Coenzymes are small organic non-
protein molecules that carry chemical groups between enzymes. [cite web |url=http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iupac/bioinorg/CD.html#33 |title=Glossary of Terms Used in Bioinorganic Chemistry: Coenzymes |accessdate=2007-10-30 |last=de Bolster |first=M.W.G. |date=1997 |publisher=International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry] Coenzymes are sometimes referred to as "cosubstrates". These molecules are substrates for enzymes and do not form a permanent part of the enzymes' structures. This distinguishes coenzymes from prosthetic groups, which are non-protein components that are bound tightly to enzymes - such as iron-sulfur centers, flavinor haemgroups. Both coenzymes and prosthetic groups are types of the broader group of cofactors, which are any non-protein molecules (usually organic molecules or metal ions) that are required by an enzyme for its activity. [cite web |url=http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iupac/bioinorg/CD.html#34 |title=Glossary of Terms Used in Bioinorganic Chemistry: Cofactors |accessdate=2007-10-30 |last=de Bolster |first=M.W.G. |date=1997 |publisher=International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry]
metabolism, coenzymes are involved in both group-transfer reactions, for example coenzyme Aand adenosine triphosphate(ATP), and redox reactions, such as coenzyme Q10 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD+). Coenzymes are consumed and recycled continuously in metabolism, with one set of enzymes adding a chemical group to the coenzyme and another set removing it. For example, enzymes such as ATP synthasecontinuously phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate(ADP), converting it into ATP, while enzymes such as kinases dephosphorylate the ATP and convert it back to ADP.
Coenzymes molecules are often
vitamins or are made from vitamins. Many coenzymes contain the nucleotide adenosineas part of their structures, such as ATP, coenzyme Aand NAD+. This common structure may reflect a common evolutionary origin as part of ribozymes in an ancient RNA world.
Coenzymes as metabolic intermediates
Metabolism involves a vast array of chemical reactions, but most fall under a few basic types of reactions that involve the transfer of
functional groups. [cite journal |author=Mitchell P |title=The Ninth Sir Hans Krebs Lecture. Compartmentation and communication in living systems. Ligand conduction: a general catalytic principle in chemical, osmotic and chemiosmotic reaction systems |journal=Eur J Biochem |volume=95 |issue=1 |pages=1-20 |year=1979 |pmid=378655 | doi = 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1979.tb12934.x ] This common chemistry allows cells to use a small set of metabolic intermediates to carry chemical groups between different reactions. [cite journal |author=Wimmer M, Rose I |title=Mechanisms of enzyme-catalyzed group transfer reactions |journal=Annu Rev Biochem |volume=47 |issue= |pages=1031-78 |year= |pmid=354490 | doi = 10.1146/annurev.bi.47.070178.005123 ] These group-transfer intermediates are the coenzymes.
Each class of group-transfer reaction is carried out by a particular coenzyme, which is the substrate for a set of enzymes that produce it, and a set of enzymes that consume it. An example of this are the
dehydrogenases that use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NADH) as a cofactor. Here, hundreds of separate types of enzymes remove electrons from their substrates and reduce NAD+ to NADH. This reduced coenzyme is then a substrate for any of the reductases in the cell that need to reduce their substrates.cite journal |author=Pollak N, Dölle C, Ziegler M |title=The power to reduce: pyridine nucleotides--small molecules with a multitude of functions |journal=Biochem. J. |volume=402 |issue=2 |pages=205-18 |year=2007 |pmid=17295611 |url=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=17295611 | doi = 10.1042/BJ20061638 ]
Coenzymes are therefore continuously recycled as part of metabolism. As an example, the total quantity of ATP in the human body is about 0.1 mole. This ATP is constantly being broken down into ADP, and then converted back into ATP. Thus, at any given time, the total amount of ATP + ADP remains fairly constant. The energy used by human cells requires the
hydrolysisof 100 to 150 moles of ATP daily which is around 50 to 75 kg. Typically, a human will use up their body weight of ATP over the course of the day.Di Carlo, S. E. and Coliins, H. L. (2001) [http://advan.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/25/2/70 "Estimating ATP resynthesis during a marathon run: a method to introduce metabolism"] Advan. Physiol. Edu. 25: 70-71. ] This means that each ATP molecule is recycled 1000 to 1500 times daily.
