Rod Blagojevich

Rod Blagojevich
Rod R. Blagojevich
40th Governor of Illinois
In office
January 13, 2003 – January 29, 2009
Lieutenant Pat Quinn
Preceded by George Ryan
Succeeded by Pat Quinn
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 5th district
In office
January 3, 1997 – January 3, 2003
Preceded by Michael Patrick Flanagan
Succeeded by Rahm Emanuel
Personal details
Born December 10, 1956 (1956-12-10) (age 54)
Chicago, Illinois
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Patricia Mell Blagojevich
Children Amy Blagojevich
Anne Blagojevich
Residence Chicago, Illinois
Alma mater Northwestern University (B.A.)
Pepperdine University (J.D.)
Profession Lawyer
Religion Orthodox Christian[1]

Rod R. Blagojevich[2][3][4] Listeni/bləˈɡɔɪ.əvɪ/ (Serbian Cyrillic: Род Благојевић; born December 10, 1956) is an American politician who served as the 40th Governor of Illinois from 2003 to 2009. A Democrat, Blagojevich was a State Representative before being elected to the United States House of Representatives representing parts of Chicago. He was elected governor in 2002.

Blagojevich was arrested on federal corruption charges including conspiracy to commit mail and wire fraud and solicitation of bribery December 9, 2008.[5][6] As a result, on January 9, 2009, the Illinois House of Representatives voted to impeach Blagojevich by a 114–1 vote for corruption and misconduct in office,[7][8] the first time such an action has been taken against a governor of Illinois,[9] making him the second state official in Illinois history to be impeached. The Illinois State Senate unanimously found him guilty of the charges of impeachment, and he was removed from office on January 29, 2009. In a separate, also unanimous vote, Blagojevich was banned for life from holding public office in the State of Illinois. On August 17, 2010 Blagojevich was found guilty of lying to the FBI; on June 27, 2011, Blagojevich was found guilty on 17 of 20 counts presented during his retrial. On Thursday, September 29, 2011, it was announced that in mid-August, administrators for the Illinois Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Commission have asked the Illinois Supreme Court to suspend the former attorney's law license, in a likely prelude to the further disgrace of disbarment.[10][11]

Blagojevich, often referred to by the nickname "Blago" in print and other media, was the first Democrat to be elected Governor of Illinois since Daniel Walker in 1972. He struggled to pass legislation and budgets[12] and had historically low approval ratings within Illinois; at one time the Rasmussen Reports ranked him "America's Least Popular Governor"[13] even before the news of his corruption investigation broke.


Early life

Rod Blagojevich was born in Chicago, Illinois, the second of two children. His father, Radislav, was an immigrant steel plant laborer from a village near Kragujevac, Serbia.[14] His mother, Mila Govedarica, is a Serb originally from Gacko, Bosnia and Herzegovina (then also a part of Yugoslavia).[15] His parents moved to Chicago in 1947. Blagojevich has a brother, Rob,[1] who worked as a fund-raiser for Rod in Rod's later political career.[16] Blagojevich spent much of his childhood working odd jobs to help the family pay its bills. He was a shoeshiner and pizza delivery boy before working at a meat packing plant.[14] In order to afford university costs, Blagojevich worked for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System as a dishwasher.[14]

Blagojevich does not have a middle name, but uses the initial "R" in honor of his deceased father.[17] His nickname in the family was "Milorad," which some have mistakenly assumed was his given name.[18]

Blagojevich graduated from Chicago's Foreman High School after transferring from Lane Technical High School. He played basketball in high school and participated in two fights after training as a Golden Gloves boxer.[19] After graduation, he enrolled at the University of Tampa.[20] After two years, he transferred to Northwestern University in suburban Evanston where he graduated with a B.A. in history in 1979. He earned his J.D. from the Pepperdine University School of Law in 1983. He later said of the experience: "I went to law school at a place called Pepperdine in Malibu, California, overlooking the Pacific Ocean — a lot of surfing and movie stars and all the rest. I barely knew where that law library was."[1] Blagojevich is married to Patricia Mell, the daughter of Chicago alderman Richard Mell.

Early career


Through his father-in-law's connections, Blagojevich clerked for Chicago Alderman Edward Vrdolyak.[21] Blagojevich then took a job as Cook County Assistant State's Attorney (assistant prosecutor) under State's Attorney Richard M. Daley,[21] specializing in domestic abuse crimes and felony weapons cases.[22][23]

State and federal legislator

In 1992, with the backing of his influential father-in-law, Blagojevich toppled 14-year incumbent Myron Kulas in the Democratic primary for the 33rd state house district, which includes part of Chicago's North Side. As is the case in most elections in the Chicago area, this virtually assured him of election in November.[21][24] He drew on his experiences as a prosecutor to draft bills that he argued would strengthen the state's judicial system and reduce crime.

In 1996, Blagojevich surrendered his seat in the state house to campaign in Illinois's 5th congressional district, based on the North Side. The district had long been represented by Dan Rostenkowski, who served as chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee. Rostenkowski was defeated for re-election in 1994 after pleading guilty to mail fraud and had been succeeded by Republican Michael Patrick Flanagan. However, Flanagan was a conservative Republican representing a heavily Democratic district, and was regarded as a heavy underdog. Blagojevich soundly defeated Flanagan by a nearly 2-to-1 margin, with support from his father-in-law. He was elected two more times, taking 74% against a nominal Republican challenger in 1998 and having only a Libertarian opponent in 2000.

