales model BA pitot (or alternatively three of the Goodrich pitots); Thales model AA pitot tubes were no longer to be used. This requirement was incorporated into Airworthiness Directives issued by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) on 31 August and by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) on 3 September. The replacement was to be completed by January 7, 2010. According to the FAA, in its Federal Register publication, use of the Thales model has resulted in "reports of airspeed indication discrepancies while flying at high altitudes in inclement weather conditions", that "could result in reduced control of the airplane." The FAA further stated that the Thales model probe "has not yet demonstrated the same level of robustness to withstand high-altitude ice crystals as Goodrich pitot probes P/N 0851HL,".
On 21 December 2010, Airbus issued a warning to roughly 100 operators of A330, A340-200 and A340-300 aircraft, regarding pitot tubes, advising pilots not to re-engage the autopilot following failure of the airspeed indicators.
Findings from the flight data recorder
On 27 May 2011, the BEA released an update on its investigation describing the history of the flight as recorded by the flight data recorder. At 3 hours 55 minutes absolute time (time from planned departure), the captain woke the second pilot and said: "[...] he's going to take my place". After having attended the briefing between the two co-pilots, the captain left the cockpit to rest at 4 hours 1 minute 46 seconds. At 4 hours 6 minutes absolute time, the pilot warned the cabin crew that they were about to enter an area of turbulence. Four minutes later, the pilots turned the plane slightly to the left and decreased its speed from Mach 0.82 to Mach 0.8 due to increased turbulence.
At 4 hours 10 minutes and 5 seconds absolute time the autopilot disengaged as did the engines' auto-thrust systems 3 seconds later. The pilot made a left nose-up input, as the plane began rolling to the right. The plane's stall warning sounded briefly twice due to the angle of attack tolerance being exceeded by short vertical accelerations due to turbulence. 10 seconds later, the plane's recorded airspeed dropped sharply from 275 knots to 60 knots. The plane's angle of attack increased, and the plane started to climb. The left-side instruments then recorded a sharp rise in airspeed to 215 knots. This change was not displayed by the Integrated Standby Instrument System (ISIS) until a minute later (the right-side instruments are not recorded by the recorder). The pilot continued making nose-up inputs. The trimmable horizontal stabilizer (THS) moved from 3 to 13 degrees nose-up in about 1 minute, and remained in that latter position until the end of the flight.
At around 4 hours 11 minutes into the flight, the plane had climbed to its maximum altitude of around 38,000 feet. There, its angle of attack was 16 degrees, and the thrust levers were in the TO/GA detent (fully forward), and at 4 hours 11 minutes 15 seconds the pitch attitude was slightly over 16 degrees and falling, but the angle of attack rapidly tracked towards 30 degrees. Lift was lost from the wing and the aircraft became stalled. At 4 hours 11 minutes 40 seconds, the captain re-entered the cockpit. The angle of attack had then reached 40 degrees, and the plane had descended to 35,000 feet with the engines running at almost 100% N1 (the rotational speed of the front intake fan, which delivers most of a turbofan engine's thrust). The stall warnings stopped, as all airspeed indications were now considered invalid by the aircraft's computer due to the high angle of attack and/or the airspeed was less than 60 knots. In other words, the plane was oriented nose-up but descending steeply.
Roughly 20 seconds later, the pilot decreased the plane's pitch slightly, air speed indications became valid and the stall warning sounded again and sounded intermittently for the remaining duration of the flight, but stopped when the pilot increased the plane's nose-up pitch. From there until the end of the flight, the angle of attack never dropped below 35 degrees. During the last minutes, the thrust levers were in the "idle" detent position. The engines were always working, and responsive to commands.
The recordings stopped at 4 hours 14 minutes and 28 seconds absolute time (02:14:28 UTC), or 3 hours 45 minutes after takeoff. At that point, the plane's ground speed was 107 knots, and it was descending at 10,912 feet per minute, with the engines' N1's at 55%. Its pitch was 16.2 degrees (nose up), with a roll angle of 5.3 degrees left. During its descent, the plane had turned more than 180 degrees to the right to a compass heading of 270 degrees. The plane was stalled during its entire 3 minute 30 second descent from 38,000 feet.
