GMA Network

GMA Network
GMA Network
Type Broadcast television network
Country Philippines
Availability Worldwide via GMA Pinoy TV
Founded by Robert "Uncle Bob" Stewart
Slogan Kapuso ng Bawat Pilipino (In the Hearts of Every Filipino)
Area Philippines Philippines
Owner GMA Network, Inc.
Key people Felipe Gozon (Chairman & CEO)
Gilberto Duavit Jr. (President & COO)
Felipe Yalong (CFO)
Launch date October 29, 1961
Former names Republic Broadcasting System (1961-1972)
Picture format 480i (SD)
Official website iGMA.TV

GMA Network (GMA) is a major commercial television & radio network in the Philippines. GMA Network is owned by GMA Network, Inc. a publicly listed company. Its first broadcast on television was on October 29, 1961, GMA Network (formerly known as DZBB TV Channel 7, RBS TV Channel 7, GMA Radio-Television Arts then GMA Rainbow Satellite Network) is commonly signified to as the "Kapuso Network" in reference to the outline of the company’s logo. It has also been called the “Christian Network” which refers to the apparent programming during the tenure of the new management, which took over in 1974. It is headquartered in the GMA Network Center in Quezon City and its transmitter is located at Tandang Sora Avenue, Barangay Culiat also in Quezon City.[1]




Original logo used by DZBB TV Channel 7 (1961-1974).

The origin of GMA Network can be traced back to Loreto F. de Hemedes Inc. through Radio Broadcasting Station’s DZBB,[2] which started airing its radio broadcast on March 1, 1950, and officially launched as a local radio station in Metropolitan Manila in June 14, 1950 and owned by Robert La Rue “Uncle Bob” Stewart, an American war correspondent.[3] Venturing into television in the 1960s, Robert La Rue “Uncle Bob” Stewart started its television station through DZBB TV Channel 7 on October 29, 1961, Philippines third terrestrial television station. Originally, DZBB TV Channel 7 programming composed of foreign programs from the United States and eventually produced local programs to cater Filipino audiences. It produces shows like Uncle Bob’s Lucky Seven Club, a children show aired every Saturdays; Dance Time with Chito; Lovingly Yours, Helen; GMA Supershow (formerly Germside and then Germspesyal) and various news programs like News at Seven. And in 1963, GMA Network Inc. (then Republic Broadcasting System Inc.) launches its first local television station in Cebu, the DYSS TV (now GMA TV 7 Cebu). In the same year, from Loreto F. de Hemedes Inc. was renamed to Republic Broadcasting System Inc.[4]


Logo used by RBS TV Channel 7 (1974-1975).

On September 21, 1972, then President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law by the virtue of Proclamation 1081.[5] Marcos, ruling by decree, curtailed press freedom and other civil liberties; closed down Congress and media establishments including GMA Network. Military personnel occupied GMA Network compound and placed it under military control to prevent alleged communist propaganda. Media outlets including GMA Network that was critical to the Marcos administration ordered to be closed. Foreign citizens and entities were disallowed from owning and operating media companies in the Philippines. Stewart and the American Broadcasting Company, who owned a quarter of the company, was forced to cede majority control to a triumvirate composed of Gilberto Duavit Sr., a Malacañang official; Menardo Jimenez, an accountant; and Felipe Gozon, an attorney of the Stewarts in 1974.[6] Through the acquisition, the station was able to broadcast in color with a PhP7 million credit line. In the succeeding year, the station changed its name to GMA Radio-Television Arts (GMA stood for Greater Manila Area, the station's initial coverage area), although Republic Broadcasting System Inc. remains as its corporate name until 1996.


GMA Radio-Television Arts logo (1979-1992).

When Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr., a senator who strongly opposed the Marcos administration, was assassinated on August 21, 1983, it was a small item on television news. The iron grip that the Marcos administration had on television began to slip, as GMA broadcast the funeral, the only local station to do so.[3] In 1984, Imee Marcos, daughter of Ferdinand Marcos, attempted to take over GMA.[3][6] However, the takeover was prevented by GMA executives. Stewart left the Philippines for good as he was utterly disappointed with the Marcos move. GMA was also instrumental during the years preceding the People Power Revolution. The network was the first to air a television interview with Corazon Aquino in 1984, and when she later announced that she would run for the presidency if she receives one million signatures.[3] In February 1986, the network was also the first to report that Fidel Ramos and Juan Ponce Enrile broke away from the Marcos administration.[3]

When democracy in the Philippines was restored in the People Power Revolution in 1986, television stations began to air, some with their original owners. The political instability of the country also added to the station's burden, when soldiers stormed into the studios for two days in a part of coup attempt to topple then President, Corazon Aquino. In 1987, it opened its high-end live studio, the Broadway Centrum, boosting its local programming, and inaugurated its 777-foot Tower of Power located along Tandang Sora, Quezon City, the tallest man-made structure in the country on November 7, 1988.[7]


GMA Rainbow Satellite Network logo (1992-2002).

International reach became GMA's target in the 1990s, which began when the Rainbow Satellite launched on April 30, 1992. Through its relay stations, GMA programs were seen across the archipelago and Southeast Asia. GMA programming started airing in 60 American cities and parts of South America through the International Channel Network. GMA was also the official broadcaster of the 1995 World Youth Day, which was the last visit of Pope John Paul II to the country. During the same year, two popular TV shows, Eat Bulaga and Okey Ka Fairy Ko! began broadcasting on GMA after TAPE Inc. disagreed with ABS-CBN's proposal to buy the airing rights of the two shows. At the same time, GMA launched a UHF channel subsidiary, Citynet 27, several new shows (among them were Bubble Gang and Startalk, now some of the longest-running shows on TV), and the news program, Saksi with Mike Enriquez, Mel Tiangco and Karen Davila. In 1996, GMA formally changed its corporate name to GMA Network Incorporated, with GMA now standing for Global Media Arts. GoBingo, initially aired in 1996, is an interactive game show hosted by Arnell Ignacio, with Maricar de Mesa as the first GobiGirl. GMA Films was also launched in 1998 - its film José Rizal, which was at the time the most expensive movie production ever in the country (costing over 80 million Pesos to produce), but becoming a huge success with many accolades and award nominations. GMA was the first Philippine broadcaster to receive a Peabody Award for Investigative Reporting in 1999. Later, Citynet 27 became EMC, the first locally programmed music video channel, later becoming a part of the Channel [V] franchise called Channel [V] Philippines. Channel [V] Philippines, however, ceased operations due to a conflict of interest between the owners of GMA and PLDT (which bought a stake in GMA), who operate MTV Philippines through their subsidiary, the Nation Broadcasting Corporation. GMA was also the Philippine broadcaster for 2000 Today. At the beginning of the year, Menardo Jimenez announced his retirement as president and CEO and on December 31, 2000, Felipe Gozon assumed the position with his concurrent capacity as chairman. Duavit's son Gilberto Duavit Jr. assumed the post of Chief Operating Officer.


GMA Network unveil their new corporate logo at the GMA Network Center.

On October 27, 2002, during an episode of the network's longest-running Sunday afternoon entertainment show SOP, GMA officially revealed a new logo and image campaign. The new logo features a rainbow colored heart-shaped logo, the Kapuso, represented by a new slogan Kapuso ng Pamilyang Pilipino, Anumang Kulay ng Buhay (One in Heart With the Filipino family, In Whatever Colors of Life), and a Century Gothic Bold font for the letters. The "Kapuso" theme song is sang by Regine Velasquez.

In 2003, Saksi won the New York Festival Gold Medal for best newscast, the first Philippine newscast to do so. This, and the Peabody Award in 1999, earned the network a House of Representatives commendation later that year. On September 1 of the same year, GMA Network withdrawn its membership from the Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas (KBP),[8] after incidents involving host Rosanna Roces, alleged commercial overloading and interfering when news anchor Mike Enriquez aired his complaints over his radio program, Saksi sa Dobol B, against Lopez-owned cable firm SkyCable's distortion of GMA's signal on its system, and a lost videotape containing evidence that the cable firm had violated the rule on soliciting ads for cable TV. GMA was also an official TV network of the 4th World Meeting of Families held in Manila, Philippines.