Blagojevich was not known as a particularly active congressman.[21] In the late 1990s he traveled with Jesse Jackson to Belgrade in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to negotiate with President Slobodan Milošević for the release of American prisoners of war.[21]

On October 10, 2002, Rod Blagojevich was among the 81 House Democrats who voted in favor of authorizing the invasion of Iraq.[25] He was the only Democrat from Illinois to vote in favor of the Iraq War.

Gubernatorial campaigns

2002 election

During 2002, Blagojevich campaigned for his party's nomination to become governor. Blagojevich won a close primary campaign against former Illinois Attorney General Roland Burris and Chicago Public Schools Superintendent Paul Vallas, who ran well in the suburban collar counties of Chicago.[26] Blagojevich finished strongly in Southern Illinois, winning 55% of the primary vote downstate, enough to win a primary victory by a thin margin.[21]

During the primary, state Senator Barack Obama backed Burris but supported Blagojevich after he won the primary at Burris's suggestion,[27] serving as a "top adviser" for the general election.[28] Future Obama senior adviser David Axelrod had previously worked with Blagojevich on congressional campaigns, but did not consider Blagojevich ready to be governor and declined to work for him on this campaign.[28] According to Rahm Emanuel, he, Obama, Blagojevich's campaign co-chair David Wilhelm, and another Blagojevich staffer "were the top strategists of Blagojevich's 2002 gubernatorial victory", meeting weekly to outline campaign strategies.[28] However, Wilhelm has said that Emanuel overstated Obama's role in the sessions, and Emanuel said in December 2008 that Wilhelm was correct and he had been wrong in his earlier 2008 recollection to The New Yorker.[28]

In the general election, Blagojevich defeated Republican Illinois Attorney General Jim Ryan.[21] Blagojevich's campaign was helped by his well-connected father-in-law, Chicago alderman Richard Mell.[21] Ethics scandals had plagued the previous administration of Republican George Ryan (no relation to Jim Ryan), and Blagojevich's campaign focused on the theme of "ending business as usual" in state government.[29] Polls prior to the election found that many Illinois voters were confused about the names of George Ryan and Jim Ryan, a fact which Blagojevich used to his advantage.[30] He asked, "How can you replace one Ryan with another Ryan and call that change? You want change? Elect a guy named Blagojevich."[30] Blagojevich won with 52% of the vote over Jim Ryan.[30] On election night, he said: “Tonight, ladies and gentlemen, Illinois has voted for change.”[29]

2006 re-election

Blagojevich (left) with Emil Jones (center) and Jeffrey Schoenberg (right) at the Illinois Executive Mansion for a luncheon after Barack Obama launched his 2008 campaign in 2007.

From 2005 to 2006, Blagojevich served as federal liaison for the Democratic Governors Association. Numerous scandals brought the governor's approval rating as low as 36 percent, with 56 percent disapproving near the end of 2005.[31]

In 2005 Rod Blagojevich also served as a Chair of Midwestern Governors Association.

By early 2006, five Republicans campaigned in the primary for the right to challenge him in the general election, with state treasurer Judy Baar Topinka eventually winning the nomination. Blagojevich formally began his 2006 re-election campaign for Governor of Illinois on February 19, 2006. He won the Democratic primary on March 21 with 72% of the vote against challenger Edwin Eisendrath, whom Blagojevich would not debate.[32] He convinced Democratic state senator James Meeks not to launch a third party campaign by promising to attempt to lease out the state lottery to provide education funding.[33] Blagojevich was endorsed by many Democratic leaders (with the notable exception of Attorney General Lisa Madigan, who claimed it was a conflict of interest since her office was investigating him),[34] including then-Illinois Senator Barack Obama, who endorsed the governor in early 2005 and spoke on his behalf at the August 2006 Illinois State Fair.[28] Blagojevich was also endorsed by the state's Sierra Club, the only Illinois governor ever endorsed by the organization.[35] The union American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees declined to endorse Blagojevich for re-election, citing the 500 jobs he eliminated from the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, which left some state parks unsupervised.[36]

In the general election, Blagojevich defeated Topinka and the Green Party's Rich Whitney, outspending Topinka $27 million to $6 million.[37][38] He attempted to tie Topinka to former Republican governor George Ryan's corruption.[39] Topinka ran advertisements detailing Blagojevich's federal investigations and non-endorsements by major state Democrats such as Lisa Madigan.[34] A three-term state treasurer, Topinka said that she had attempted to stop Blagojevich from using money from special funds for general expenditures without approval of the legislature; she said Blagojevich used the funds for projects meant to distract voters from his associates' corruption trials: “This constant giving away of money … a million here, a million there, it raids our already hamstrung government and deadbeat state.”[40] Topinka's spokesman claimed that Blagojevich was the most investigated governor in Illinois history.[41] Topinka lost to Blagojevich by 11%.[34]

