- Sexual orientation
Sexual orientation is believed to refer to "an enduring pattern of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions to men, women, or both sexes." According to the
American Psychological Association"it also refers to an individual’s sense of personal and social identity based on those attractions, behaviors expressing them, and membership in a community of others who share them." [http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/courts/supreme/highprofile/documents/Amer_Psychological_Assn_Amicus_Curiae_Brief.pdf APA California Amicus Brief] ] Sexual orientation is usually classified according to the sexor genderof the people who are found sexually attractive, and is therefore usually discussed in terms of three categories: heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual. "However, some people may use different labels or none at all."citation |url=http://www.apa.org/topics/sorientation.html#whatis |title=Sexuality, What is sexual orientation? |periodical= American Psychological Association: "Sexual orientation refers to an enduring pattern of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions.... sexual orientation is usually discussed in terms of three categories: heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual...However, some people may use different labels or none at all." |accessdate=2008-08-12] The most common forms exists along a continuum that ranges from exclusive heterosexuality (being sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex) to exclusive homosexuality (being sexually attracted to members of the same sex) and includes various forms of bisexuality (being sexually attracted to members of either sex).
Most definitions of sexual orientation include a psychological component, such as the direction of an individual's erotic desire, or a behavioral component, which focuses on the sex of the individual's sexual partner/s. Some definitions include both components. Some people prefer simply to follow an individual's self-definition or identity.
Some scholars of
sexology, anthropologyand historyhave argued that social categories such as heterosexual and homosexual are not universal. Different societies may consider other criteria to be more significant than sex, including the respective age of the partners, whether partners assume an active or a passive sexual role, and their social status. Sexual identityand sexual behaviorare closely related to sexual orientation, but they are distinguished, with identity referring to an individual's conception of themselves, behavior referring to actual sexual acts performed by the individual, and orientation referring to "fantasies, attachments and longings." [Reiter, L. (1989) "Sexual orientation, sexual identity, and the question of choice." Clinical Social Work Journal, 17, 138-150.] Individuals may or may not express their sexual orientation in their behaviors.citation |url=http://www.apahelpcenter.org/articles/article.php?id=31 |title=Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality |periodical=APAHelpCenter.org |accessdate=2007-09-07] People who have a homosexual sexual orientation that does not align with their sexual identity are sometimes referred to as closeted.
"Sexual identity" may also be used to describe a person's perception of his or her own "sex", rather than sexual orientation. The term "sexual preference" has a similar meaning to "sexual orientation", but is more commonly used outside of scientific circles by people who believe that sexual orientation is, in whole or part, a matter of choice.Fact|date=May 2008
Measuring sexual orientation
Varying definitions and strong social norms about sexuality can make sexual orientation difficult to quantify. Researchers may use different markers of sexual orientation, including self-labeling, sexual behaviour, sexual fantasy or a pattern of erotic arousal. A clinical measurement may use penile or
vaginal photoplethysmography, where genital engorgement with blood is measured in response to exposure to different erotic material. [Wilson, G. and Rahman, Q., (2005). Born Gay. London: Peter Owen Publishers, p21] In 1995, two researchers argued that due to a lack of research on change over time, there is a limitation on current conceptualizations of sexual orientation. They did not abandon the concept of sexual orientation, but concluded that "given such significant measurement problems, one could conclude there is serious doubt whether sexual orientation is a valid concept at all," and warned against increasing politicization of this area. [cite journal
title=Definition and measurement of sexual orientation
coauthor=Weinrich, J. D.
publisher=Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior
From at least the late nineteenth century in Europe, there was speculation that the range of human sexual response looked more like a continuum than two or three discrete categories. 28-year-old Berlin sexologist
Magnus Hirschfeldpublished a scheme in 1896 that measured the strength of an individual's sexual desire on two independent 10-point scales, A (homosexual) and B (heterosexual). [Hirschfeld, Magnus, 1896. "Sappho und Socrates, Wie erklärt sich die Liebe der Männer & und Frauen zu Personen des eigenen Geschlechts?" (Sappho and Socrates, How Can One Explain the Love of Men and Women for Individuals of Their Own Sex?)] A heterosexual individual may be A0, B5; a homosexual individual may be A5, B0; An asexual would be A0, B0; and someone with an intense attraction to both sexes would be A9, B9.
