Cincinnati Reds

Cincinnati Reds
Cincinnati Reds
2012 Cincinnati Reds season
Established 1882
Cincinnati Reds Logo.svg
Team logo
Cincinnati Reds Cap Insignia.svg
Cap Insignia
Major league affiliations
Current uniform
Retired numbers 1, 5, 8, 10, 13, 14, 18, 20, 24, 42
  • Red, White, Black
  • Cincinnati Reds (1958–present)
Other nicknames
Major league titles
World Series titles (5) 1990 • 1976 • 1975 • 1940
NL Pennants (9) 1990 • 1976 • 1975 • 1972
1970 • 1961 • 1940 • 1939
AA Pennants (1) 1882
NL Central Division titles (2) [1] 2010 • 1995
NL West Division titles (7) [2] 1990 • 1979 • 1976 • 1975
1973 • 1972 • 1970
Wild card berths (0) [3] None

[1]- In 1994, a players' strike wiped out the last eight weeks of the season and all post-season. Cincinnati was in first place in the Central Division by a half game over Houston when play was stopped. No official titles were awarded in 1994.
[2]- In 1981, the Reds finished with the overall best record in major league baseball. However, a players' strike in the middle of the season resulted in the season being split into two halves. Cincinnati finished second in both halves and was thus ineligible for a post-season appearance.
[3]- In 1999, the Reds finished the regular season tied with the New York Mets for the Wild Card, but lost a one-game playoff.

Front office
Owner(s) Bob Castellini
Manager Dusty Baker
General Manager Walt Jocketty

The Cincinnati Reds are a Major League Baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. They are members of the National League Central Division. The club was established in 1882 as a charter member of the American Association and joined the National League in 1890.

The Reds have won five World Series titles, one American Association pennant, nine National League pennants and nine division titles. The Reds played in the National League West between 1969 and 1993 and since 1994 in the National League Central.

Since 2003, the Reds have played at Great American Ball Park, built next to their home from 1970, Riverfront Stadium. Bob Castellini has owned the Cincinnati Reds since 2006.


Franchise history

The original "Red Stockings" (1866–1889)

The 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings team photograph.

The original Cincinnati Red Stockings, baseball's first openly all-professional team, were founded as an amateur club in 1866, and became fully professional in 1869. The Red Stockings won 130 straight games throughout 1869 and 1870, before being defeated by the Brooklyn Atlantics. Star players included brothers Harry and George Wright, Fred Walterman, and pitcher Asa Brainard. The 1869 Red Stockings made an eastern swing of 21 games and went undefeated. According to Walter Camp, the team received a banquet and a "champion bat...this rather remarkable testimonial was twenty-seven feet long and nine inches (229 mm) in diameter". The following year, the team lost only one game. They were defeated at the Brooklyn Atlantics' Capitoline Grounds. According to Camp, the Red Stockings lost 8–7 in 11 innings. The game apparently served as a precursor to today's unruly crowds because he wrote: "A crowd of ten thousand people assembled to witness this match, and so lost their heads in the excitement as to give the Western men a very unfair reception."

In 1869, the Red Stockings posted a perfect 57-0 record, so far the only perfect season in baseball history. This was the first team to play on the East and West coasts in the same season. More than 2,000 people greeted the team when it arrived in San Francisco at 10 p.m. “They really helped nationalize the game and put Cincinnati on the map as a baseball town,” said Greg Rhodes, a Reds historian who wrote “The First Boys of Summer” (Road West Publishing Company, 1994), along with Enquirer reporter John Erardi, about the 1869-1870 Red Stockings.

The best players of the Cincinnati Red Stockings relocated to Boston after the 1870 season, taking the nickname along with them and becoming the Boston Red Stockings, a team later dubbed the "Beaneaters" and eventually the "Braves", who are now based in Atlanta. A new Cincinnati Red Stockings team became a charter member of the National League in 1876, five years after the first Red Stockings team. The second Red Stockings team was expelled from the league after the 1880 season, in part for violating league rules by serving beer to fans at games, and for their refusal to stop renting out their ballpark, the Bank Street Grounds, on Sundays.

A third Cincinnati team of the same name became a founding member of the American Association, a rival league that began play in 1882.[1][2] That team (which is the same franchise of today) played for eight seasons in the American Association and won the Association's inaugural pennant in 1882. The pennant winning club still holds the record for the highest winning percentage of any Reds club to date (.688) save the perfect season by their illustrious namesakes of 1869. In November 1889, the Cincinnati Red Stockings and the Brooklyn Dodgers both left the Association for the National League.

The National League returns to Cincinnati (1890–1911)

Cincinnati Reds baseball team in 1909

Although some dispute whether the two teams are the same,[3] the Cincinnati Red Stockings left the American Association in 1890 to play in the National League. One of the main reasons was the emergence of the new Player's League. This new league, an early failed attempt to break the reserve clause in baseball, threatened both existing leagues. Because the National League decided to expand while the American Association was weakening, the team accepted an invitation to join the National League. It was also at this time that the team first shortened their name from "Red Stockings" to "Reds". The Reds wandered through the 1890s signing local stars and aging veterans. During this time, the team never finished above third place (1897) and never closer than 10½ games (1890).

At the turn of the century, the Reds had hitting stars Sam Crawford and Cy Seymour. Seymour's .377 average in 1905 was the first individual batting crown won by a Red. In 1911, Bob Bescher stole 81 bases, which is still a team record. Like the previous decade, the 1900s were not kind to the Reds, as much of the decade was spent in the league's second division.

Redland Field to the Great Depression (1912–1932)

Hall of famer Edd Roush led Cincinnati to the 1919 World Series.

In 1912, the club opened a new steel-and-concrete ballpark, Redland Field (later to be known as Crosley Field). The Reds had been playing baseball on that same site, the corner of Findlay and Western Avenues on the city's west side, for 28 years, in wooden structures that had been occasionally damaged by fires. By the late 1910s the Reds began to come out of the second division. The 1918 team finished fourth, and new manager Pat Moran led the Reds to an NL pennant in 1919, in what the club inaccurately advertised as its "Golden Anniversary". The 1919 team had hitting stars Edd Roush and Heinie Groh while the pitching staff was led by Hod Eller and left-hander Harry "Slim" Sallee. The Reds finished ahead of John McGraw's New York Giants, and then won the world championship in eight games over the Chicago White Sox.