Gubernatorial administration

After the 2002 elections, Democrats had control of the Illinois House, Senate, and all but one statewide office. While in office, Blagojevich signed much progressive legislation such as ethics reform, death penalty reform, a state Earned Income Tax Credit, a statewide comprehensive smoking ban and expansions of health programs like KidCare and FamilyCare (FamilyCare was ruled unconstitutional); critics claimed that Blagojevich was benefiting from the publicity more than the programs were helping the public.[1] Blagojevich signed a bill in 2005 that prohibited discrimination based on sexual orientation in employment, housing, public accommodations, and credit. Blagojevich originally campaigned against pork barrel spending, but eventually used it himself to gain more votes for bills.[1]

During a suspected shortage of the flu vaccine in 2004, Blagojevich ordered 260,000 doses from overseas distributors, which the Food and Drug Administration had warned would be barred from entering the United States.[42] Although the vaccine doses had cost the state $2.6 million, the FDA refused to allow them into the country, and a buyer could not be found; they were donated to earthquake survivors in Pakistan a year later.[42] However, the lots had expired, and Pakistan destroyed the vaccines.[43] After Blagojevich pushed for a law banning sales of certain video games to minors, a federal judge declared the law violated the First Amendment, with the state ordered to pay $520,000 in legal fees.[44]

Blagojevich greets students at Illinois State University in 2006

Soon after taking office in 2003, Blagojevich continued support of a moratorium on executions of death row inmates, even though no such executions are likely to occur for years (his predecessor, George Ryan, commuted all of the death sentences in the state shortly before leaving office in 2003).[45] This support continued through his administration.[46]

In 2004, Blagojevich ordered the Illinois Tollway to erect 32 signs at a cost of $480,000, announcing “Open Road Tolling. Rod R. Blagojevich, Governor.” In 2006, the signs were criticized for serving as campaign signs and costing significantly more than the common $200 signs. Shortly after his impeachment, the signs were removed from the tollway and in June 2011, Illinois banned signs with the names of public officials or candidates for public office.[47]

Another notable action of his term was a strict new ethics law. When campaigning for re-election in 2006, Blagojevich said that if his ethics law had existed when former governor George Ryan had been in office, Ryan's corruption might not have occurred.[41] Blagojevich also signed a comprehensive death penalty reform bill that was written by then-Senator Barack Obama and the late U.S. Senator Paul M. Simon. Organized labor and African Americans were Blagojevich's staunchest political supporters.[33] In 2008, he told a group of African-Americans that he sometimes considered himself the first African American governor of Illinois.[48]


Blagojevich oversaw record increases in funding for education every year without raising general sales or income taxes. He was criticized by Republicans and many moderate Democrats for using funds from the state pension system in order to fund other spending.[21] Another early 2006 proposal included "PreSchool for All" for all three- and four-year-old children in Illinois. Legislation authorizing the program was adopted as part of the fiscal year 2007 budget.[49]

Proposed capital programs

On January 10, 2006, Blagojevich announced a proposal for a new $3 billion (US) spending plan for Illinois roads, mass transit, and schools, to be paid for by increased tax revenue and new gambling proposals (such as Keno and lottery games).[50] The proposal met with immediate opposition by members of the Republican Party of Illinois and many Democrats, who viewed it as "an election year ploy." The suggestion to legalize Keno within Illinois was later withdrawn.[51] As of 2008, Blagojevich had been unable for five years to agree to a capital plan that would improve Illinois infrastructure.[21]

In March 2008, Blagojevich announced a bipartisan coalition, chaired by former U.S. Speaker of the House Dennis Hastert and Former U.S. Congressman Glenn Poshard, to develop a capital construction plan that could pass the Illinois General Assembly. The Illinois Works Coalition toured the state and developed a compromise $34 billion package that relied on a lease of the Illinois Lottery, road funds, and expanded gambling for funding.[52] The plan passed the Senate but stalled in the Illinois House, with opposition from Democrats.[33]

Special sessions

Blagojevich called the Illinois General Assembly into special session 36 times while in office, which is half of the total number of special sessions called since 1970.[21] The sessions were blamed for disrupting lawmakers' time off, while Blagojevich himself did not attend the sessions.[38]

Relationships with fellow lawmakers

Blagojevich disagreed with many state Democrats while in office, with House and Senate Republican leaders Frank Watson and Tom Cross often refereeing among the Democrats.[21] During 2008, Blagojevich even expressed fear that House Democrats would gain more seats and he would face more opposition.[53]

Blagojevich's lieutenant governor was Pat Quinn, with whom he had a sour relationship since taking office. Quinn and Blagojevich have publicly argued about, among many other subjects,[21] Blagojevich's proposed Gross Receipts Tax to increase revenue for schools and other projects within Illinois.[54] Quinn said in December 2008 that he had last spoken to Blagojevich in the summer of 2007.[55] Blagojevich also feuded with Attorney General Lisa Madigan, Comptroller Dan Hynes, Secretary of State Jesse White, and state treasurer Alexi Giannoulias-- all of whom are Democrats.[21]

Blagojevich was often at odds with members of both parties in the state legislature who began to see him as "disengaged" and "dictatorial."[56] Democratic legislator Jack Franks said that the reason Blagojevich had problems passing laws with the cooperation of the General Assembly is that he did not spend enough time with the legislature. "That’s a real reason he has such poor relations with the Legislature and can’t get any of his agenda passed, because he doesn’t talk to anybody."[57] When lawmakers working on a budget during a special session met at 10 a.m. rather than 2 p.m., and Blagojevich's attorney threatened that the Governor was considering legal action against the involved representatives, Democratic Rep. Joe Lyons told reporters, "We have a madman. The man is insane."[56]