Acting as coenzymes in organisms is the major role of
vitamins, although vitamins do have other functions in the body. [cite journal |author=Bolander FF |title=Vitamins: not just for enzymes |journal=Curr Opin Investig Drugs |volume=7 |issue=10 |pages=912–5 |year=2006 |pmid=17086936] Coenzymes are also commonly made from nucleotides: such as adenosine triphosphate, the biochemical carrier of phosphategroups, or coenzyme A, the coenzyme that carries acylgroups. Most coenzymes are found in a huge variety of species, and some are universal to all forms of life. An exception to this wide distribution is a group of unique coenzymes that evolved in methanogens, which are restricted to this group of archaea. [cite journal |author=Rouvière PE, Wolfe RS |title=Novel biochemistry of methanogenesis |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=263 |issue=17 |pages=7913–6 |year=1988 |pmid=3131330 |url=http://www.jbc.org/cgi/reprint/263/17/7913]
Vitamins and derivatives
Coenzymes, such as ATP and
NADH, are present in all known forms of life and form a core part of metabolism. Such universal conservation indicates that these molecules evolved very early in the development of living things. [cite journal |author=Chen X, Li N, Ellington AD |title=Ribozyme catalysis of metabolism in the RNA world |journal=Chem. Biodivers. |volume=4 |issue=4 |pages=633–55 |year=2007 |pmid=17443876 | doi = 10.1002/cbdv.200790055 ] At least some of the current set of coenzymes may therefore have been present in the last universal ancestor, which lived about 4 billion years ago. [cite journal |author=Koch A |title=How did bacteria come to be? |journal=Adv Microb Physiol |volume=40 |issue= |pages=353–99 |year=1998 |pmid=9889982] [cite journal |author=Ouzounis C, Kyrpides N |title=The emergence of major cellular processes in evolution |journal=FEBS Lett |volume=390 |issue=2 |pages=119-23 |year=1996 |pmid=8706840 | doi = 10.1016/0014-5793(96)00631-X ]
Coenzymes may have been present even earlier in the history of life on Earth. [cite journal |author=White HB |title=Coenzymes as fossils of an earlier metabolic state |journal=J. Mol. Evol. |volume=7 |issue=2 |pages=101–4 |year=1976 |pmid=1263263 | doi = 10.1007/BF01732468 ] Interestingly, the nucleotide
adenosineis present in coenzymes that catalyse many basic metabolic reactions such as methyl, acyl, and phosphoryl group transfer, as well as redoxreactions. This ubiquitous chemical scaffold has therefore been proposed to be a remnant of the RNA world, with early ribozymes evolving to bind a restricted set of nucleotides and related compounds. [cite journal |author=Saran D, Frank J, Burke DH |title=The tyranny of adenosine recognition among RNA aptamers to coenzyme A |journal=BMC Evol. Biol. |volume=3 |issue= |pages=26 |year=2003 |pmid=14687414 |url=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=14687414 | doi = 10.1186/1471-2148-3-26 ] [cite journal |author=Jadhav VR, Yarus M |title=Coenzymes as coribozymes |journal=Biochimie |volume=84 |issue=9 |pages=877–88 |year=2002 |pmid=12458080 | doi = 10.1016/S0300-9084(02)01404-9 ] Adenosine-based coenzymes are thought to have acted as interchangeable adaptors that allowed enzymes and ribozymes to bind new coenzymes through small modifications in existing adenosine-binding domains, which had originally evolved to bind a different cofactor. [cite journal |author=Denessiouk KA, Rantanen VV, Johnson MS |title=Adenine recognition: a motif present in ATP-, CoA-, NAD-, NADP-, and FAD-dependent proteins |journal=Proteins |volume=44 |issue=3 |pages=282–91 |year=2001 |pmid=11455601 | doi = 10.1002/prot.1093 ] This process of adapting a pre-evolved structure for a novel use is referred to as " exaptation".
The first coenzyme to be discovered was NAD+, which was identified by
Arthur Hardenand William Youndin 1906. [Harden A, Young WJ. "The Alcoholic Ferment of Yeast-Juice" "Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character" Vol. 78, No. 526 (Oct., 1906), pp. 369-375 ] They noticed that adding boiled and filtered yeastextract greatly accelerated alcoholic fermentationin unboiled yeast extracts. They called the unidentified factor responsible for this effect a "coferment". Through a long and difficult purification from yeast extracts, this heat-stable factor was identified as a nucleotidesugar phosphate by Hans von Euler-Chelpin. [cite web |url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1929/euler-chelpin-lecture.pdf |title=Fermentation of sugars and fermentative enzymes: Nobel Lecture, May 23, 1930 |accessdate=2007-09-30 |publisher=Nobel Foundation] Other coenzymes were identified throughout the early 20th century, with ATP being isolated in 1929 by Karl Lohmann, [Lohmann, K. (1929) "Über die Pyrophosphatfraktion im Muskel." Naturwissenschaften 17, 624–625.] and coenzyme A being discovered in 1945 by Fritz Albert Lipmann. [cite journal |author=Lipmann F |title=Acetylation of sulfanilamide by liver homogenates and extracts |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=160 |issue=1 |pages=173–190 |year=1945 |url=http://www.jbc.org/cgi/reprint/160/1/173]
The functions of coenzymes were at first mysterious, but in 1936,
Otto Heinrich Warburgidentified the function of NAD+ in hydride transfer. [cite journal |author=Warburg O, Christian W.|title=Pyridin, the hydrogen-transferring component of the fermentation enzymes (pyridine nucleotide) |journal=Biochemische Zeitschrift |volume=287 |year=1936 |pages=291] This discovery was followed in the early 1940s by the work of Herman Kalckar, who established the link between the oxidation of sugars and the generation of ATP. [cite journal |author=Kalckar HM |title=Origins of the concept oxidative phosphorylation |journal=Mol. Cell. Biochem. |volume=5 |issue=1–2 |pages=55–63 |year=1974 |pmid=4279328 | doi = 10.1007/BF01874172 ] This confirmed the central role of ATP in energy transfer that had been proposed by Fritz Albert Lipmann in 1941. [cite journal |author=Lipmann F, |title=Metabolic generation and utilization of phosphate bond energy |journal=Adv Enzymol |volume=1 |pages=99–162 |year=1941] Later, in 1949, Morris Friedkin and Albert L. Lehningerproved that the coenzyme NAD+ linked metabolic pathways such as the citric acid cycle and the synthesis of ATP. [cite journal |author=Friedkin M, Lehninger AL. |title=Esterification of inorganic phosphate coupled to electron transport between dihydrodiphosphopyridine nucleotide and oxygen |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=178 |issue=2 |pages=611–23 |year=1949 |url=http://www.jbc.org/cgi/reprint/178/2/611 | pmid = 18116985 ]
* [http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4fv/page/coenzy_.htm Examples] at
City University of New York
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=stryer.section.1088 Overview] at
National Institutes of Health
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.