By 1920, the "Black Sox" scandal had brought a taint to the Reds' first championship. After 1926, and well into the 1930s, the Reds were second division dwellers. Eppa Rixey, Dolf Luque and Pete Donohue were pitching stars, but the offense never lived up to the pitching. By 1931, the team was bankrupt, the Great Depression was in full swing and Crosley Field was in a state of disrepair.

Championship Baseball and revival (1933–1940)

Powel Crosley Jr., an electronics magnate who, with his brother Lewis M. Crosley, produced radios, refrigerators, and other household items, bought the Reds out of bankruptcy in 1933, and hired Larry MacPhail to be the General Manager. Crosley had started WLW radio, the Reds flagship radio broadcaster, and the Crosley Broadcasting Corporation in Cincinnati, where he was also a prominent civic leader. MacPhail began to develop the Reds' minor league system and expanded the Reds' fan base. The Reds, throughout the 1930s, became a team of "firsts". Crosley Field, (formerly Redland Field), became the host of the first night game in 1935, which was also the first baseball fireworks night, the fireworks at the game were shot by Joe Rozzi of Rozzi's Famous Fireworks. Johnny Vander Meer became the only pitcher in major league history to throw back-to-back no-hitters in 1938. Thanks to Vander Meer, Paul Derringer and second baseman/third baseman-turned-pitcher Bucky Walters, the Reds had a solid pitching staff. The offense came around in the late 1930s. By 1938 the Reds, now led by manager Bill McKechnie, were out of the second division finishing fourth. Ernie Lombardi was named the National League's Most Valuable Player in 1938. By 1939, they were National League champions, but in the World Series, they were swept by the New York Yankees. In 1940, they repeated as NL Champions, and for the first time in 21 years, the Reds captured a World championship, beating the Detroit Tigers 4 games to 3. Frank McCormick was the 1940 NL MVP. Other position players included Harry Craft, Lonny Frey, Ival Goodman, Lew Riggs and Bill Werber.


World War II and age finally caught up with the Reds. Throughout the 1940s and early 1950s, Cincinnati finished mostly in the second division. In 1944, Joe Nuxhall (who was later to become part of the radio broadcasting team), at age 15, pitched for the Reds on loan from Wilson Junior High school in Hamilton, Ohio. He became the youngest person ever to play in a major league game — a record that still stands today. Ewell "The Whip" Blackwell was the main pitching stalwart before arm problems cut short his career. Ted Kluszewski was the NL home run leader in 1954. The rest of the offense was a collection of over-the-hill players and not-ready-for-prime-time youngsters.

In 1956, led by National League Rookie of the Year Frank Robinson, the Redlegs hit 221 HR to tie the NL record. By 1961, Robinson was joined by Vada Pinson, Wally Post, Gordy Coleman and Gene Freese. Pitchers Joey Jay, Jim O'Toole and Bob Purkey led the staff.

The Reds captured the 1961 National League pennant, holding off the Los Angeles Dodgers and the San Francisco Giants, only to be defeated by the perennially powerful New York Yankees in the World Series.

The Reds had winning teams during the rest of the 1960s, but did not produce any championships. They won 98 games in 1962, paced by Purkey's 23), but finished third. In 1964, they lost the pennant by one game to the Cardinals after having taken first place when the Phillies collapsed in September. Their beloved manager Fred Hutchinson died of cancer just weeks after the end of the 1964 season. The failure of the Reds to win the 1964 pennant led to owner Bill DeWitt's selling off key components of the team, in anticipation of relocating the franchise. After the 1965 season he executed what may be the most lopsided trade in baseball history, sending former Most Valuable Player Frank Robinson to the Baltimore Orioles for pitchers Milt Pappas and Jack Baldschun, and outfielder Dick Simpson. Robinson went on to win the MVP and triple crown in the American league for 1966, and lead Baltimore to its first ever World Series title in a sweep of the Los Angeles Dodgers. The Reds did not recover from this trade until the rise of the "Big Red Machine" of the 1970s.

Starting in the early 1960s, the Reds' farm system began producing a series of stars, including Jim Maloney (the Reds pitching ace of the 1960s), Pete Rose, Tony Pérez, Johnny Bench, Lee May, Tommy Helms, Bernie Carbo, Hal McRae, Dave Concepción and Gary Nolan. The tipping point came in 1967 with the appointment of Bob Howsam as general manager. That same year the Reds avoided a move to San Diego when the city of Cincinnati and Hamilton County agreed to build a state of the art, downtown stadium on the edge of the Ohio River. The Reds entered into a 30-year lease in exchange for the stadium commitment keeping the franchise in its original home city. In a series of strategic moves, Howsam brought in key personnel to complement the homegrown talent. The Reds' final game at Crosley Field, home to more than 4,500 baseball games, was played on June 24, 1970, a 5–4 victory over the San Francisco Giants.

Twice in the 1950s (the McCarthy era), the Reds, fearing that their traditional club nickname would associate them with the threat of Communism, officially changed the name of the team to the Cincinnati Redlegs.[4] From 1956 to 1960, the club's logo was altered to remove the term "REDS" from the inside of the "wishbone C" symbol. The "REDS" reappeared on the 1961 uniforms, but the point of the C was removed, leaving a smooth, non-wishbone curve. The traditional home-uniform logo was restored in 1967.

Under Howsam's administration starting in the late 1960s, the Reds instituted a strict rule barring the team's players from wearing facial hair and long hair. The clean cut look was meant to present the team as wholesome in an era of turmoil. All players coming to the Reds were required to shave and cut their hair for the next three decades. Over the years, the rule was controversial, but persisted well into the ownership of Marge Schott. On at least one occasion, in the early 1980s, enforcement of this rule lost them the services of star reliever and Ohio native Rollie Fingers, who would not shave his trademark handlebar mustache in order to join the team.[5] The rule was not officially rescinded until 1999 when the Reds traded for slugger Greg Vaughn, who had a goatee. The New York Yankees continue to have a similar rule today, though unlike the Reds during this period, Yankees players are permitted to have mustaches. Much like when players leave the Yankees today, players who left the Reds took advantage with their new teams; Pete Rose, for instance, grew his hair out much longer than would be allowed by the Reds once he signed with the Philadelphia Phillies in 1979.

