Coenzyme A

Coenzyme A
Coenzyme A
CAS number 85-61-0 YesY
PubChem 6816
ChemSpider 6557 YesY
DrugBank DB01992
KEGG C00010 N
MeSH Coenzyme+A
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Molecular formula C21H36N7O16P3S
Molar mass 767.535
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle. All sequenced genomes encode enzymes that use coenzyme A as a substrate, and around 4% of cellular enzymes use it (or a thioester, such as acetyl-CoA) as a substrate.[1] It is adapted from cysteamine, pantothenate, and adenosine triphosphate.



Coenzyme A is synthesized in a five-step process from pantothenate and cysteine:

  1. Pantothenate (vitamin B5) is phosphorylated to 4'-phosphopantothenate by the enzyme pantothenate kinase (PanK; CoaA; CoaX)
  2. A cysteine is added to 4'-phosphopantothenate by the enzyme phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase (PPC-DC; CoaB) to form 4'-phospho-N-pantothenoylcysteine (PPC)
  3. PPC is decarboxylated to 4'-phosphopantetheine by phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase (CoaC)
  4. 4'-phosphopantetheine is adenylylated to form dephospho-CoA by the enzyme phosphopantetheine adenylyl transferase (CoaD)
  5. Finally, dephospho-CoA is phosphorylated using ATP to coenzyme A by the enzyme dephosphocoenzyme A kinase (CoaE).


Since coenzyme A is, in chemical terms, a thiol, it can react with carboxylic acids to form thioesters, thus functioning as an acyl group carrier. It assists in transferring fatty acids from the cytoplasm to mitochondria. A molecule of coenzyme A carrying an acetyl group is also referred to as acetyl-CoA. When it is not attached to an acyl group, it is usually referred to as 'CoASH' or 'HSCoA'.

Coenzyme A is also the source of the phosphopantetheine group that is added as a prosthetic group to proteins such as acyl carrier protein and formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase.[2][3]

List of coenzyme A activated acyl groups

Additional images


  1. ^ Matthew Daugherty, Boris Polanuyer, Michael Farrell, Michael Scholle, Athanasios Lykidis, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard and Andrei Osterman (2002). "Complete Reconstitution of the Human Coenzyme A Biosynthetic Pathway via Comparative Genomics". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277: 21431–21439. doi:10.1074/jbc.M201708200. PMID 11923312. 
  2. ^ Elovson J, Vagelos PR (July 1968). "Acyl carrier protein. X. Acyl carrier protein synthetase". J. Biol. Chem. 243 (13): 3603–11. PMID 4872726. 
  3. ^ Strickland KC, Hoeferlin LA, Oleinik NV, Krupenko NI, Krupenko SA (January 2010). "Acyl carrier protein-specific 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase activates 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 285 (3): 1627–33. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.080556. PMC 2804320. PMID 19933275. 


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