Blagojevich had an ongoing feud "worthy of the Hatfields and McCoys" with Democratic House Speaker Michael Madigan, a fiscal conservative who resisted Blagojevich's proposed increases in state spending.[21][56] Madigan became Blagojevich's chief nemesis, blocking numerous Blagojevich proposals.[33] Illinois senior Senator Dick Durbin said in 2008 that he received many constituent complaints about the dispute between Blagojevich and Madigan, with letter writers wanting him to step in to negotiate.[58] Durbin said the subject is also often talked about in the United States Congress in Washington, D.C. among the Illinois congressional delegation.[58] However, Durbin joked that he'd rather go to Baghdad to mediate than Springfield.[58] At one point in 2007, Blagojevich filed a lawsuit against Madigan after Madigan instructed lawmakers to not attend one of Blagojevich's scheduled special sessions on the budget.[21]

The Mayor of Quincy, Illinois, John Spring, and the Governor of Illinois Rod Blagojevich conduct a press conference about flood relief efforts along the Mississippi River June 18, 2008.

Although Barack Obama served as an adviser to Blagojevich's 2002 gubernatorial campaign, by all accounts, Blagojevich and Obama have been estranged for years.[27][55][59] Blagojevich did not endorse Obama in the 2004 United States Senate race, and Obama did not invite Blagojevich to speak at the 2008 Democratic National Convention, as he did Lisa Madigan, Hynes, and Giannoulias.[27] Blagojevich has had a "friendly rapport" with the man who took over his congressional seat, Rahm Emanuel.[60]

Blagojevich has also disagreed publicly with Democratic Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley; after their dispute over Chicago Transit Authority funding, Daley called Blagojevich "cuckoo" and said he did not want to argue with the Governor since "He's arguing with everybody in America."[61] Blagojevich replied, "I don't think I'm cuckoo."[61]

Soon after a meeting of 2007 with Democratic State Senator Mike Jacobs, meant to convince Jacobs to vote for Blagojevich's health insurance proposals, Jacobs emerged telling reporters that the Governor "blew up at him like a 10-year-old child",[21] acted as if he might hit Jacobs, screamed obscenities at him and threatened to ruin his political career if Jacobs did not vote for the bill.[21] Jacobs went on to say that if Blagojevich had talked to him like that at a tavern in East Moline, "I would have kicked his tail end."[56] Blagojevich would not comment on the alleged incident.[56] Jacobs said during 2008: "This is a governor who I don't think has a single ally, except for Senate president Emil Jones— and that's tenuous at best." Jones and Blagojevich sometimes collaborated, while at other times they disagreed on funding for education.[21]

During a 2008 Congressional race pitting Democratic state senator Debbie Halvorson against Republican Marty Ozinga, the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee ran television advertisements attempting to help Halvorson by linking Republican Ozinga to Blagojevich, asserting that Ozinga had given campaign donations to the Democratic governor.[62]

The Daily Show appearances

During early February 2006, Blagojevich appeared on The Daily Show to discuss his executive order that pharmacists must dispense any drugs for which a customer had a valid prescription, including birth control pills and Plan B. This measure was being challenged on the show by state legislator Ron Stephens from Greenville, Illinois. Blagojevich was interviewed by Jason Jones, who repeatedly pretended to be unable to pronounce Blagojevich's name and simply called him "Governor Smith". At one point in the interview, Jones, who was pretending to be against the governor's order, told him "I'll be in charge of what my listeners hear." This prompted Blagojevich to turn to the camera and ask, "Is he teasing me or is that legit?" Two weeks after the interview, Blagojevich said that he was unaware of the nature of the show.[63][64] Stephens said he knew beforehand that the show was a comedy show: "I thought the governor was hip enough that he would have known that, too."[63]

Stephens later said, "With all due respect to the governor, he knew it was a comedy show. It's general knowledge for people under 90 years of age. It was when he came off looking so silly that he said he thought it was a regular news program. Even assuming he didn't know about it beforehand, we had to sign a release before the interview."[65]

Blagojevich made another appearance on The Daily Show on August 23, 2010, after his removal from office. During his time on the show, he vehemently defended himself against Jon Stewart's critique of things that he had previously said on the show. Jon Stewart focused on how formerly Blagojevich had expressed a great desire to tell his side in court, but then did not. Stewart attempted to get a promise that next time, Blagojevich would testify. Stewart also focused on Blagojevich's previous statement to him, that if one heard the famous "effing golden" statement in context, it would be seen as innocent. Stewart played the additional recording, and asked him how that sounded any different. The former governor had no concrete answers.[66]

Approval ratings

Rod Blagojevich greets Illinois Air National Guard Col. Rick Nyalka at the Joint Task Force - South (JTF-S)headquarters in Alton, Illinois, June 20, 2008

As of October 13, 2008, an unprecedented zero percent of Illinois voters rated Blagojevich as excellent in a Rasmussen Reports poll, with four percent rating him good, 29 percent fair, and 64 percent poor.[67] Blagojevich ranked as "Least Popular Governor" in the nation according to Rasmussen Reports By the Numbers.[13]