The Reds' rules also included conservative uniforms. In major league baseball, a club generally provides most of the equipment and clothing needed for play. However, players are required to supply their gloves and shoes themselves. Many players enter into sponsorship arrangements with shoe manufacturers, but through the mid-1980s, the Reds had a strict rule that players were to wear only plain black shoes with no prominent logo. Reds players decried what they considered to be the boring color choice as well as the denial of the opportunity to earn more money through shoe contracts. A compromise was struck in which players were allowed to wear red shoes.

The Big Red Machine (1970–1976)

Riverfront Stadium, (Cinergy Field)

In 1970, little known George "Sparky" Anderson was hired as manager, and the Reds embarked upon a decade of excellence, with a team that came to be known as "The Big Red Machine". Playing at Crosley Field until June 30, 1970, when the Reds moved into brand-new Riverfront Stadium, a 52,000 seat multi-purpose venue on the shores of the Ohio River, the Reds began the 1970s with a bang by winning 70 of their first 100 games. Johnny Bench, Tony Pérez, Pete Rose, Lee May and Bobby Tolan were the early Red Machine offensive leaders; Gary Nolan, Jim Merritt, Wayne Simpson and Jim McGlothlin led a pitching staff which also contained veterans Tony Cloninger and Clay Carroll and youngsters Pedro Borbón and Don Gullett. The Reds breezed through the 1970 season, winning the NL West and captured the NL pennant by sweeping the Pittsburgh Pirates in three games. By time the club got to the World Series, however, the Reds pitching staff had run out of gas and the veteran Baltimore Orioles beat the Reds in five games.

After the disastrous 1971 season (the only season of the '70s during which the Reds finished with a losing record) the Reds reloaded by trading veterans Jimmy Stewert, May, and Tommy Helms for Joe Morgan, César Gerónimo, Jack Billingham, Ed Armbrister, and Denis Menke. Meanwhile, Dave Concepción blossomed at shortstop. 1971 was also the year a key component of the future world championships was acquired in George Foster from the San Francisco Giants in a trade for shortstop Frank Duffy.

The 1972 Reds won the NL West in baseball's first ever strike-shortened season and defeated the Pittsburgh Pirates in an exciting five-game playoff series. They then faced the Oakland Athletics in the World Series. Six of the seven games were won by one run. With powerful slugger Reggie Jackson sidelined due to an injury incurred during Oakland's playoff series, Ohio native Gene Tenace got a chance to play in the series, delivering four home runs that tied the World Series record for homers, propelling Oakland to a dramatic seven-game series win. This was the first World Series in which no starting pitcher for either side pitched a complete game.

The Reds won a third NL West crown in 1973 after a dramatic second half comeback, that saw them make up 10 12 games on the Los Angeles Dodgers after the All-Star break. However they lost the NL pennant to the New York Mets in five games in the NLCS. In game one, Tom Seaver faced Jack Billingham in a classic pitching duel, with all three runs of the 2–1 margin being scored on home runs. John Milner provided New York's run off Billingham, while Pete Rose tied the game in the seventh inning off Seaver, setting the stage for a dramatic game ending home run by Johnny Bench in the bottom of the ninth. The New York series provided plenty of controversy with the riotous behavior of Shea Stadium fans towards Pete Rose when he and Bud Harrelson scuffled after a hard slide by Rose into Harrelson at second base during the fifth inning of Game 3. A full bench-clearing fight resulted after Harrelson responded to Rose's aggressive move to prevent him from completing a double play by calling him a name. This also led to two more incidents in which play was stopped. The Reds trailed 9–3 and New York's manager, Yogi Berra, and legendary outfielder Willie Mays, at the request of National League president Warren Giles, appealed to fans in left field to restrain themselves. The next day the series was extended to a fifth game when Rose homered in the 12th inning to tie the series at two games each.

The Reds won 98 games in 1974 but they finished second to the 102-win Los Angeles Dodgers. The 1974 season started off with much excitement, as the Atlanta Braves were in town to open the season with the Reds. Hank Aaron entered opening day with 713 home runs, one shy of tying Babe Ruth's record of 714. The first pitch Aaron swung at in the '74 season was the record tying home run off Jack Billingham. The next day the Braves benched Aaron, hoping to save him for his record breaking home run on their season opening homestand. The commissioner of baseball, Bowie Kuhn, ordered Braves management to play Aaron the next day, where he narrowly missed the historic home run in the fifth inning. Aaron went on to set the record in Atlanta two nights later. 1974 also was the debut of Hall of Fame radio announcer Marty Brennaman, who replaced Al Michaels, after Michaels left the Reds to broadcast for the San Francisco Giants.

With 1975, the Big Red Machine lineup solidified with the starting team of Johnny Bench (catcher), Tony Perez (first base), Joe Morgan (second base), Dave Concepción (short stop), Pete Rose (third base), Ken Griffey (right field), César Gerónimo (center field), and George Foster (left field). The starting pitchers included Don Gullett, Fred Norman, Gary Nolan, Jack Billingham, Pat Darcy, and Clay Kirby. The bullpen featured Rawly Eastwick and Will McEnaney combining for 37 saves, and veterans Pedro Borbon and Clay Carroll. On Opening Day, Rose still played in left field, Foster was not a starter, while John Vukovich, an off-season acquisition, was the starting third baseman. While Vuckovich was a superb fielder, he was a weak hitter. In May, with the team off to a slow start and trailing the Dodgers, Sparky Anderson made a bold move by moving Rose to third base, a position where he had very little experience, and inserting Foster in left field. This was the jolt that the Reds needed to propel them into first place, with Rose proving to be reliable on defense, while adding Foster to the outfield gave the offense some added punch. During the season, the Reds compiled two notable streaks: (1) by winning 41 out of 50 games in one stretch, and (2) by going a month without committing any errors on defense.

Pete Rose at bat in a game at Dodger Stadium during the 1970s

In the 1975 season, Cincinnati clinched the NL West with 108 victories, then swept the Pittsburgh Pirates in three games to win the NL pennant. In the World Series, the Boston Red Sox were the opponents. After splitting the first four games, the Reds took Game 5. After a three-day rain delay, the two teams met in Game 6, one of the most memorable baseball games ever played and considered by many to be the best World Series game ever. The Reds were ahead 6–3 with 5 outs left, when the Red Sox tied the game on former Red Bernie Carbo's three-run home run. It was Carbo's second pinch-hit three-run homer in the series. After a few close-calls either way, Carlton Fisk hit a dramatic 12th inning home run off the foul pole in left field (which is considered to be one of the greatest TV sports moments of all time) to give the Red Sox a 7–6 win and force a deciding Game 7. Cincinnati prevailed the next day when Morgan's RBI single won Game 7 and gave the Reds their first championship in 35 years. The Reds have not lost a World Series game since Carlton Fisk's home run, a span of 9 straight wins.