In 2004, GMA launches more new line up of new programs and primetime shows are Te, Amo, Hanggang Kailan, Forever In My Heart, Marinara, as well as, Bahay Mo Ba 'To?, Naks, Lovely Day, StarStruck Kids, Ikaw Sa Puso Ko, Leya, 30 Days, Wag Kukurap, Pinoy Pop Superstar, SOP Gigsters, Joyride, 3R, Out & Bitoy's Funniest Videos.

In 2005, the company’s subsidiary, Citynet Inc., also signed a co-production and blocktime agreement with ZOE Broadcasting Network, allowing the GMA Network with another platform to showcase its programming and talents. On November 11, 2005, ZOE's flagship station, DZOE-TV Channel 11, went on the air as Quality TeleVision (later known as Q and was reformatted to become GMA News TV), and broadcasted shows that primarily targeted women audiences. Q's news programs shared the same resources of GMA News and Public Affairs, while some programs are produced by Citynet, Inc. Also in 2005, GMA won the Asian Television Awards' Best Terrestrial Television Station, besting MBC of Korea and Mediacorp Channel 5 of Singapore. The network planned to go public, but due to political instability and downward trend of broadcast advertising, it has since been delayed.[9]

In 2006, Debate with Mare at Pare, a late-night public affairs program, won the bronze medal in the New York Festival. The network was also praised on its coverage of the Wowowee (a program of ABS-CBN) stampede by various local publications. In an exclusive interview, a reprehensive Mike Enriquez also interviewed embattled Philippine president, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo for the first time since the lifting the State of National Emergency, which the network allowed other stations to air without prior consent. At the end of the interview, the President praised the network for its news coverage, hinting that other media outfits to do the same. In April, the founder of the network, Robert "Uncle Bob" Stewart died in the United States. During the Everest climbing season the same year, GMA supported climber Romi Garduce, the third Filipino to reach the summit of Mt. Everest in only three days. The network is one of the first local companies to produce an IMAX film, with the opening of the San Miguel-Coca-Cola IMAX Theater in SM's Mall of Asia.

In 2007, the network announced that it will offer its stocks to the public.[9][10] After being canceled numerous times and despite the Marcoses claim to the shares held by the Duavit family,[11] their IPO was finally held on July 30 offering PhP 8.50 per share.[12] The Network started to produce television Franchises from other countries when they produced Celebrity Duets: Philippine Edition with FremantleMedia, one of the largest producers of television franchises in the world based in United Kingdom. They later produced MariMar, Zaido: Pulis Pangkalawakan, Kakasa Ka Ba Sa Grade 5? and Whammy! Push Your Luck from various countries. On September 16, 2007, it was announced that the Idol franchise, which had previously been used by the Associated Broadcasting Company to produce Philippine Idol) would be transferred to GMA under the new name Pinoy Idol.[13]

In 2008, GMA produced a diverse set of shows for its primetime block by airing Carlo J. Caparas' Joaquin Bordado, Mars Ravelo's Dyesebel, Babangon Ako't Dudurugin Kita, Gagambino, Codename: Asero, Lalola, Ako si Kim Sam Soon, Survivor Philippines, Family Feud, Saan Darating Ang Umaga? and Luna Mystika. GMA also became the new home of the Idol franchise, with Pinoy Idol also premiering that summer along with its companion show, Pinoy Idol Extra.[citation needed]

In the first half of 2009, GMA Network lined up new shows for its primetime like Carlo J. Caparas' Ang Babaeng Hinugot Sa Aking Tadyang, Carlo J. Caparas' Totoy Bato, All About Eve, Zorro, Adik Sa'Yo, All My Life, Sana Ngayong Pasko. The primetime news program 24 Oras won 2 awards on the New York Festival, a Gold Medal for Best Continuing Coverage and a Silver Medal for Best News Program.

The network likewise lined up new primetime shows for the second half of 2009 like Rosalinda, new version of Darna, second season of Survivor Philippines, Stairway to Heaven, Full House, new season of StarStruck.