On October 23, 2008, the Chicago Tribune reported that Blagojevich suffered the lowest ratings ever recorded for an elected politician in nearly three decades of the newspaper's polls. The survey of 500 registered likely voters showed that 10 percent wanted Blagojevich re-elected in 2010, while 75 percent said they did not want him for a third term. The survey also showed only 13 percent approved of Blagojevich's performance, while 71 percent disapproved. Only eight percent of the state's voters believed Blagojevich had lived up to his promise to end corruption in government. 60 percent of Democrats did not want him to serve another term in office, and 54 percent disapproved of the job he had done. Among independent voters, 83 percent disapproved of his performance and 85 percent of them rejected a Blagojevich third term.[68] Blagojevich said during October 2008 that if he were running for re-election this year, he would win, and the economy, not his federal investigations, had caused his unpopularity.[69]

During February 2008, Blagojevich's approval ratings had been, by various accounts, between 16 percent and the low 20s, lower than those of then-President George W. Bush in Illinois.[21] After his federal arrest, his approval ratings decreased to seven percent.[70]

Bank of America

Blagojevich threatened to stop the state’s dealings with Bank of America Corp. over a shut-down factory in Chicago. On December 8, 2008 (the day before his arrest), all state agencies were ordered to stop conducting business with Bank of America to pressure the company to make the loans. Blagojevich said the biggest U.S. retail bank would not get any more state business unless it restored credit to Republic Windows and Doors, whose workers were staging a sit-in. John Douglas, a former general counsel for the FDIC and attorney for Bank of America, called Blagojevich's gambit dangerous.[71][72]

Impeachment trial and removal from office

Blagojevich on the day of his arrest

Under the direction of US District Attorney Patrick Fitzgerald [73] Governor Blagojevich was arrested at his home by federal agents and charged with corruption. The Justice Department complaint alleged that the governor conspired to commit several "pay to play" schemes, including attempting "to obtain personal gain ... through the corrupt use" of his authority to fill Barack Obama's vacated United States Senate seat, claiming that in wiretapped recordings Blagojevich discussed his desire to get something in exchange for an appointment to the seat. After various outreach efforts he appointed former state attorney general Roland Burris on New Year's Eve 2008. Burris was seated after some initial opposition in mid-January 2009.[74] A trial was set for June 3, 2010[75] and U.S. Attorney Patrick Fitzgerald spoke out on the charges,[76] characterizing Blagojevich's actions as trying to auction the open seat off to "the highest bidder".

On January 27, 2009, Blagojevich began a media campaign planned by publicist Glenn Selig, founder of the crisis management public relations firm The Publicity Agency. During the two day campaign, he visited Today, Good Morning America, The Early Show, The View, multiple programs on Fox News Channel, CNN and MSNBC where he proclaimed his innocence and insisted he would be vindicated.

The Illinois House and Senate moved quickly thereafter to impeach the governor for abuse of power and corruption. He was removed from office and prohibited from ever holding public office in the state of Illinois again, by two separate and unanimous votes of 59-0 by the Illinois State Senate on January 29, 2009. Blagojevich's lieutenant governor Patrick Quinn subsequently became governor of Illinois.[77] The Senate was acting as the trier of fact on Articles of Impeachment brought by the Illinois House of Representatives. The charges brought by the House emphasized Blagojevich's alleged abuses of power and his alleged attempts to sell gubernatorial appointments and legislative authorizations and/or vetos. One of the accusations was an alleged attempt to sell the appointment to the United States Senate seat vacated by the resignation of now U.S. President Barack Obama. Blagojevich was frequently reported as having been taped by the FBI saying "I've got this thing, and it's fucking golden. I'm just not giving it up for fucking nothing."[78] Blagojevich's impeachment trial and removal from office does not have any effect or bearing on his federal indictment in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois, as impeachment is a political, not a criminal, action.[79]

Federal trial

Blagojevich was indicted by a federal grand jury in April 2009.[80] Most of the charges related to attempts to sell the Senate seat vacated by then-President-elect Barack Obama.[81] On August 17, 2010, he was convicted on one of the 24 federal charges, a charge of lying to the FBI, and the jury was hung on 23 other counts.[79] The defense did not call a single witness, claiming that prosecutors did not prove their case. Because the jury could not agree on the remaining charges, a mistrial was ordered for those counts. Within fifteen minutes after the mistrial was declared, the prosecution team announced that they would definitely pursue a retrial on the twenty-three mistrial counts. A post-verdict court date was set for August 23, 2010.