1976 saw a return of the same starting eight in the field. The starting rotation was again led by Nolan, Gullett, Billingham, and Norman, while the addition of rookies Pat Zachry and Santo Alcalá comprised an underrated staff in which four of the six had ERAs below 3.10. Eastwick, Borbon, and McEnaney shared closer duties, recording 26, 8, and 7 saves respectively. The Reds won the NL West by ten games. They went undefeated in the postseason, sweeping the Philadelphia Phillies (winning Game 3 in their final at-bat) to return to the World Series. They continued to dominate by sweeping the Yankees in the newly renovated Yankee Stadium, the first World Series games played in Yankee Stadium since 1964. This was only the second ever sweep of the Yankees in the World Series. In winning the Series, the Reds became the first NL team since the 1921–22 New York Giants to win consecutive World Series championships, and the Big Red Machine of 1975–76 is considered one of the best teams ever. So far in MLB history, the 1975 and '76 Reds were the last NL team to repeat as champions.

Beginning with the 1970 National League pennant, the Reds beat either the Philadelphia Phillies or the Pittsburgh Pirates to win their pennants (Pirates in 1970, 1972, 1975, and 1990, Phillies in 1976), making The Big Red Machine part of the rivalry between the two Pennsylvania teams. In 1979, Pete Rose added further fuel in The Big Red Machine being part of the rivalry when he signed with the Phillies and helped them win their first World Series championship in 1980.

The Machine Dismantled (1977–1989)

The later years of the 1970s brought turmoil and change. Popular Tony Perez was sent to Montreal after the 1976 season, breaking up the Big Red Machine's starting lineup. Manager Sparky Anderson and General Manager Bob Howsam later considered this trade the biggest mistake of their careers. Starting pitcher Don Gullett left via free agency and signed with the New York Yankees. In an effort to fill that gap, a trade with the Oakland A's for starting ace Vida Blue was arranged during the '76–'77 off-season. However, Bowie Kuhn, the Commissioner of Baseball, vetoed the trade in an effort to maintain the competitive balance in baseball. On June 15, 1977, the Mets' franchise pitcher Tom Seaver was traded to the Reds for Pat Zachry, Doug Flynn, Steve Henderson, and Dan Norman. In other deals that proved to be less successful, the Reds traded Gary Nolan to the Angels for Craig Hendrickson, Rawly Eastwick to St. Louis for Doug Capilla and Mike Caldwell to Milwaukee for Rick O'Keeffe and Garry Pyka, and got Rick Auerbach from Texas. The end of the Big Red Machine era was heralded by the replacement of General Manager Bob Howsam with Dick Wagner.

In Rose's last season as a Red, he gave baseball a thrill as he challenged Joe DiMaggio's 56- game hitting streak, tying for the second-longest streak ever at 44 games. The streak came to an end in Atlanta after striking out in his fifth at bat in the game against Gene Garber. Rose also earned his 3,000th hit that season, on his way to becoming baseball's all-time hits leader when he rejoined the Reds in the mid 80s. The year also witnessed the only no-hitter of Hall of Fame pitcher Tom Seaver's career, coming against the St. Louis Cardinals on June 16, 1978.

After the 1978 season and two straight second place finishes, Wagner fired manager Anderson. Pete Rose, who since 1963 had played almost every position for the team except pitcher and catcher, signed with Philadelphia as a free agent. By 1979, the starters were Bench (c), Dan Driessen (1b), Morgan (2b), Concepcion (ss), Ray Knight (3b), with Griffey, Foster, and Geronimo again in the outfield. The pitching staff had experienced a complete turnover since 1976 except for Fred Norman. In addition to ace starter Tom Seaver; the remaining starters were Mike La Coss, Bill Bonham, and Paul Moskau. In the bullpen, only Borbon had remained. Dave Tomlin and Mario Soto worked middle relief with Tom Hume and Doug Bair closing. The Reds won the 1979 NL West behind the pitching of Tom Seaver but were dispatched in the NL playoffs by Pittsburgh. Game 2 featured a controversial play in which a ball hit by Pittsburgh's Phil Garner was caught by Cincinnati outfielder Dave Collins but was ruled a trap, setting the Pirates up to take a 2–1 lead. The Pirates swept the series 3 games to 0 and went on to win the World Series against the Baltimore Orioles.

The 1981 team fielded a strong lineup, but with only Concepcion, Foster, and Griffey retaining their spots from the 1975-76 heyday.[6][7] After Johnny Bench was able to play only a few games at catcher each year after 1980 due to ongoing injuries, Joe Nolan took over as starting catcher. Driessen and Bench shared 1st base, and Knight starred at third. Morgan and Geronimo had been replaced at second base and center field by Ron Oester and Dave Collins. Mario Soto posted a banner year starting on the mound, only surpassed by the outstanding performance of Seaver's Cy Young runner-up season. La Coss, Bruce Berenyi, and Frank Pastore rounded out the starting rotation. Hume again led the bullpen as closer, joined by Bair and Joe Price. In 1981, Cincinnati had the best overall record in baseball, but they finished second in the division in both of the half-seasons that were created after a mid-season players' strike, and missed the playoffs. To commemorate this, a team photo was taken, accompanied by a banner that read "Baseball's Best Record 1981".

By 1982, the Reds were a shell of the original Red Machine; they lost 101 games that year.[8] Johnny Bench, after an unsuccessful transition to 3rd base, retired a year later.