In 2010, for the first and second quarters, GMA Network released new soaps and shows like The Last Prince, Panday Kids, First Time, Laff En Roll, Diva, Zooperstars, Claudine, Wipeout, Pepito Manaloto, Wachamakulit, Sunnyville, Comedy Bar, Love Bug, Langit Sa Piling Mo, Pilyang Kerubin, Endless Love, Danz Showdown, as well as Diz Iz It which replaced the longest morning talk show SiS along Party Pilipinas which replaced SOP.

In 2011, GMA Network offered an afternoon line-up which continued the success of Koreana, Trudis Liit, Basahang Ginto and Bantatay. It includes Nita Negrita, Magic Palayok, Alakdana, Sisid and My Lover, My Wife. In the primetime line-up, GMA released I Heart You, Pare!, Dwarfina, Machete, Captain Barbell, Munting Heredera, and the first historical drama of the Philippines, entitled Amaya starring Marian Rivera.

Branding of the GMA Network

Network identity

On October 29, 1961, then Loreto F. de Hemedes Inc. through Radio Broadcasting Station launches its first television station in the Philippines, known back then as DZBB TV Channel 7. GMA Network began branding its identity by eliminating call signs to its network identification. By 1974, the call letters were disregarded and paves the way for other networks to affect such naming structures. Thus, GMA is the first television station in the Philippines to be called by its corporate name and not by its call sign.

  • DZBB TV Channel 7 (1961-1974)—From the success of its amplitude modulation band radio DZBB, Robert La Rue "Uncle Bob" Stewart launches its first television and the Philippines third terrestrial channel, DZBB TV Channel 7.
  • RBS TV Channel 7 (1974-1975)—When Gilberto Duavit, Menardo Jimenez and Felipe Gozon took over the management of Loreto F. de Hemedes Inc. in 1974, GMA Network was rebranded to Republic Broadcasting System.
  • GMA Radio Television Arts (1975-1992)—To ascertain its present in its coverage area, the Greater Manila Area, GMA Network changed its character to GMA Radio-Television Arts.
  • GMA Rainbow Satellite Network (Rainbow Network, 1992-2002)—In preparation for the launching of Tower of Power, GMA again rebranded its network identity on April 30, 1992.
  • GMA Network (Kapuso Network, 2002-Present)—In October 27, 2002, GMA Network unveiled its new identity and catchphrase. In an effort to localized and transformed its image into a more intrinsic Filipino, GMA Network engaged in a rebranding course in line with its objective to become the leader in providing local news and entertainment. The rebranding of its logo and slogans reflects its new business distinctiveness and integrating the network’s character as the former “Rainbow Network.”
GMA Logo in their 60th Anniversary


GMA Network has used a number of logos throughout its history especially when Gozon, Jimenez and Duavit acquired the station in the 1974. From late 1970s to the early 1990s, the network used the Circle 7 logo, which is also expended by several networks around the world. In the 1980s, to refine its presence in Philippine broadcast industry, GMA Network used the slogan Where You Belong, and lasted for two decades before invigorating to another catchphrase. In 1989, GMA Network redefines itself as the Rainbow Network, succeeding the ensigns of the rainbow. Throughout the 1990s, the network developed the logo before having it replaced by its current logo in 2002 and as the Kapuso Network.[14] After a huge marketing campaign, and improved television ratings, the new insignia (the rainbow-colored stylized heart-shape logo known as Kapuso) is now one of the most recognizable in the Philippines.


Kapuso ng Bawat Pilipino (In the Hearts of Every Filipino) is the present characteristic catchphrase of GMA Network. The slogan was initially used in conjunction with the rebranding of GMA Network as the “Kapuso Network” in October 27, 2002.[15] But the another slogan of the network Kapuso Mo, Anumang Kulay ng Buhay (One in Heart, in Every Colors of Life) is still used in other purposes especially to their website GMA Network’s news and public affairs department meanwhile uses the slogan Serbisyong Totoo (True Service). It is one of the longest running slogans used for news broadcast promotion.[16][17] GMA Network found itself on the other end of a battle concerning the slogan, when ABS-CBN News Channel uses similar catchphrase, and immediately discontinued in order to avoid legal predicament from GMA Network. In 2006, its news department also used an accompanying slogan, Just News, for its promotional campaign together with its news media partners, INQ7.Net.[18]