Federal prosecutors reduced the number of counts for Blagojevich's retrial,[82] and on June 27, 2011 he was found guilty of 17 of the 20 charges, not guilty on one, and no verdict rendered by the jury on two counts.[83] He was found guilty on all charges pertaining to the senate seat, as well as extortion relating to state funds being directed towards a children's hospital and race track. However, he was acquitted on a charge pertaining to the tollway extortion and avoided a guilty verdict (by split decision) on attempting to extort Rahm Emanuel.[84][85]

Judge James Zagel set October 6, 2011 as the tentative date for sentencing and Blagojevich could face up to 300 years in prison; sentencing was later delayed indefinitely[86]. However, as that is the sum total of all the years he would serve if each conviction's maximum sentence is used to calculate his overall sentence, it is expected that Judge Zagel will sentence the former governor to 10 years in prison. It is not clear if Blagojevich would need to be present (he has put up his house as collateral for a $450,000 bond allowing him to remain free until he has to report to prison). Knowing the date he is to be sentenced will allow Blagojevich to better prepare.[81]

Political positions

State spending

Blagojevich was criticized for using what his opponents called "gimmicks" to balance the state budget. Republicans claimed that he was simply passing the state's fiscal problems on to future generations by borrowing his way to balanced budgets. Indeed, the 2005 state budget called for paying the bills by underfunding a state employees' pension fund by $1.2 billion.[21][87] During 2008, Blagojevich proposed removing $16 billion in new bonds for the state to meet pension fund requirements.[12] Blagojevich once told a gathering of black ministers on Chicago's South Side that he was "on the side of our Lord" with his budget proposals.[54]

Blagojevich proposed a budget for 2008 with a 5% increase from the year before.[12] Budget reductions of some programs caused Blagojevich to attempt to close 11 state parks and 13 state historic sites, with his spokesman saying Blagojevich had never visited any of them.[69][88] To plug state budget holes, Blagojevich at one point proposed selling the James R. Thompson Center or mortgaging it. Blagojevich was also criticized for his handling of the 2007 state budget. In particular, critics cited his unprecedented use of line-item and reduction vetoes to remove his political opponents' "member initiatives" from the budget bill.[89][90][91]

During 2003, more than 1,000 Illinois judges began a class action lawsuit against Blagojevich, because Blagojevich had stopped constitutionally-required cost of living pay increases for the judges due to budget reductions.[92] The case was settled in the judges' favor in 2005, with Blagojevich's veto ruled as violating the state's constitution.[92]

Health care

Blagojevich with former Congressman Rahm Emanuel (D-IL) advocating for changes in Medicare legislation.

During October 2005, Blagojevich announced All Kids, his plan to provide access to state-subsidized healthcare for every child in Illinois.[93] Signed into law by Blagojevich in November 2005, All Kids made Illinois the first state in the U.S. to attempt to legally require itself to provide universal affordable and comprehensive healthcare for children, regardless of income and immigration status.[94]

During March 2007, Blagojevich announced and campaigned for his universal healthcare plan, Illinois Covered.[95] The plan was debated in the Illinois State Senate, but came one vote short of passing.[96] He proposed to pay for the plan with the largest tax increase in Illinois history.[21][56] He proposed a gross receipts tax on businesses, a $7.6 billion dollar tax increase, with proceeds earmarked to provide universal healthcare in Illinois, increase education spending by $1.5 billion, fund a $25 billion capital construction plan, and reduce the State's $40 billion pension debt. Illinois House Speaker Michael Madigan called for a vote on a non-binding resolution on whether the state should impose a gross receipts tax. When it became apparent that the resolution would be defeated, Blagojevich announced at the last minute that supporters should vote against it, although the vote was intended to be a test vote to gauge whether the measure had any support.[97] The request was seen by many lawmakers from both parties as an attempt to spin the loss positively.[97] It was defeated by a vote of 107-0,[97][98] which the Associated Press termed "jaw-dropping."[56] When asked about the vote of the day, Blagojevich said, "Today, I think, was basically an up. ... I feel good about it."[32]

Blagojevich also attempted unsuccessfully to impose a new tax on businesses that do not provide health insurance to their employees.[12]

Lawmakers did not approve another initiative of Blagojevich's, FamilyCare (which would provide healthcare for families of four making up to $82,000), but Blagojevich attempted to implement the plan by executive order unilaterally.[99] In rejecting Blagojevich's executive order, a legislative committee questioned how the state would pay for the program.[100] Blagojevich's decision has been called unconstitutional by two courts, which nullified the plan. However, during October 2008, pharmacies which had followed Blagojevich's directive to dispense drugs under the plan were informed by his administration that they would not be reimbursed and would have payments given under the system deducted from future Medicaid payments.[101] One state lawmaker, Republican Ron Stephens, suggested that Blagojevich should pay the difference out of his own personal account.[101] The Pantagraph agreed with Stephens in an editorial.[102]

Associated Press Freedom of Information Act attempts to discover how the state planned to pay for the Blagojevich-ordered program, how many people were enrolled, or how much the care had cost the state were refused the information by state departments.[103]

Blagojevich issued an executive order during 2004 requiring pharmacists in the state to dispense "morning after" birth control medication, even if they object on moral or religious grounds. This order was legally challenged.[104] Later in 2007, opponents of the governor's executive order reached a settlement with the state, causing partial removal of the order. The settlement, which followed the Illinois Supreme Court's decision in September 2007 to hear an appeal of a lawsuit challenging the executive order, allowed pharmacists to decline to dispense birth control, so long as they provided information to customers about pharmacists who did.[105]

Gun control

During his February 2006 "State of the State" address, Blagojevich said the state should ban semi-automatic firearms, prompting threats from several gunmakers in the state that they will take their business elsewhere. Among these were ArmaLite Inc., Rock River Arms, Les Baer Custom and the Springfield Armory.[106]

As a state legislator, Blagojevich tried to raise the price of an Illinois Firearm Owners Identification (FOID) card from $5 to $500,[107] saying that such a large increase was necessary so people would think twice about wanting to own a gun. Blagojevich vetoed three gun bills in 2005, which would have:

  1. Deleted records in gun database after 90 days—gun proponents argued that this was a privacy concern for law-abiding citizens[93]
  2. Eliminated the waiting period for someone wanting to buy a rifle or shotgun, when trading in a previously owned weapon
  3. Overridden local laws regulating transport of firearms.[108]

Blagojevich's position in regard to guns was criticized by the Illinois State Rifle Association: "Rod should spend more time catching criminals and less time controlling guns." His support for making gun laws of Illinois more restrictive earned him the ire of gun owners' groups.