After the heartbreak of 1981, General Manager Dick Wagner pursued the strategy of ridding the team of veterans including third-baseman Knight and the entire starting outfield of Griffey, Foster, and Collins. Bench, after being able to catch only seven games in 1981, was moved from platooning at first base to be the starting third baseman; Alex Trevino became the regular starting catcher. The outfield was staffed with Paul Householder, César Cedeño, and Clint Hurdle on opening day. Hurdle was an immediate bust, and rookie Eddie Milner took his place in the starting outfield early in the year. The highly touted Householder struggled throughout the year despite extensive playing time. Cedeno, while providing steady veteran play, was a disappointment, and was unable to recapture his glory days with the Houston Astros. The starting rotation featured the emergence of a dominant Mario Soto, and featured strong years by Pastore and Bruce Berenyi, but Seaver was injured all year, and their efforts were wasted without a strong offensive lineup. Tom Hume still led the bullpen, along with Joe Price. But the colorful Brad "The Animal" Lesley was unable to consistently excel, and former all-star Jim Kern was a big disappointment. Kern was also publicly upset over having to shave off his prominent beard to join the Reds, and helped force the issue of getting traded during mid-season by growing it back.

The Reds fell to the bottom of the Western Division for the next few years. After his injury-riddled 1982 season, Seaver was traded back to the Mets. The year 1983 found Dann Bilardello behind the plate, Bench returning to part-time duty at first base, rookies Nick Esasky taking over at third base and Gary Redus taking over from Cedeno. Tom Hume's effectiveness as a closer had diminished, and no other consistent relievers emerged. Dave Concepción was the sole remaining starter from the Big Red Machine era.

Wagner's reign of terror ended in 1983, when Howsam, the architect of the Big Red Machine, was brought back. Howsam began his return by acquiring Cincinnati native Dave Parker from Pittsburgh. In 1984 the Reds began to move up, depending on trades and some minor leaguers. In that season Dave Parker, Dave Concepción and Tony Pérez were in Cincinnati uniforms. In the middle of the 1984 season, Pete Rose was hired to be the Reds player-manager. After raising the franchise from the grave, Howsam gave way to the administration of Bill Bergesch, who attempted to build the team around a core of highly regarded young players in addition to veterans like Parker. However, he was unable to capitalize on an excess of young and highly touted position players including Kurt Stillwell, Tracy Jones, and Kal Daniels by trading them for pitching. Despite the emergence of Tom Browning as rookie of the year in 1985 when he won 20 games, the rotation was devastated by the early demise of Mario Soto's career to arm injury.

Under Bergesch, from 198589 the Reds finished second four times. Among the highlights, Rose became the all-time hits leader, Tom Browning threw a perfect game, and Chris Sabo was the 1988 National League Rookie of the Year. The Reds also had a bullpen star in John Franco, who was with the team from 1984 to 1989. In 1989, Rose was banned from baseball by Commissioner Bart Giamatti, who declared Rose guilty of "conduct detrimental to baseball". Controversy also swirled around Reds owner Marge Schott, who was accused several times of ethnic and racial slurs.[9]

World Championship and the End of an Era (1990–2002)

In 1987, General Manager Bergesch was replaced by Murray Cook, who initiated a series of deals that would finally bring the Reds back to the championship, starting with acquisitions of Danny Jackson and José Rijo. An aging Dave Parker was let go after a revival of his career in Cincinnati. Barry Larkin emerged as the starting shortstop over Kurt Stillwell, who along with reliever Ted Power, was traded for Jackson. In 1989, Cook was succeeded by Bob Quinn, who put the final pieces of the championship puzzle together, with the acquisitions of Hal Morris, Billy Hatcher, and Randy Myers.

Eric Davis in 1990

In 1990, the Reds under new manager Lou Piniella shocked baseball by leading the NL West from wire-to-wire. They started off 33–12, winning their first 10 games, and maintained their lead throughout the year. Led by Chris Sabo, Barry Larkin, Eric Davis, Paul O'Neill and Billy Hatcher in the field, and by José Rijo, Tom Browning and the "Nasty Boys" of Rob Dibble, Norm Charlton and Randy Myers on the mound, the Reds took out the Pirates in the NLCS. The Reds swept the heavily favored Oakland Athletics in four straight, and extended a Reds winning streak in the World Series to 9 consecutive games. The World Series, however, saw Eric Davis severely bruise a kidney diving for a fly ball in Game 4, and his play was greatly limited the next year. In winning the World Series the Reds, became the first and only, National League team to go wire to wire.

In 1992, Quinn was replaced in the front office by Jim Bowden. On the field, manager Lou Piniella wanted outfielder Paul O'Neill to be a power-hitter to fill the void Eric Davis left when he was traded to the Los Angeles Dodgers in exchange for Tim Belcher. However, O'Neill only hit .246 and 14 homers. The Reds returned to winning after a losing season in 1991, but 90 wins was only enough for 2nd place behind the division-winning Atlanta Braves. Before the season ended, Piniella got into an altercation with reliever Rob Dibble. In the off season, Paul O'Neill was traded to the New York Yankees for outfielder Roberto Kelly. Kelly was a disappointment for the Reds over the next couple of years, while O'Neill blossomed, leading a down-trodden Yankees franchise to a return to glory. Also, the Reds would replace their outdated "Big Red Machine" era uniforms in favor of a pinstriped uniform with no sleeves.

For the 1993 season Piniella was replaced by fan favorite Tony Perez, but he lasted only 44 games at the helm, replaced by Davey Johnson. With Johnson steering the team, the Reds made steady progress upward. In 1994, the Reds were in the newly-created National League Central Division with the Chicago Cubs, St. Louis Cardinals, as well as fellow rivals Pittsburgh Pirates and Houston Astros. By the time the strike hit, the Reds finished a half-game ahead of the Astros for first-place in the NL Central. By 1995, the Reds won the division thanks to Most Valuable Player Barry Larkin. After defeating the NL West champion Dodgers in the first NLDS since 1981, they lost to the Atlanta Braves.

Team owner Marge Schott announced mid-season that Johnson would be gone by the end of the year, regardless of outcome, to be replaced by former Reds third baseman Ray Knight. Johnson and Schott had never gotten along and she did not approve of Johnson living with his fiancée before they were married,[10] In contrast, Knight, along with his wife, professional golfer Nancy Lopez, were friends of Schott's. The team took a dive under Knight and he was unable to complete two full seasons as manager, subject to complaints in the press about his strict managerial style.

In 1999 the Reds won 96 games, led by manager Jack McKeon, but lost to the New York Mets in a one game playoff. Earlier that year, Schott sold controlling interest in the Reds to Cincinnati businessman Carl Lindner. Despite an 85–77 finish in 2000, and being named 1999 NL manager of the year, McKeon was fired after the 2000 season. The Reds did not have another winning season until 2010.