While the incorrect airspeed data was the apparent cause of the disengagement of the autopilot, the reason the pilots lost control of the aircraft remains a mystery, in particular because pilots would normally try to lower the nose in case of a stall. Multiple sensors provide the pitch (attitude) information and there was no indication that any of them were malfunctioning. Some reports have described this as a deep stall, but this was a steady state conventional stall. A deep stall is associated with an aircraft with a T-tail, but this aircraft does not have a T-tail.
In October 2011, a transcript of the voice recorder was leaked and published in the book Erreurs de Pilotage (Pilot Error) by Jean Pierre Otelli. According to the book, three seconds before impact, the transcripts records a crew member saying, "Damn it, we're going to crash, this can't be true!" The BEA and Air France both condemned the release of this information however, calling it "sensationalized and unverifiable information" that "impairs the memory of the crew and passengers who lost their lives."
Third interim report
On 29 July 2011, the BEA released a third interim report, in French, on safety issues it found in the wake of the crash. It was accompanied by two shorter documents in other languages summarizing the interim report and addressing safety recommendations.
The third interim report stated that some new facts had been established. In particular:
- The pilots had not applied the unreliable airspeed procedure.
- The pilot-in-control pulled back on the stick, thus increasing the angle of attack and causing the plane to climb rapidly.
- The pilots apparently did not notice that the plane had reached its maximum permissible altitude.
- The pilots did not read out the available data (vertical velocity, altitude, etc.).
- The stall warning sounded continuously for 54 seconds.
- The pilots did not comment on the stall warnings and apparently did not realize that the plane was stalled.
- There was some buffeting associated with the stall.
- The stall warning deactivates by design when the angle of attack measurements are considered invalid and this is the case when the airspeed drops below a certain limit.
- In consequence, the stall warning stopped and came back on several times during the stall; in particular, it came on whenever the pilot pushed forward on the stick and then stopped when he pulled back; this may have confused the pilots.
- Despite the fact that they were aware that altitude was declining rapidly, the pilots were unable to determine which instruments to trust: it may have appeared to them that all values were incoherent.
The BEA assembled a panel of aviation and medical experts to study pilots' responses as to why they reacted in certain ways.
A brief bulletin by Air France indicated that "the misleading stopping and starting of the stall warning alarm, contradicting the actual state of the aircraft, greatly contributed to the crew’s difficulty in analyzing the situation."
Passengers and crew
The aircraft was carrying 216 passengers and 12 aircrew in two cabins of service. Among the 216 passengers were one infant, seven children, 82 women, and 126 men. There were three pilots: 58-year-old flight captain Marc Dubois had joined Air France in 1988 and had approximately 11,000 flight hours, including 1,700 hours on the Airbus A330; the two first officers, 37-year-old David Robert and 32-year-old Pierre-Cedric Bonin, had over 9,000 flight hours between them. Of the 12 crew members, 11 were French and one Brazilian.
According to an official list released by Air France on 1 June 2009, the majority of passengers were French, Brazilian, or German citizens. Attributing nationality was complicated by the holding of multiple citizenship by several passengers. The nationalities as released by Air France are shown in the table to the right.
Air France had gathered approximately 60–70 relatives and friends to pick up arriving passengers at Charles de Gaulle Airport. Many of the passengers on Flight 447 were connecting to other destinations worldwide, so other parties anticipating the arrival of passengers were at various connecting airports.
On 20 June, Air France announced that each victim's family would be paid roughly €17,500 in initial compensation. Wrongful death lawsuits maintaining that design and manufacturing defects supplied pilots with incorrect information, rendering them incapable of maintaining altitude and air speed, have been filed in US Courts.
Shortly after the crash, Air France changed the number of the regular Rio de Janeiro-Paris flight from AF447 to AF445.