Fifty years later, American sexologist
Alfred Kinseywrote in Sexual Behavior in the Human Male(1948):
quotation|Males do not represent two discrete populations, heterosexual and homosexual. The world is not to be divided into sheep and goats. It is a fundamental of taxonomy that nature rarely deals with discrete categories... The living world is a continuum in each and every one of its aspects.While emphasizing the continuity of the gradations between exclusively heterosexual and exclusively homosexual histories, it has seemed desirable to develop some sort of classification which could be based on the relative amounts of heterosexual and homosexual experience or response in each history... An individual may be assigned a position on this scale, for each period in his life.... A seven-point scale comes nearer to showing the many gradations that actually exist.| [A.C. Kinsey, W.B. Pomeroy, C.E. Martin, "Sexual Behavior in the Human Male," (pp. 639, 656). Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders, 1948). ISBN 0-253-33412-8.]
Kinsey scalemeasures sexual orientation from 0 (exclusively heterosexual) to 6 (exclusively homosexual), with an additional category, X, for those with no sexual attraction to either women or men. Unlike Hirschfeld's scale, the Kinsey scale is one-dimensional. Simon LeVaywrote, "it suggests (although Kinsey did not actually believe this) that every person has the same fixed endowment of sexual energy, which he or she then divides up between same-sex and opposite-sex attraction in a ratio indicative of his or her own sexual orientation." [LeVay, Simon, 1996. "Queer Science: The Use and Abuse of Research into Homosexuality." Cambridge: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-62119-3 .]
Malleability of sexual orientation
In his 1985 book "The Bisexual Option",
Fritz Kleindeveloped a scale to test his theory that sexual orientation is a "dynamic, multi-variable process" — dynamic in that it may change over time, and multi-variable in that it is composed of various elements, both sexual and non-sexual. Klein took into account sexual attraction, sexual behavior, sexual fantasies, emotional and social partners, lifestyle, and self-identification. Each of these variables was measured for the person's past, present, and ideal. [Klein, F., Barry Sepekoff, Timothy J. Wolf. "Sexual Orientation: a Multi-Variable Dynamic Process," in Klein, Fritz and Timothy J. Wolf, ed., 'Two Lives to Lead; Bisexuality in Men and Women', New York: Harrington Park Press, Inc., 1985, p. 38. (Also published as "Bisexualities: Theory and Research", by Haworth Press, 1985.) [http://www.bisexual.org/klein/default.asp#kleingrid Klein Sexual Orientation Grid online] ]
The degree in which sexuality can change varies from person to person. The
Centre for Addiction and Mental Healthhas said "For some people, sexual orientation is continuous and fixed throughout their lives. For others, sexual orientation may be fluid and change over time." [ [http://www.camh.net/Care_Treatment/Resources_for_Professionals/ARQ2/arq2_question_a2.html CAMH: Resources for professionals] ] Research by Lisa Diamond has shown the sexual orientation is more fluid among bisexual women than lesbians. [Diamond, Lisa [http://www.psych.utah.edu/people/faculty/diamond/Publications/Sexual%20identity,%20attractions,%20and%20behavior.pdf Sexual Identity, Attractions, and Behavior Among Young Sexual-Minority Women Over a 2-Year Period] "Developmental Psychology (2000) Vol. 36 No.2, 241-250]
Other organizations disagree with Fritz Klein. The
American Psychological Associationhas stated that homosexuality "is not changeable." [http://www.apa.org/topics/sorientation.html#whatabout Answers to Your Questions About Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality] , American Psychological Association. Retrieved on 2008-08-21.] In 2001, the United States Surgeon General David Satcherissued a report maintaining that "there is no valid scientific evidence that sexual orientation can be changed." [" [http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/sexualhealth/call.htm#III The Surgeon General's call to Action to Promote Sexual Health and Responsible Sexual Behavior] ", A Letter from the Surgeon General U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2001-07-09. Retrieved 2007-03-29.]
Desire, behavior and identity
Some people distinguish between
#opposite/same-sex sexual activity/behavior
#attraction to the other's sex (male/female) vs. attraction to the other's perceived gender-characteristics (masculine/feminine)
#self-identifying as straight, lesbian, gay, etc.Mainstream medical organizations have made clear that ”sexual behavior does not necessarily equate to sexual orientation.“ [ [http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbc/publications/justthefacts.html Just the Facts About Sexual Orientation & Youth: A Primer for Principals, Educators and School Personnel] ,
American Psychological Association, et al., 1999. Retrieved 2007-02-23.]
Sexual orientation and gender identity
The earliest writers on sexual orientation usually understood it to be intrinsically linked to the subject's own sex. For example, it was thought that a typical female-bodied person who is attracted to female-bodied persons would have masculine attributes, and vice versa. [Minton, H. L. (1986). "Femininity in men and masculinity in women: American psychiatry and psychology portray homosexuality in the 1930s",
Journal of Homosexuality, 13(1), 1-21.