GMA Network television programming comprises news, public affairs, fictional, variety shows, dramas, musicals, soap operas, children’s and talk shows, and reality programs. Most of its programs are broadcasted live and taped in its GMA Network Centers and Studios located in Metropolitan Manila. GMA Network currently programs 20.5 hours of programming per day. It provides 34.5 hours of prime-time programming per week to its owned and affiliated stations: 5:30-10:30 p.m., Monday through Thursday; 5:30-11:30 p.m. on Fridays; 6:00-10:00 p.m. on Saturdays; and 6:00-10:30 p.m. on Sundays. Programming is also provided from 4:30-8:30 a.m. on weekdays in the form of Unang Hirit; the one-and-half hour weekday variety show Eat Bulaga!; early afternoon dramas, early- and late-evening news program, 24 Oras and Saksi, respectively; prime-time programing through its Telebabad block; late night current affairs shows produced by its news and public affairs department.


Programming competition started in 2004 when production of numerous GMA Network shows was up against its rival network, ABS-CBN. Reality program, Extra Challenge started to lead the game and with launch of telefantasya Mulawin. On September 23, 2004, GMA Network finally gained in leadership Mega Manila against its closest competitor.[19] In 2005, GMA Network began producing Mars Ravelo's Darna, a classic Filipino comic book character which became an instant hit, with an overnight rating of 47.7 percent, the highest rating for a pilot episode and the first telefantasya to reached 52.1 percent ratings; followed by Encantadia at 47.2 percent and other prime-time telefantasyas, Mulawin (2004) and Sugo (2005) contributed to GMA Network lead in Mega Manila. In 2006, GMA Network maintained its primetime supremacy by reformatting its reality-based program Extra Challenge and another telefantasya Encantadia (which was succeeded by sequels, Etheria and Encantadia: Pag-ibig Hanggang Wakas), and the localized subtitled versions of Korean television series Stairway to Heaven, Full House, Jewel in the Palace and My Name is Kim Sam Soon.[20] In 2007, GMA Network started producing the local version of a Mexican television series MariMar. For its pilot episode, MariMar got 52.6 percent overnight rating, making it the only soap operate to achieve the highest ratings in GMA Network’s history. In a 2006 survey conducted by Pulse Asia, seven out of 10 Metro Manila-based viewers find GMA Network a more credible network than rival ABS-CBN.[21] GMA Network managed to lead in Mega Manila and Southern Luzon demographic, which has the highest concentration of television ownership and 79 percent of advertisement placement.[22] The National Urban Television Audience Measurement was officially launched on October 16, 2006 to determine the television ratings and audience share of local TV programs from the different urban areas in the Philippines. This changes the broadcast industry landscape and the manner in which the advertisers allocate their TV investments to achieve cost efficiency and maximization. In August 2007 audience rating data shows GMA Network maintained its lead in Mega Manila, which resulted to a 23 percent growth in its consolidated net income to PhP1.13 billion in the first half of the year from PhP915 million in the same period last year.[23] GMA Network income grew by 23 percent year-on-year to PhP1.126 billion in the first six months of the year. Mega Manila accounts 49 percent of total TV households. The Mega Manila and Luzon markets combined accounts 76 percent of the total TV households.[24] It earned PhP2.3 billion in 2007.[25] In 2011, GMA Network maintained the lead in the national television ratings mentioning figures from Nielsen TV Audience Measurement for the period of January 1 to February 13, 2011. It had 33.2 percent audience shared based on overnight data, higher than ABS-CBN’s 31.8 percent and TV5’s 14.9 percent. It also leads in Urban Luzon, which makes up 77 percent of total television households in the Philippines. GMA Network posted 9.8 point lead with 36.5 points compared with closest competitor, ABS-CBN’s 26.7 points and imposing a 19.6 point lead from TV5’s 16.9. GMA Network also sustained to beat ABS-CBN in Mega Manila, which accounts 58 percent of television household. It got 37.7 percent share over ABS-CBN 25.2 percent and TV5’s 17.7 percent, 20 points higher.[26]