Traffic laws

Blagojevich vetoed three bills[109][110][111] that would permit trucks to drive 65 mph outside the Chicago area instead of the current 55 mph, stating that one bill "compromises safety".[112]

Oprah Winfrey

In early 2009 Blagojevich reported being so impressed by Oprah Winfrey's influence on the election of Barack Obama that he considered offering Winfrey Obama's vacant senate seat. Blagojevich summarized his reasons for considering Winfrey on various talk shows:

To begin with, she was perhaps the most instrumental person in electing Barack Obama president. She is a larger-than-life figure in America and around the world. She has a huge bully pulpit and tremendous support across America…She has a voice larger than all 100 senators combined. And if she was a U.S. Senator, she would be a voice for the Obama program, which she supports, and she would be in a position to be able to use an unbelievable bully pulpit to be able to get it done. She obviously can't be bought. And she's actually a very, obviously, in my judgment, a very impressive and a very nice person.[113]… On the other hand, how likely is it she'd give up what she's doing for that? I mean, being a senator's a big deal, but it ain't Oprah.[114]

Winfrey noted that although she was uninterested, she did feel she could be a senator.[115]

Political analyst Chris Matthews praised Blagojevich's idea of making Winfrey a senator suggesting that in one move it would diversify the senate and raise its collective IQ. Elaborating further he said:

Anybody who doesn‘t think Winfrey would be a great senator from Illinois or anywhere is crazy. She gets along with everybody. She brings people together. She finds common ground. She's way past race politics 20 years ago. She's so far ahead of most people in human relations. And she listens…I think she is up there with Will Rogers and Bob Hope and some of our great public personalities of the last century.

Lynn Sweet of the Chicago Sun Times agreed with Matthews, claiming Winfrey would be “terrific” and an “enormously popular pick.”[116]


During the course of his political career, Blagojevich was involved in a number of controversies including at least a dozen separate federal investigations; the Tony Rezko indictment and trial; feuds with his father-in-law; contested state appointments; his residency, commute, and work hours; and allegedly withholding state funds from the Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago. In 2008, Blagojevich was investigated for and charged with crimes resulting from his role in the sale of the Chicago Cubs and Wrigley Field, as well as allegations he attempted to sell the Senate seat vacated by President Barack Obama.[citation needed]

According to the federal complaint, Blagojevich was trying to use the Illinois Finance Authority (IFA), a state agency that can provide financing for real estate deals, and grants of other state funds to persuade Tribune Company, the owner of the Cubs, to end its editorial campaign for the governor's impeachment. In a series of telephone conversations tapped by the FBI, Blagojevich and his chief of staff, John Harris, repeatedly discussed their efforts to obtain the dismissal of John McCormick, the deputy director of the Tribune editorial page, and other editorial writers.[citation needed]

In a complaint issued shortly after FBI agents arrested Blagojevich in a pre-dawn raid on his home on Chicago's North Side, federal prosecutors asserted in a nationally televised press conference that Blagojevich tried to use the Cubs sale as leverage in obtaining favorable treatment in the editorial pages of the Chicago Tribune. Blagojevich is accused of saying, on a recorded wiretap, that if the Cubs wanted IFA financing for the sale of Wrigley Field or grants for remodeling of the ballpark, the Tribune had to "fire all those [expletive] people, get 'em the [expletive] out of there, and get us some editorial support." Prosecutors also said that they had information suggesting Blagojevich was about to appoint someone to fill Obama's Senate seat after he put it up for sale, and cited this as the main reason for why they arrested him.[citation needed] Amid widespread bipartisan calls for his resignation, the General Assembly began proceedings to impeach Blagojevich and remove him from office. On December 9, the state house voted 114-1 (with one member voting present) to impeach Blagojevich. On January 29, 2009, all 59 state senators voted to find Blagojevich guilty and remove him from office. In a separate vote, the Illinois Senate voted unanimously to bar Blagojevich from ever holding office again in Illinois.[117] One day after his removal from office, professional wrestling company TNA Wrestling offered Blagojevich a job as the on camera lead of the Main Event Mafia.[118]

Patti Blagojevich

Blagojevich is married to the former Patricia Mell, daughter of Chicago Alderman Richard Mell. The couple has two daughters, Amy and Anne. Anne was born just months after her father was sworn in as governor. Patricia, who goes by Patti, was a contestant on the NBC reality show I'm a Celebrity…Get Me out of Here in June 2009, where she formed a close friendship with other contestants, most notably former NBA star John Salley. She placed 4th in the competition.