Contemporary era (2003–present)

GABP opened in 2003, becoming the seventh home field for the Reds

Riverfront Stadium, (Cinergy Field), was demolished in 2002 and ended an era marked by three world championships. Great American Ball Park opened in 2003 with high expectations for a team led by local favorites, including outfielder Ken Griffey, Jr., shortstop Barry Larkin, and first baseman Sean Casey. Although attendance improved considerably with the new ballpark, the team continued to lose. Schott had not invested much in the farm system since the early 1990s, leaving the team relatively thin on talent. After years of promises that the club was rebuilding toward the opening of the new ballpark, General Manager Jim Bowden and manager Bob Boone were fired on July 28. This broke up the father-son combo of manager Bob Boone and third baseman Aaron Boone, and Aaron was soon traded to the New York Yankees. Following the season Dan O'Brien was hired as the Reds' 16th General Manager.

The 2004 and 2005 seasons continued the trend of big hitting, poor pitching, and poor records. Griffey, Jr. joined the 500-home run club in 2004, but was again hampered by injuries. Adam Dunn emerged as consistent home run hitter, including a 535-foot (163 m) home run against Jose Lima. He also broke the major league record for strikeouts in 2004. Although a number of free agents were signed before 2005, the Reds were quickly in last place and manager Dave Miley was forced out in the 2005 midseason and replaced by Jerry Narron. Like many other small market clubs, the Reds dispatched some of their veteran players and began entrusting their future to a young nucleus that included Adam Dunn and Austin Kearns.

Late summer 2004 saw the opening of the Cincinnati Reds Hall of Fame. The Reds HOF had been in existence in name only since the 1950s, with player plaques, photos and other memorabilia scattered throughout their front offices. Ownership and management desired a stand-alone facility, where the public could walk through inter-active displays, see locker room recreations, watch videos of classic Reds moments and peruse historical items. The first floor houses a movie theater which resembles an older, ivy-covered brick wall ballyard. The hallways contain many vintage photographs. The rear of the building features a three-story wall containing a baseball for every hit Pete Rose had during his career. The third floor contains interactive exhibits including a pitcher's mound, radio booth, and children's area where the fundamentals of baseball are taught by former Reds player videos.

For Opening Day 2006, President George W. Bush threw out the ceremonial first pitch, becoming the first sitting president to throw out the first pitch at a Reds game. 2006 also began a new era in Reds baseball as fruit and vegetable wholesaler Robert Castellini took over as controlling owner from Lindner. Castellini promptly fired general manager Dan O'Brien. Wayne Krivsky, previously an assistant General Manager with the Minnesota Twins, was appointed as the General Manager after a protracted search. The first move Krivsky made was to trade young outfielder Wily Mo Peña to the Boston Red Sox for pitcher Bronson Arroyo. Arroyo made his first start in a Reds uniform on April 5, 2006. He not only earned the win, but also led off the third inning with his first career home run. Krivsky also gave fans hope with mid season trades that bolstered the bullpen, trading for "Everyday Eddie" Guardado and then trading outfielder Austin Kearns, shortstop Felipe López, and 2004 first round draft pick Ryan Wagner to the Washington Nationals for relievers Gary Majewski, Bill Bray, shortstop Royce Clayton, and two prospects. This move was controversial, as not only did it seem as if the Reds did not receive much in return for two starting position players and a former first-round draft pick, but also it was later discovered that the Nationals may have hidden Majewski's health problems. The Reds made a run at the playoffs but ultimately fell short.

The 2007 season was again mired in mediocrity. Midway through the season Jerry Narron was fired as manager and replaced by Pete Mackanin, an advance scout for the club. The Reds ended up posting a winning record under Mackanin, but finished the season in 5th place in the Central Division. Mackanin was manager in an interim capacity only, and the Reds, seeking a big name to fill the spot, ultimately brought in Dusty Baker. Early in the 2008 season, Wayne Krivsky was fired and replaced by former St. Louis Cardinals general manager Walt Jocketty, who helped build the 2006 World Champion Cardinals. Jocketty had been added by Castellini in the offseason in an advisory role, and after another poor start by the Reds, took the reins of general manager. Though the Reds did not win under Krivsky, he is credited with revamping the farm system and signing young talent that could potentially lead the Reds to success in the future.

The Reds failed to post winning records in both 2008 and 2009 but added/developed many key players in those seasons that would facilitate an incredible run at the NL Central Division Championship in 2010. Under the leadership of 2010 NL MVP Joey Votto and Gold Glovers Brandon Phillips and Scott Rolen the Reds posted a 91-71 record for a season that included many memorable moments. The Reds came from behind to win in over 40 games, many in their final at-bat, and the pitching from the likes of Bronson Arroyo, Johnny Cueto, Edinson Volquez and rookies Mike Leake and Travis Wood, (who threw 8 innings of perfect baseball in one outing), was nothing short of stellar all season. On August 10, 2010, the Reds had a highly publicized brawl with the St. Louis Cardinals at Great American Ballpark predicated by derogatory comments made by Brandon Phillips concerning the Cardinals. The scuffle lasted for several minutes before it was broken up and play continued. The long term results of the incident were career ending injuries to Cardinals backup catcher (and former Red) Jason LaRue, a 7-game suspension for Johnny Cueto, and fines for several others. From this point forward, there has been a developing bitter rivalry between the two teams.

On Tuesday, September 28, 2010, right-fielder Jay Bruce led off the bottom of the 9th inning in Great American Ballpark with a solo home run to give the Reds a 3-2 victory over Houston. Also keeping the Reds in the game was a 3rd inning over-the-wall catch by center-fielder Drew Stubbs that blocked a potential two-run homer.[11] The victory clinched the National League Central championship for the Reds and earned the team its first playoff appearance in 15 seasons. Jay Bruce became only the fifth player in MLB history to hit a walk-off home run to clinch a playoff spot for his team. The following week, the Reds became only the second team in MLB history to be no-hit in a postseason game when Philadelphia's Roy Halladay shut down the National League's number one offense in game one of the NLDS.[12] On October 10, 2010 the Reds lost 2-0 to the Phillies resulting in a 3 game sweep of the NLDS for Philadelphia.


Great American Ballpark opened in 2003 along the Ohio River.