Copyright infringement with ABS-CBN

In July 22, 2004, during the arrival of Angelo de la Cruz at the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (a truck driver who was held hostage and threatened with beheading in Iraq abducted by armed rebels west of Baghdad while trucking fuel from Saudi Arabia), live news coverage was aired on GMA Network and other local television stations in the Philippines.[27] GMA Network used audio-video coverage through the facilities of Reuters, which GMA Network subscribed to.[28] During the said broadcast, a live feed from Reuters was simultaneously aired with its own live broadcast. During the first five-second of live feed, GMA Network did notice that the live feed from Reuters was also airing at another local station, its main competitor ABS-CBN. The live video was restricted only to ABS-CBN and Reuters did not inform GMA Network that the video coverage was only intended for ABS-CBN.[29] The local Court of Appeals junked the case filed by ABS-CBN Corporation against GMA Network Inc. for what was claimed to be illegal copying of its live video footage. In a ruling, the local fourth division of the appellate court set aside the resolution of the local Justice department, which approved the filing of violation of Republic Act 8293 (or the Intellectual Property Code) against GMA Network. It ruled out that the act of GMA Network in airing the live video coverage was focused by good faith since there was no meaning to instigate damage to ABS-CBN Corporation.[30] The local court also said GMA Network acted in good faith when it decided to instantaneously stop using the live video feed from Reuters upon learning ABS-CBN was also covering the said news event and its following exertion to authenticate the ABS-CBN Corporation restriction arrangement with the news service, Reuters. The local court also stressed that apart from lack of intent of GMA Network to affect the video from ABS-CBN, the action also cannot be reflected intrusion of Sections 212.4 and 185.1 of Republic Act 8293 since it was just a short excerpt compared with the totality of the matter.[31]

TV ratings

On December 20, 2007, Judge Charito Gonzales of Quezon City Regional Trial Court Branch 80 released a temporary restraining order on TV ratings surveys based on a civil case filed by then ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation (now ABS-CBN Corporation) versus AGB Nielsen Media Research Philippines. ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation accused competitor GMA Network Inc. of funding bribing operations in Bacolod City, to discredit the former.[32][33] The local court in the Philippines further ordered ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation to file comment on the plea of AGB Nielsen Media Research Philippines for the alleged gathering and dissemination of television ratings data, within five days or until December 22, 2007.[34] On December 21, 2007, a local AM radio station in the Philippines, owned by ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation, DZMM field reporter Junrie Hidalgo reported a news story entitled AGB Nielsen, umamin sa dayaan: GMA Network, tahasang itinurong nasa likod ng dayaan (AGB Nielsen admits to cheating: GMA Network aggressively accused of being behind the cheating) during the radio program of Showbiz Mismo, hosted by Cristy Fermin and Jobert Sucaldito. The news story is based on an interview of AGB Nielsen general manager Maya Reforma regarding the purported cheating.[35][36][37] In response, GMA Network Inc. aired a television plug reproving the purported unfair journalism and disagreed the accusations of ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corportion. GMA Network Inc. later filed a PhP15-million civil libel suit against ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation on January 3, 2008. The respondents included Hidalgo, Fermin, Sucaldito, the station and news manager of DZMM, writers and executive producers of television programs Bandila, Entertainment Live and The Buzz after the same story was aired locally.[38] On January 7, 2008, the Quezon City Regional Trial Court junked ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation's suit against AGB Nielsen, saying the case was “prematurely filed" before the local court.[39] Judge Gonzales' basis is the principle of mutuality of contracts, citing Article 1308 and 1196, New Civil Code of the Philippines. Also, Judge Samuel Gaerlan, Quezon City Regional Trial Court Branch 92 issued court summons against ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation and 15 of its personnel on the January 3, 2008.[40] On January 17, 2008, Judge Gaerlan inhibited himself from the case, considering that he has a cousin working in the legal department of ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation.[41] The case was later reraffled on January 28, 2008,[42] and the case was eventually assigned to Judge Henri Inting of Branch 95 of the Quezon City Regional Trial Court. On February 14, 2008, Judge Inting issued a temporary restraining order barring local television station, ABS-CBN from airing defamatory statements against GMA Network Inc.[43]