*Terry, J. (1999). "An American obsession: Science, medicine, and homosexuality in modern society." Chicago: University of Chicago Press] This understanding was shared by most of the significant theorists of sexual orientation from the mid nineteenth to early twentieth century, such as
Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Magnus Hirschfeld, Havelock Ellis, Carl Jungand Sigmund Freud, as well as many gender variant homosexual people themselves. However, this understanding of homosexuality as sexual inversion was disputed at the time, and through the second half of the twentieth century, gender identitycame to be increasingly seen as a phenomenon distinct from sexual orientation. Transgenderand cisgenderpeople may be attracted to men, women, or both, although the prevalence of different sexual orientations is quite different in these two populations (see sexual orientation of transwomen). An individual homosexual, heterosexual or bisexual person may be masculine, feminine, or androgynous, and in addition, many members and supporters of lesbian and gay communities now see the "gender-conforming heterosexual" and the "gender-nonconforming homosexual" as negative stereotypes. However, studies by J Michael Bailey and KJ Zucker have found that a majority of gay men and lesbians report being gender-nonconforming during their childhood years. [Bailey, J.M., Zucker, K.J. (1995), "Childhood sex-typed behavior and sexual orientation: a conceptual analysis and quantitative review." Developmental Psychology 31(1):43]
The majority of transgender people today identify with the sexual orientation that corresponds with their gender; meaning that a transwoman who is solely attracted to women would often identify as a lesbian. Female-attracted transmen often consider themselves straight men, yet some participate in the lesbian community.
For these reasons, the terms
gynephilia and androphiliaare occasionally (but increasingly) used when referring to the sexual orientation of transgenderand intersexpeople (and occasionally, cisgender people), because rather than focusing on the sex of the subject, they only describe that of the object of their attraction. The third common term that describes sexual orientation, bisexuality, makes no claim about the subject's sex or gender identity. (See also Pansexuality)
Sexual orientation sees greater intricacy when non-binary understandings of both sex (male, female, or
intersex) and gender (man, woman, transgender, third gender, or gender variant) are considered. Sociologist Paula Rodriguez Rust (2000) argues for a more multifaceted definition of sexual orientation:
Demographics of sexual orientation
The multiple aspects of sexual orientation and the boundary-drawing problems already described create methodological challenges for the study of the demographics of sexual orientation. Determining the frequency of various sexual orientations in real-world populations is difficult and controversial.
In the oft-cited and oft-criticized Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948) and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953), by
Alfred C. Kinseyet al., people were asked to rate themselves on a scale from completely heterosexual to completely homosexual. Kinsey reported that when the individuals' behavior as well as their identity are analyzed, most people appeared to be at least somewhat bisexual – i.e., most people have some attraction to either sex, although usually one sex is preferred. According to Kinsey, only a minority (5-10%) can be considered fully heterosexual or homosexual. Conversely, only an even smaller minority can be considered fully bisexual (with an equal attraction to both sexes).
Kinsey's methods have been criticized as flawed, particularly with regard to the randomness of his sample population, which included a large number of prison inmates. Nevertheless,
Paul Gebhard, subsequent director of the Kinsey Institute for Sex Research, reexamined the data in the Kinsey Reportsand concluded that accounting for major statistical objections barely affected the results. Most modern scientific surveys find that the majority of people report a mostly heterosexual orientation. However, the relative percentage of the population that reports a homosexual orientation varies with differing methodologies and selection criteria. Most of these statistical findings are in the range of 2.8 to 9% of males, and 1 to 5% of females for the United States [James Alm, M. V. Lee Badgett, Leslie A. Whittington, "Wedding Bell Blues: The Income Tax Consequences of Legalizing Same-Sex Marriage", page 24. (1998) [http://www.colorado.edu/Economics/CEA/papers98/wp98-33.pdf PDF link] ] — this figure can be as high as 12% for some large cities and as low as 1% percent for rural areas). In gay villages such as The Castroin San Francisco, California, the concentration of self-identified homosexual people can exceed 40%.Fact|date=December 2007
Estimates for the percentage of the population that are bisexual vary widely, at least in part due to differing definitions of bisexuality. Some studies only consider a person bisexual if they are nearly equally attracted to both sexes, and others consider a person bisexual if they are "at all" attracted to the same sex (for otherwise mostly heterosexual persons) or to the opposite sex (for otherwise mostly homosexual persons). A small percentage of people are not sexually attracted to anyone (
Influences on sexual orientation
American Academy of Pediatricshas stated "Sexual orientation probably is not determined by any one factor but by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences." [ [http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/pediatrics;113/6/1827.pdf Sexual Orientation and Adolescents] , American Academy of PediatricsClinical Report. Retrieved 2007-02-23.] Debate continues over what biological and/or psychological variables influence sexual orientation in humans, such as genesand the exposure of certain levels of hormones to fetuses. Freud and other psychoanalysts maintain that sexual orientation is influenced by numerous factors including formative childhood experiences in some cases.