Patricia Mell earned her bachelor's degree in economics from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.[119] As First Lady of Illinois, Patti Blagojevich supported the illiteracy eradication initiatives and the Illinois Pediatric Vision Initiative. In 2009 Patti was fired from a $100,000 a year fund raising job after controversy regarding alleged taped statements.[120] Her sister is Deb Mell, an LGBT rights activist who was elected unopposed to the Illinois House of Representatives in 2008 and was the only vote against impeachment.

Post-removal activities

After being convicted and removed from office by the Illinois Senate, Blagojevich went on Late Show with David Letterman, where he re-affirmed his innocence and stated that the Illinois legislature's decision to remove him from office was politically motivated due to his unwillingness to raise taxes. He has accused his successor, Pat Quinn, of using state funds excessively for personal leisure. A report later released by the Governor's office showed that most of Quinn's transportation fees were paid for by himself and that Quinn never accepted the $32 meal allowance from the State.[121]

Blagojevich attempted to make a deal to star in NBC's 2009 summer reality show I'm a Celebrity... Get Me out of Here!. He made a request with the judge to ease his travel restrictions so that he could travel to Costa Rica to star in the show, saying that his family needed to make money. However, his request was formally rejected by U.S. District Judge James B. Zagel, who was sympathetic to Blagojevich's financial situation, but nevertheless stated, "I don't think this defendant fully understands and I don't think he could understand...the position he finds himself in." Judge Zagel went on further to note that Blagojevich must prepare for his defense.[122] Despite the ruling, NBC expressed an interest in negotiating with the judge to have him as a part of the show. His wife took his place on the show, which began airing June 1, 2009.[123][124] He told an interviewer he found it difficult to watch his wife eat a dead tarantula on the broadcast but remarked that her willingness to participate in the show was "an act of love" because she was earning funds to alleviate their adverse financial position.[125]

On June 13, 2009, Rod starred in improv group The Second City's musical Rod Blagojevich Superstar. He performed in order to support the charity Gilda's Club Chicago, which offers support for people living with cancer.[126]

On June 30, 2009, Blagojevich's autobiography The Governor: The Truth Behind the Political Scandal That Continues to Rock the Nation[127] was announced for print release on September 8, 2009.[128] The book was also released by for sale as an eBook on the Kindle on the same day as the announcement.[129]

Blagojevich appeared on Season 9 of The Celebrity Apprentice in Spring 2010, asserting that he has the "skill and know-how to get things accomplished" on the series. Series star and producer Donald Trump praised Blagojevich's "tremendous courage and guts", and predicted that he would become one of the show's breakout stars.[130] Trump subsequently fired Blagojevich in the fourth episode of the season, which aired April 4, 2010.[131]

In an interview with Esquire in January 2010, Blagojevich said about President Obama, "Everything he's saying's on the teleprompter. I'm blacker than Barack Obama. I shined shoes. I grew up in a five-room apartment. My father had a little laundromat in a black community not far from where he lived. I saw it all growing up." He soon backpedaled from the term "blacker than", saying that he chose his words poorly, but he stood by his message that "the frustration is real, and the frustration is still, today, average, ordinary people aren't getting a fair shake."[132]

Blagojevich made an appearance at the 'Wizard World Chicago' comic convention in August 2010, conversing with and taking pictures with attendants. He charged $50 for an autograph and $80 for a photo. He also had a humorous televised meeting with Adam West; Blagojevich remarked that he considered The Joker to be the best Batman foil. Comic fandom website reported that Blagojevich met with a mostly positive reception, while Time Out Chicago described it as mixed.[133][134] 12/2010 - has Rod appearing in a television commercial for pistachio nuts, appears to have first aired during the World Series, November 1, 2010.

Personal style

Blagojevich was famed for his flamboyant dress style, such as his taste for Charvet ties.[135][136] Ever since the Justice Department complaint was made public, Blagojevich's hairstyle has become the subject of discussion and jokes for national and local media personalities. Blagojevich insisted his aides carry a hairbrush for him at all times, which he referred to as "the football", a reference to the term nuclear football, which represents the bomb launch codes never to be out of reach of the president.[37]

Electoral history

House of Representatives



  • Rod Blagojevich (inc.), Democrat: 74%
  • Alan Spitz, Republican: 24%


  • Rod Blagojevich (inc.), Democrat: 87%
  • Matt Beauchamp, Libertarian: 13%

Gubernatorial elections

2002 gubernatorial election, Illinois

  • Rod Blagojevich, Democrat: 1,818,823, 52.0%
  • Jim Ryan, Republican: 1,582,604, 45.2%
  • Cal Skinner, Libertarian: 73,404, 2.1%
  • Marisellis Brown, Independent: 22,803, 0.7%

2006 gubernatorial election, Illinois


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External links

United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Michael P. Flanagan
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 5th congressional district

Succeeded by
Rahm Emanuel
Political offices
Preceded by
George H. Ryan
Governor of Illinois
Succeeded by
Pat Quinn
Party political offices
Preceded by
Dan Rostenkowski
Democratic nominee for Illinois's 5th congressional district
1996, 1998, 2000
Succeeded by
Rahm Emanuel
Preceded by
Glenn Poshard
Democratic nominee for Governor of Illinois
2002, 2006
Succeeded by
Pat Quinn

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