Lawsuit against TV5

In December 2008, GMA Network Inc., Citynet Television, and ZOE Broadcasting Network filed a lawsuit against the management of TV5, alleging MPB Primedia Inc. (a subsidiary of Media Prima Berhad, a Malaysian company, which entered a block time agreement with Associated Broadcasting Company to sell the airtime of TV5) of violating Article XVI, Section 3, of the 1987 Philippine Constitution.[44] GMA Network Inc. argues restriction of foreign entities to operate and owns a Filipino company especially on broadcast media. GMA Network Inc. disputes MPB Media Inc. that it was established to skirt the anti-dummy laws and entering into an unlawful block time deal.[45]



  1. ^ GMA Network History
  2. ^ GMA Network Corporate Information,
  3. ^ a b c d e GMA Gold: Fifty Years of Broadcast History, Chelo Banal Formoso (ed.), GMA Network.
  4. ^ GMA Network History
  5. ^,9171,906446,00.html Time Magazine
  6. ^ a b What's the story, Pinoy TV?, Ellen Joy Anastacio and Janine Natalie Badiola, GMA Network.
  7. ^ Pres. Aquino switched GMA-7's 'Power Tower, Manila Standard, November 7, 1988
  8. ^ "KBP to GMA 7: Don't let rulings taint your view". September 29, 2003. Archived from the original on 2005-02-10. 
  9. ^ a b "GMA Network cancels IPO until "issues" are resolved". Television Asia, April 2005. [1]
  10. ^ GMA Network to raise up to P7.78B from IPO, Accessed April 30, 2007.
  11. ^ Marcoses claim a third of GMA Network shares, Philippine Daily Inquirer. Accessed August 2, 2007.
  12. ^ GMA Network IPO priced at P8.50 -- underwriter , Philippine Daily Inquirer. Accessed August 2, 2007.
  13. ^ Miralles, Nitz (October 16, 2007). "Pinoy Idol, tinanggihan nina Ryan at Mr. C". Journal Online. (Tagalog)
  14. ^ GMA Network History
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^,_GMA_Network_launch_''
  19. ^ "After withdrawing from KBP, GMA 7 became No. 1!". Manila Bulletin Online. 2006-07-21. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-05. 
  20. ^ Salanga, Elyas Isabelo (2008-01-16). "Top Asianovelas since the year 2002". Philippine Entertainment Portal. Retrieved 2008-10-05. 
  21. ^ Journal Online - Philippine Tabloid featuring news, current events, celebrities, entertainment, local balita, tsismis, and much more
  22. ^ "ABS-CBN leads GMA 7 in viewership share". The Manila Times. October 27, 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-10-24. 
  23. ^ GMA Network posts PhP1.13-B net income in 1st half, up 23%, Manila Bulletin, n.d. Accessed last Aug 16, 2007. Archived October 22, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ Stock Market BW Research
  25. ^, GMA Network earned P2.3B in 2007, 05/21/2008
  26. ^ GMA News Online, Business Stories
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^
  31. ^
  32. ^, GMA 7 tagged in scandal
  33. ^ Abs-Cbn Interactive, Court issues TRO on AGB Nielsen ratings surveys[dead link]
  34. ^ GMA NEWS.TV, ABS-CBN ordered to comment on AGB's plea
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^ GMANews.TV, GMA 7 files P15-M libel suit vs ABS-CBN over ratings issue
  39. ^ Court junks ABS-CBN's complaint vs AGB-Nielsen
  40. ^ ABS-CBN Interactive, Court junks ABS-CBN lawsuit vs AGB Nielsen[dead link]
  41. ^ Judge in ratings row inhibits self
  42. ^ Re-raffle of GMA Network case vs ABS-CBN reset to Jan 28
  43. ^ QC court issues TRO vs ABS-CBN in ratings tussle
  44. ^,-Malaysian-media-company-for-unlawful-blocktime-agreement PEP News
  45. ^ BusinessWorld Onine, Corporate News

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