The Cincinnati Reds play their homes games at Great American Ballpark, located on 100 Joe Nuxhall Way, in downtown Cincinnati. Great American Ballpark opened in 2003 at the cost of $290 million and has a capacity of 42,271. Along with serving as the home field for the Reds, Great American Ballpark also holds the Cincinnati Reds Hall of Fame. The Hall of Fame was added as a part of Reds tradition allowing fans to walk through the history of the franchise as well as participating in many interactive baseball features.[13]

Great American Ballpark is the seventh home of the Cincinnati Reds, built on the site which Riverfront Stadium, later named Cinergy Field, once was. The first ballpark the Reds occupied was Bank Street Grounds from 1882–1883 unit they moved to League Park I 1884, where they would remain until 1893. Through the late 1890s and early 1900s, the Reds moved to two different parks where they stayed from less than ten years. League Park II was the third home field for the Reds from 1894–1901, and then moved to the Palace of the Fans which served as the home of the Reds in the 1910s. It was in 1912 that the Reds moved to Crosley Field which they called home for fifty-eight years. Crosley served as the home field for the Reds under two World Series titles, five National League pennants, and many division titles. After 1970 and during the dynasty of the Big Red Machine, the Reds moved to Riverfront Stadium, appropriately named due it location right by the Ohio River. Riverfront saw three World Series titles and five national league pennants. It was in the late 1990s that the city agreed to build two separate stadiums on the riverfront for the Reds and the Cincinnati Bengals. Thus, in 2003, the Reds began a new era with the opening of the current stadium.

The Reds hold their spring training in Goodyear, Arizona at Goodyear Ballpark. The Reds moved into this stadium and the Cactus League in 2010 after staying in the Grapefruit League for most of their history. The Reds share Goodyear Park with their rivals in Ohio, the Cleveland Indians.

Logos and uniforms

Logo of the Reds during the "Big Red Machine"
Current logo of the Reds

Throughout the history of the Cincinnati Reds, many different variations of the classic wishbone "C" logo have been introduced. For most of the history of the Reds, especially during the early history, the Reds logo has been simply the wishbone "C" with the word "REDS" inside, the only colors used being red and white. However, during the 1950's, during the renaming and re-branding of the team as the Cincinnati Redlegs, the color blue was introduced as part of the Reds color combination. During the 1960's and 1970's the Reds saw a move towards the more traditional colors, abandoning the navy blue. A new logo also appeared with the new era of baseball in 1972, when the team went away from the scrip "REDS" inside of the "C", instead, putting their mascot Mr. Redlegs in its place as well as putting the name of the team inside of the wishbone "C". In the 1990's the more traditional, early logos of Reds came back with the current logo reflecting more of what the team's logo was when they were first founded.


Scott Rolen wearing the current Reds away uniform, featuring classic lettering.

Along with the logo, the Red's uniforms have been changed many different times throughout their history. Following their departure from begin called the "Redlegs" in 1956 the Reds made a groundbreaking change to their uniforms with the use of sleeveless jerseys, seen only once before in the Major Leagues by the Chicago Cubs. At home and away, the cap was all-red with a white wishbone C insignia. The long-sleeved undershirts were red. The uniform was plain white with a red wishbone C logo on the left and the uniform number on the right. On the road the wishbone C was replaced by the mustachioed "Mr. Red" logo, the pillbox-hat-wearing man with a baseball for a head. The home stockings were red with six white stripes. The away stockings had only three white stripes.

However, the Cincinnati uniform design most familiar to baseball enthusiasts is the one whose basic form, with minor variations, held sway for the 25 years from 1967 to 1992. Most significantly, the point was restored to the C insignia, making it a wishbone again. During this era, the Reds wore all-red caps both at home and on the road. The caps bore the simple wishbone C insignia in white. The uniforms were standard short-sleeved jerseys and standard trousers -- white at home and grey on the road. The home uniform featured the Wishbone C-REDS logo in red with white type on the left breast and the uniform number in red on the right. The away uniform bore CINCINNATI in an arched block style across the front with the uniform number below on the left. Red, long-sleeved undershirts and plain red stirrups over white sanitary stockings completed the basic design.

The 1993 uniforms (which did away with the pullovers and brought back button-down jerseys) kept white and gray as the base colors for the home and away uniforms, but added red pinstripes. The home jerseys were sleeveless, showing more of the red undershirts. The color scheme of the C-REDS logo on the home uniform was reversed, now red lettering on a white background. A new home cap was created that had a red bill and a white crown with red pinstripes and a red wishbone C insignia. The away uniform kept the all-red cap, but moved the uniform number to the left, to more closely match the home uniform. The only additional change to these uniforms was the introduction of black as a primary color of the Reds, especially on their road uniforms.

The Reds latest uniform change came in December of 2006 which featured a very drastic difference from the uniforms worn by the team the previous ten years. The home caps returned to all-red with a white wishbone C, lightly outlined in black. Caps with red crowns and black bill became the new road caps. The batting helmets, however, remain all-red regardless of what cap they are wearing. Additionally, the sleeveless jerseys were abandoned for more traditional shirts. The numbers and the lettering for the names on the backs of the jerseys were changed to an early-1900s style typeface. It had been rumored that navy blue was to make a return as a trim color, but the unveiled designs did not end up featuring any navy blue. The alternate club logo and jersey Mr. Red emblem was replaced by the moustachioed Mr. Redleg from 1956.[14]


Retired numbers

The Cincinnati Reds have retired eight numbers in franchise history, as well as honoring Jackie Robinson, retired in all major league baseball. Since Pete Rose was banned from baseball, the Reds have not retired his #14. However, they have not reissued it except for Pete Rose, Jr. in his 11 game tenure in 1997. The #11 of former captain Barry Larkin has not been issued since his retirement, and the Reds have not named a new captain since.