Some six months later, on 30 November 2009, Air France Flight 445 (F-GZCK) made a mayday call due to severe turbulence around the same area and at a similar time to when Flight 447 had crashed. Because the pilots could not obtain immediate permission from air traffic controllers to descend to a less turbulent altitude, the mayday was to alert other aircraft in the vicinity that the flight had deviated from its normal flight level. This is standard contingency procedure when changing altitude without direct ATC authorization. After 30 minutes of moderate to severe turbulence the flight continued normally. The plane landed safely in Paris six hours and 40 minutes after the mayday call.
On 6 September 2011, the French media reported that the BEA was investigating a similar incident on an Air France flight from Caracas to Paris. The aircraft in question was an Airbus A340.
There have been several cases where inaccurate airspeed information led to flight incidents on the A330 and A340. Two of those incidents involved pitot probes.[Note 6] In the first incident, an Air France A340-300 (F-GLZL), en route from Tokyo, Japan, to Paris, France, experienced an event at 31,000 feet (9,400 m) in which the airspeed was incorrectly reported and the autopilot automatically disengaged. Bad weather, together with obstructed drainage holes in all three pitot probes, were subsequently found to be the cause. In the second incident, an Air France A340-300 (F-GLZN), en route from Paris to New York, encountered turbulence followed by the autoflight systems going offline, warnings over the accuracy of the reported airspeed and two minutes of stall alerts. Another incident on TAM Flight 8091, from Miami to Rio de Janeiro on 21 May 2009, involving an A330-200, showed a sudden drop of outside air temperature, then loss of air data, the ADIRS, autopilot and autothrust. The aircraft fell 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) before being manually recovered using backup instruments. The NTSB also examined a similar 23 June 2009 incident on a Northwest Airlines flight from Hong Kong to Tokyo.
The Flight 447 accident could have some relevant similarities to other A330 incidents with other carriers. Three reports are on file at the Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB) relating to Airbus A330s with flight computer problems, plus one which involved a Boeing 777.[Note 7] In October 2008, a malfunctioning ADIRU caused Qantas Flight 72, en route from Singapore to Perth, Western Australia, to enter a dive resulting in injuries to passengers and damage to the aircraft. This incident similarly started with ADIRU failure messages, inconsistent speed indications, and the automatic pilot disengaging. The same airframe and ADIRU were also involved in an earlier incident, in 2006, Qantas Flight 68. The Qantas aircraft was equipped with ADIRUs manufactured by Northrop Grumman, while Flight 447 was equipped with an ADIRU manufactured by Honeywell. A memo leaked from Airbus suggests that there was no evidence that the Flight 447 ADIRU malfunction was similar to the failure in the Qantas incidents.
- On 30 May 2010, BBC Two in the United Kingdom broadcast the documentary "Lost: The Mystery of Flight 447", a one hour documentary detailing an independent investigation into the crash employing the skills of an expert pilot, an expert accident investigator, an aviation meteorologist and an aircraft structural engineer. Using the publicly-available evidence and information, without the black boxes, a critical chain of events was postulated:
- flying into an intense thunderstorm which had been hidden on the aircraft weather radar by a smaller nearer storm.
- reducing aircraft speed to anticipate impending turbulence.
- configuring the aircraft to avoid a stall by trimming aircraft pitch with the elevators, but not noticing that the autothrust system reduced aircraft speed (without corresponding thrust lever movement).
- simultaneous failure of all three pitot tubes due to supercooled water very rapidly forming ice.
- aircrew being unable to interpret a large number of flight deck failure alerts caused by the loss of air data.
- suffering a catastrophic loss of altitude due to a stall.
- falling uncontrollably to the sea and breaking up on impact.
- Colgan Air Flight 3407 - 2009, commercial airliner stalled and crashed due to pilot error
- Birgenair Flight 301 - 1996, crash attributed to suspected obstruction of the pitot tubes, followed by pilot error
- Aeroperú Flight 603 - 1996, crash following instrument failure due to obstructed static ports, leading to confusion among pilots and ATC
- Northwest Airlines Flight 6231 - 1974, crash attributed to erroneous airspeed readings caused by pitot tube icing, followed by pilot error
- ^ The first interim report, released on 2 July 2009, shows that the series were sent over a four-minute period.