Possible environmental factors
Prenatal hormones on developing fetus
The hormonal theory of sexuality holds that, just as exposure to certain hormones plays a role in fetal sex differentiation, such exposure also influences the sexual orientation that emerges later in the adult. Fetal hormones may be seen as either the primary influence upon adult sexual orientation, or as co-factor interacting with genes and/or environmental and social conditions [G.Wilson & Q.Rahman Born Gay: The Psychobiology of Human Sex Orientation, London: Peter Owen 2005] .
Recent studies found an increased chance of homosexuality in men whose mothers previously carried to term many male children. This effect is nullified if the man is left-handed. [Blanchard, R., Cantor, J. M., Bogaert, A. F., Breedlove, S. M., & Ellis, L. (2006). [http://msu.edu/~breedsm/pdf/Blanchard2006IntFratHandHBFinal.pdf "Interaction of fraternal birth order and handedness in the development of male homosexuality."] "Hormones and Behavior", 49, 405–414.] No similar effect was found in women.Fact|date=April 2007
Possible genetic factors
Research has identified several biological factors which may be related to the development of sexual orientation, including
genes, prenatal hormones, and brainstructure. No single controlling cause has been identified, and research is continuing in this area. At one time, twin studiesappeared to point to a major genetic component, but problems in experimental designof the available studies have made their interpretation difficult, and one recent study appears to exclude genes as a major factor.This work was published in the "American Journal of Sociology" (Bearman, P. S. & Bruckner, H. (2002) Opposite-sex twins and adolescent same-sex attraction. American Journal of Sociology 107, 1179–1205.) and is available only to subscribers. However, a final draft of the paper is available [http://www.iserp.columbia.edu/research/working_papers/downloads/2001_04.pdf here] - there are no significant differences on the points cited between the final draft and the published version.]
Possibility of innate bisexuality
Innate bisexuality, or predisposition to bisexuality, is an idea introduced by Sigmund Freud, based on work by his associate Wilhelm Fliess. According to this theory, all humans are born bisexual but through psychological development, which includes both external and internal factors, become monosexual while the bisexuality remains in a latent state.
There is disagreement among scientists about whether choice could play any role in the development of sexual orientation.
Dr. Angela Pattatucci, a clinical biologist said, " ["Lifestyle"] is idiotic when applied to sexual orientation – would you refer to lefthandedness as an 'alternative lifestyle? – but the problem is that through misuse by the media and in political rhetoric it's become ubiquitous.... When reporters use it, it is simply intellectual laziness. But some people adore that word, and the reason is probably in many cases, I'm very sorry to say, that it is such an inaccurate description of homosexuality, implying that sexual orientation is something one chooses, something frivolous or faddish, determined by what you do, as opposed to an internal orientation that is a component of what you are." [ Burr, Chandler. "A Separate Creation: The Search for the Biological Origins of Sexual Orientation." Hyperion 1997.]
Simon LeVay, a neuroscientist, has argued against scientists, including Dean Hamer, who claim that genetic research has proven that sexual orientation is not a choice. Referring to Hamer's testimony at a 1993 trial challenging Colorado's Amendment 2, which would have rescinded anti-discrimination laws prohibiting discrimination against homosexuals, LeVay wrote, "...the pressures of the trial drove the expert witnesses to take somewhat more extreme or simplified positions than they might otherwise have done. Hamer, for example, said at one point: "Since people don't choose their genes, they couldn't possibly choose their sexual orientation. The same goes for the question about changing. People can't change their genes. So that part of sexuality that is genetically influenced, of course, cannot be easily changed." This goes beyond the data in two respects. First, it seems to deny any possibility of choice even if the genetic influence is only partial. Yet it is possible to construct a hypothesis whereby both "gay genes" "and" a desire to be homosexual are necessary for a person actually to become homosexual. Second, it equates genetic loading with immutability, a connection that is open to challenge." LeVay, Simon (1996). "Queer Science: The Use and Abuse of Research into Homosexuality." Cambridge: The MIT Press ISBN 0-262-12199-9 ]
Sexual orientation as a social construct
Because sexual orientation is complex and multi-dimensional, some academics and researchers, especially in
Queer studies, have argued that it is a historical and social construction. In 1976 the historian Michel Foucaultargued that homosexualityas an identity did not exist in the eighteenth century; that people instead spoke of "sodomy", which referred to sexual acts. Sodomy was a crime that was often ignored but sometimes punished severely (see sodomy law).