All of the retired numbers are located at Great American Ballpark behind home-plate on the outside of the press box. Along with the retired player and manager number, the following broadcasters are honored with microphones by the broadcast booth: Marty Brennaman, Waite Hoyt, and Joe Nuxhall.[15]


Retired October 19, 1964

Retired August 11, 1984

Retired June 6, 1998

Retired May 28, 2005

Retired August 5, 2007

Retired July 18, 1998

Retired May 22, 1998

1B, M
Retired May 27, 2000

Honored April 15, 1997

Baseball Hall of Famers

Cincinnati Reds Hall of Famers
Affiliation according to the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum

Sparky Anderson
Jake Beckley
Johnny Bench
Jim Bottomley
Mordecai Brown
Charles Comiskey
Sam Crawford
Kiki Cuyler

Leo Durocher
Buck Ewing
Clark Griffith
Chick Hafey
Jesse Haines
Ned Hanlon
Harry Heilmann
Roger Hornsby

Miller Huggins
Joe Kelley
George Kelly
Ernie Lombardi
Rube Marquard
Christy Mathewson
Bill McKechnie

Bid McPhee
Joe Morgan
Tony Pérez
Charles Radbourn
Eppa Rixey
Frank Robinson
Edd Roush
Amos Rusie

Tom Seaver
Al Simmons
Joe Tinker
Dazzy Vance
Lloyd Waner
Bobby Wallace
George Wright
Harry Wright

Players listed in bold are depicted on their Hall of Fame plaques wearing a Reds cap insignia.

Ford C. Frick Award recipients

Cincinnati Reds Ford C. Frick Award recipients
Affiliation according to the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum

Red Barber

Marty Brennaman

Russ Hodges

Names in bold received the award based primarily on their work as broadcasters for the Reds.

National League MVPs


A pennant from the 1989 Ohio Cup

The Ohio Cup was an annual pre-season baseball game, which pitted the Ohio rivals Cleveland Indians and Cincinnati Reds. In its first series it was a single-game cup, played each year at minor-league Cooper Stadium in Columbus, Ohio, was staged just days before the start of each new Major League Baseball season. A total of eight Ohio Cup games were played, in 1989 to 1996, with the Indians winning six of them. It stopped because interleague play started in 1997. The winner of the game each year was awarded the Ohio Cup in postgame ceremonies. The Ohio Cup was a favorite among baseball fans in Columbus, with attendances regularly topping 15,000. In 1997 and after, the two teams competed annually in the regular-season Battle of Ohio or Buckeye Series. In 2008 the Ohio Cup restarted. The Indians currently lead the interleague series 36–35.



Marty Brennamen, considered the "voice of the Reds"

The Reds' flagship radio station has been WLW, 700AM since 1969. Prior to that, the Reds were heard over: WKRC, WCPO, WSAI and WCKY. WLW, a 50,000-watt station, is "clear channel" in more than one way, as Clear Channel Communications owns the "blowtorch" outlet which is also known as "The Nation's Station".

Marty Brennaman has been the Reds' play-by-play voice since 1974 and has won the Ford C. Frick Award for his work, which includes his famous call of "...and this one belongs to the Reds!" after a win. Joining him for years on color was former Reds pitcher Joe Nuxhall, who worked in the radio booth from 1967 (the year after his retirement as an active player) until 2004, plus three more seasons doing select home games until his passing, in 2007.

In 2007, Thom Brennaman, a veteran announcer seen nationwide on Fox Sports, joined his father Marty in the radio booth. Retired relief pitcher Jeff Brantley, formerly of ESPN, also joined the network in 2007. As of 2010, Brantley and Thom Brennaman's increased TV schedule (see below) has led to more appearances for Jim Kelch, who had filled in on the network since 2008.


Televised games are seen exclusively on Fox Sports Ohio (in Cincinnati, Dayton, Columbus and Kentucky) and Fox Sports Indiana. Fox Sports South also airs Reds games in Tennessee and western North Carolina. George Grande, who hosted the first SportsCenter on ESPN in 1979, was the play-by-play announcer from 1993 until his retirement during the final game of the '09 season, usually alongside Chris Welsh. Grande returned in 2009 and 2010, to work part time for the Reds when no play-by-play announcer was available. Thom Brennaman has been the head play-by-play commentator since 2010, and Welsh and Brantley, share time as the color commentator. Paul Keels, the current radio play-by-play announcer for The Ohio State University Buckeyes Radio Network, served as the Reds backup play-by-play television announcer for 2010. Jim Kelch will replace Keels for the 2011 season. The Reds also added former Cincinnati First Baseman Sean Casey to do color commentary for 15 games in 2011.[16]

NBC affiliate WLWT carried Reds games from 1948–1995. Among those that have called games for WLWT include Waite Hoyt, Ray Lane, Steve Physioc, Johnny Bench, Joe Morgan, and Ken Wilson. Al Michaels, legendary NBC sportscaster spent a year in Cincinnati before being drafted by NBC. WSTR-TV aired games from 1996–1998, and the Reds have not broadcast over-the-air locally on a regular basis since then. In 2010 and 2011, WKRC-TV simulcast the FSN Ohio feed for Opening Day; they were the first games broadcast locally over-the-air since Opening Day 2002.

Current roster

Cincinnati Reds rosterview · talk · edit
Active roster Inactive roster Coaches/Other







40 Active, 0 Inactive

Injury icon 2.svg 7- or 15-day disabled list
Suspended list
# Personal leave
Roster updated November 18, 2011
TransactionsDepth chart
All MLB rosters

Minor league affiliations

Level Team League Location
AAA Louisville Bats International League Louisville, Kentucky
AA Pensacola Blue Wahoos Southern League Pensacola, Florida
Advanced A Bakersfield Blaze California League Bakersfield, California
A Dayton Dragons Midwest League Dayton, Ohio
Rookie Billings Mustangs Pioneer League Billings, Montana
AZL Reds Arizona League Goodyear, Arizona
DSL Reds Dominican Summer League Boca Chica, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
VSL Reds Venezuelan Summer League Venezuela


  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^ Palmer, Peter & Gillette, Gary, editors, The Baseball Encyclopedia. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 2004, pp 1370 & 1387
  4. ^ Davis, Jack E. (1992). Baseball's Reluctant Challenge. pp. 144–62. 
  5. ^ "Sports People; Fingers Won't Conform". The New York Times. February 22, 1986. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  6. ^ "1976 Cincinnati Reds Statistics and Roster". Retrieved 2008-03-30. 
  7. ^ "1981 Cincinnati Reds Statistics and Roster". Retrieved 2008-03-30. 
  8. ^ "1982 Cincinnati Reds Schedule, Box Scores and Splits". Retrieved 2008-03-30. 
  9. ^ "BASEBALL; Call for Schott to Step Down". New York Times. December 7, 1992. Retrieved 2008-03-30. 
  10. ^ "Poor Communication at Heart of Feud". The Washington Post. May 12, 1998. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ Reds unveil new-look uniforms | News
  15. ^ See List of Major League Baseball retired numbers#Similar honors.
  16. ^

External links

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