- ^ On the map, page 13 the coordinates in the Interim report f-cp090601ae on the accident on 1 June 2009 to the Airbus A330-203 registered F-GZCP operated by Air France flight AF 447 Rio de Janeiro – Paris (Original French version: Rapport d’étape f-cp090601e Accident survenu le 1er juin 2009 à l’Airbus A330-203 immatriculé F-GZCP exploité par Air France vol AF 447 Rio de Janeiro – Paris, with the information on page 13) is referenced as the "last known position" (French: Dernière position connue, "last known position").
- ^ More precisely: that after one of the three independent systems had been diagnosed as faulty and excluded from consideration, the two remaining systems disagreed.
- ^ The areas showing detailed bathymetry were mapped using multibeam bathymetric sonar. The areas showing very generalized bathymetry were mapped using high-density satellite altimetry.
- ^ To clarify: the airliner was considered to be in a nearly level attitude, but with a high rate of descent when it collided with the surface of the ocean. That impact caused high deceleration and compression forces on the airplane, as shown by the deformations that were found in the recovered pieces of the airliner.
- ^ For an explanation of how airspeed is measured, see Air Data Reference.
- ^ Malaysia Airlines 9M-MRG, 1 August 2005, a Boeing 777-200; Qantas Flight 68 on 12 September 2006, an Airbus A330-300; Qantas Flight 72 on 7 October 2008, an Airbus A330-300; Qantas Flight 71 on 27 December 2008, an Airbus A330-300.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i "Interim report on the accident on 1 June 2009 to the Airbus A330-203 registered F-GZCP operated by Air France flight AF 447 Rio de Janeiro – Paris" (PDF). Paris: Bureau d’Enquêtes et d’Analyses pour la sécurité de l’aviation civile (BEA). 2 July 2009. http://www.bea.aero/docspa/2009/f-cp090601e1.en/pdf/f-cp090601e1.en.pdf. Retrieved 4 July 2009. (Original French version here .
- ^ a b c d "Accident description F-GZCP". Flight Safety Foundation. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20090601-0. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
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- ^ Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
- ^ Nicola Clark (29 July 2011). "Report on Air France Crash Points to Pilot Training Issues". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/30/world/europe/air-france-flight-447-crash-report-july-2011.html.
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- ^ Ubalde, Joseph Holandes (2 June 2009). "Pinoy seaman in Atlantic plane crash was supposed to go home". GMA Network. http://www.gmanews.tv/story/163822/Manila-bound-seaman-among-Air-France-passengers. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- ^ a b c "Air France Flight AF 447" (Press release). Airbus. 1 June 2009. Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20090422131921/http://www.airbus.com/crisis/techdata.html. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
- ^ French registration data for F-GZCP
- ^ a b c "JACDEC Special accident report Air France Flight 447". Jet Airliner Crash Data Evaluation Centre. http://www.jacdec.de/info/AF447Special/jacdec_special_report_AF447.htm. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
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- ^ "Air France Captain Dubois Let Down by 1-Pound Part, Pilots Say". Bloomberg. 11 June 2009. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601170&sid=aHpmstG1g14A. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
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- ^ "Was Air France flight brought down by turbulence or hail?". The Christian Science Monitor. 2 June 2009. http://features.csmonitor.com/globalnews/2009/06/02/was-air-france-flight-brought-down-by-turbulence-or-hail.
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- ^ a b "2009-0195 : Navigation – Airspeed Pitot Probes – Replacement". EASA. 2009-08-31. http://ad.easa.europa.eu/ad/2009-0195. Retrieved 2011-10-22.