Foucault further argued that it was in the nineteenth century that homosexuality came into existence as practitioners of emerging sciences and arts sought to classify and analyze different forms of sexuality. Finally, Foucault argues that it was this emerging discourse that allowed some to claim homosexuality as a human identity.Fact|date=April 2007
Heterosexuality and homosexuality are terms often used in European and American cultures to encompass a person’s entire social identity, which includes self and personality. In Western cultures some people speak meaningfully of gay, lesbian, and bisexual identities and communities. In other cultures, homosexuality and heterosexual labels don’t emphasize an entire social identity or indicate community affiliation based on sexual orientation. [Zachary Green and Michael J. Stiers. "Multiculturalism and Group Therapy in the United States: A Social Constructionist Perspective". Springer Netherlands 2002. Pages 233-246.]
Some historians and researchers argue that the emotional and affectionate activities associated with sexual-orientation terms such as gay and straight change significantly over time and across cultural boundaries. For example, in many English-speaking nations it is assumed that same-sex kissing, particularly between men, is a sign of homosexuality, whereas various types of same-sex kissing are common expressions of
friendshipin other nations. Also, many modern and historic cultures have formal ceremonies expressing long-term commitment between same-sex friends, even though homosexuality itself is taboo within the culture. [Robert Brain. "Friends and Lovers". Granada Publishing Ltd. 1976. Chapters 3, 4.]
Medical associations with policy related to sexual orientation
*Australian Medical Association [http://www.ama.com.au/web.nsf/doc/WEEN-5GA2YX]
Chinese Society of Psychiatry
*American Academy of Pediatrics [http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;113/6/1827]
*American Medical Association [http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/14754.html]
*American Medical Student Association [http://www.amsa.org/lgbt/]
*American Psychological Association (for public) [http://www.apa.org/topics/orientation.html] (for educators) [http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbc/publications/justthefacts.html]
*Catholic Medical Association [ [http://www.cathmed.org/publications/homosexuality.htm Catholic Medical Association ] ]
*Christian Medical and Dental Association [http://www.cmdahome.org/index.cgi?BISKIT=2302340612&CONTEXT=art&art=2553]
Exotic Becomes Erotic theory
LGBT(Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender)
List of anti-discrimination acts
List of LGBT rights by region
Non-westernized concepts of male sexuality
Sexual orientation and military service
Terminology of homosexuality
*Dynes, Wayne (ed.) "Encyclopedia of Homosexuality." New York and London, Garland Publishing, 1990.
*Gil Brum, Larry McKane, and Gerry Karp. "Biologyndash Exploring Life", 2nd edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1994. p. 663. (About INAH-3.)
*Sell, Randall L. (December 1997). Defining and measuring sexual orientation: a review. "Archives of Sexual Behavior" 26(6) 643-658. ( [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/assault/context/defining.html "excerpt"] )
* [http://www.niquette.com/books/sophmag/h-word.htm "The H-Word"] by Paul Niquette
* [http://www.lifeofalawstudent.com/article.php?story=conlawi41 A law lecture (mp3) on sexual orientation and U.S. constitutional law]
* [http://www.apa.org/pubinfo/answers.html American Psychological Association: Answers to Your Questions About Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality]
* [http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn5026 Aspirin changes sexual behaviour of rats]
* [http://msu.edu/~breedsm/pdf/AmateauCommentaryFinalNatNeuro2004.pdf Brain gender: prostaglandins have their say]
* [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1819981 Endocrine Function in Male and Female Homosexuals]
* [http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/etiology.html Etiology] on
* [http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/index.htm Magnus Hirschfeld Archive of Sexology at the Humboldt University in Berlin]
* [http://www.borngayprocon.org/ Is sexual orientation determined at birth?]
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=17382481 Sex, drugs and sports: Prostaglandins, epitestosterone and sexual development]
* [http://www.ibiblio.org/rcip//sbh.html Survivor bashing - bias motivated hate crimes]
* [http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/03/09/60minutes/main1385230.shtml The Science Of Sexual Orientation]
* [http://www.sexedlibrary.org The SexEdLibrary]
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