- ^ "FAA Airworthiness Directive FR Doc E9-21368". http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2009/E9-21368.htm. Retrieved 3 September 2009. "This AD requires replacing Thales Avionics pitot probes having P/N C16195AA and P/N C16195BA at positions 1 (captain) and 3 (standby) with Goodrich pitot probes having P/N 0851HL at positions 1 and 3. This AD also requires replacing Thales Avionics pitot probes having P/N C16195AA at position 2 (first officer) with Thales Avionics pitot probes having P/N C16195BA at position 2. In addition, this AD provides for optional installation of Goodrich pitot probes having P/N 0851HL at position 2." Alternate location
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- ^ Synthesis Note on Interim Report No. 3
- ^ Safety Recommendations from Interim Report No. 3
- ^ Elaine Ganley (29 July 2011). "Investigation on 2009 Air France crash finds pilot errors". The Globe and Mail. AP (Toronto). http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/europe/investigation-on-2009-air-france-crash-finds-pilot-errors/article2114201/. [dead link]
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- ^ Key figures in global battle against illegal arms trade lost in Air France crash; Herald Scotland, 6 Jun 2009
- ^ Three Irish doctors die in mystery jet tragedy
- ^ "Zeisterse in verdwenen Air France vlucht" (in Dutch). rtvutrecht.nl. 2 June 2009. http://www.rtvutrecht.nl/nieuws/211178.
- ^ "Identiteit Nederlands slachtoffer bekend" (in Dutch). ad.nl. 3 juni 2009. http://www.ad.nl/binnenland/3263571/Identiteit_Nederlands_slachtoffer_bekend.html. [dead link]
- ^ "Alexander kommer aldri tilbake på skolen" (in Norwegian). Dagbladet. 3 June 2009. http://www.dagbladet.no/2009/06/03/nyheter/utenriks/air_france-ulykken/flystyrt/6527897/. Retrieved 3 June 2009.
- ^ "Andrés Suárez Montes: Nueva vida en París". ABC (Spain). 4 August 2009. http://www.abc.es/20090603/internacional-internacional/nueva-vida-paris-20090603.html.
- ^ Thorsson, Eric. "Nya fynd kan lösa gåtan om deras död (Swedish) (New findings may solve the mystery of their deaths)". Aftonbladet. http://www.aftonbladet.se/nyheter/article12827484.ab.
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- ^ "Cotidiano – Família Orleans e Bragança confirma que príncipe brasileiro estava no voo AF 447" (in Portuguese). Agência Brasil. Folha Online. 1 June 2009. http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/folha/cotidiano/ult95u574808.shtml. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
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- ^ "Key figures in global battle against illegal arms trade lost in Air France crash". Sunday Herald. 11 June 2009. http://www.sundayherald.com/international/shinternational/display.var.2512885.0.0.php. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
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- ^ The Aviation Herald. "". Retrieved on 30 November 2009.
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- ^ a b c "Crash: Air France A332 over Atlantic on 1 June 2009, aircraft impacted ocean". The Aviation Herald. http://avherald.com/h?article=41a81ef1/0022&opt=0. Retrieved 6 July 2009.
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- ^ "A Past Flight May Offer Clues to Air France 447". TIME. 3 June 2009. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1902421,00.html. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
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- ^ Pae, Peter (9 June 2009). "Airline event reflects industry slump". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-airlines9-2009jun09,0,3942501.story.
- ^ Webster, Ben (2 June 2009). "Air France mystery: possible clue in Qantas near-miss". The Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article6414805.ece. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
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- ^ "Crash: Air France A332 over Atlantic on 1 June 2009, aircraft impacted ocean". Aviation Herald. http://avherald.com/h?article=41a81ef1/0022&opt=0. Retrieved 8 June 2009.
- ^ BBC – BBC Two Programmes – Lost: The Mystery of Flight 447
- ^ The documentary
- ^ Jonathan (2 June 2010). "NOVA Working on Air France 447 Documentary". Nova. AirFrance447.com. http://www.airfrance447.com/06/02/nova-working-on-air-france-447-documentary/. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
- ^ Peter Tyson (1 June 2010). "Air France 447, One Year Out". Nova. Inside Nova (PBS.org). http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/insidenova/2010/06/air-france-447-one-year-out.html. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
"Airline training guides, Aviation, Operations, Safety -Navigation A330". SmartCockpit. http://www.smartcockpit.com/pdf/plane/airbus/A330/systems/0019/. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
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Incidents resulting in at least 50 deaths shown in italics. Deadliest incident shown in bold smallcaps.