Akzo Nobel N.V. Type Naamloze vennootschap Traded as Euronext: AKZA Industry Chemicals Founded 1994 Headquarters Amsterdam, Netherlands Area served Worldwide Key people Hans Wijers (CEO), Karel Vuursteen (Chairman of the supervisory board) Products Basic and industrial chemicals, decorative paints, industrial (re)finishing products, coatings Revenue €14.64 billion (2010) Operating income €1.219 billion (2010) Profit €754 million (2010) Total assets €20.09 billion (end 2010) Total equity €9.509 billion (end 2010) Employees 55,590 (end 2010) Website www.akzonobel.com
Akzo Nobel N.V., trading as AkzoNobel, is a Dutch multinational, active in the fields of decorative paints, performance coatings and specialty chemicals. Headquartered in Amsterdam, the company has activities in more than 80 countries, and employs approximately 55,000 people. Sales in 2010 were EUR 14.6 billion. Following the acquisition of ICI, the company has restructured in 2 January 2008, and rebranded itself in 25 April of the same year.
AkzoNobel consists of 19 business units, with business responsibility and autonomy. For managerial purpose these cooperate in three groups, which are supported by one managerial board.
As of January 1, 2011, a nine member-strong Executive Committee (ExCo) was established, which is composed of five members of the Board of Management (BOM) and four leaders with functional expertise, allowing both the functions and the business areas to be represented at the highest levels in the company.
The ExCo includes Chairman and CEO Hans Wijers, CFO Keith Nichols, Leif Darner (responsible for Performance Coatings), Rob Frohn (responsible for Speciality Chemicals), Tex Gunning (responsible for Decorative Paints), Graeme Armstrong (responsible for Research, Development & Innovation), Sven Dumoulin (General Counsel), Werner Fuhrmann (responsible for Supply Chain/Sourcing) and Marjan Oudeman (responsible for HR and Organizational Development). The board holds office in Amsterdam. Prior to August 2007, the group was headquartered in Arnhem.
Due to high revenues from the sales of its pharmaceutical business, AkzoNobel was the world's most profitable company in 2008.
AkzoNobel is the world's leading decorative paints company. This part of the business is mostly geographically organized:
- Decorative paints EMEA
- Decorative paints Southeast Asia and Pacific
- Decorative paints China and North Asia
- Decorative paints India and South Asia
- Decorative paints United States
- Decorative paints Canada
- Decorative paints Latin America
AkzoNobel markets their products under various brandnames such as Dulux, Cuprinol, Tintas Coral, Hammerite, Herbol, Sico, Sikkens, International, Interpon, Casco, Nordsjö, Sadolin, Taubmans, Lesonal, Levis, Glidden, Flood, Flora, Vivexrom, Marshall, and Pinotech just to mention a few. These products were used on London's Millennium Wheel, La Scala Opera House in Milan, the Öresund Bridge between Denmark and Sweden, the Beijing National Stadium, Airbus A380, and Stadium Australia in Sydney.
AkzoNobel is a leading coatings company whose key products include automotive coatings, specialized equipment for the car repair and transportation market and marine coatings. The coatings groups consist of the following business units:
- Automotive & Aerospace Coatings (A&AC)
- Industrial Coatings
- Wood Finishes and Wood Adhesives
- Powder coatings (POW)
- Marine and protective coatings (MPC)
- Packaging coatings
The chemicals group now consists of six business units.
- Industrial Chemicals (IC), before 1 January 2009 known as Base Chemicals (BC)
- Functional Chemicals (FC), including former Polymer Chemicals (PC)
- Surface Chemistry (SC)
- Pulp and Paper chemicals, under brand name Eka Chemicals (PPC)
- Specialty Polymers
- Regional and Industrial activities
As chemicals producer, AkzoNobel is a world leading salt specialist, chloralkali products, and other industrial chemicals. Ultimately, AkzoNobel products are found in everyday items such as paper, ice cream, bakery goods, cosmetics, plastics and glass. Each business unit has an annual turnover of approx EUR 600–1000 million.
AkzoNobel has a long history of mergers and divestments. Parts of the current company can be traced back to 17th century companies. The milestone mergers and divestments are the formation of AKZO in 1969, the merger with Nobel Industries in 1994 forming Akzo Nobel, and the divestment of its pharmaceutical business and the merger with ICI in 2007/2008 resulting in current day AkzoNobel.
AKZO 1792–1994 (Group)
AKZO 1792–1969 (original AKZO companies)
- 1792 Sikkens Lakken, lacquers manufacturer founded by Wiert Willem Sikkens in Groningen, the Netherlands.
- 1835 Ketjen, sulfuric acid producer founded by Gerhard Tileman Ketjen in Amsterdam.
- 1838 Noury & Van der Lande, oils and oatmeal company in Deventer
- 1886 Kortman and Schulte, a chemicals and soda factory was founded by Constant Kortman and Herman Schulte in Rotterdam.
- 1887 Zwanenberg, pharmaceuticals laboratory in Oss
- 1899 Vereinigte Glanßstoff Fabriken, fiber producer in Oberbruch, Heinsberg Germany.
- 1911 Eerste Nederlandse Kunstzijdefabriek Arnhem, rayon (artificial silk) company founded by Jacques Coenraad Hartogs in Arnhem.
Later renamed Nederlandse Kunstzijdefabriek (Enka).
- 1918 Nederlandse Zoutindustrie (KNZ, NeZo), salt producer in Boekelo.
- 1921 Armour and Company, US slaughtering industry starts fatty acid factory, in Chicago.
- 1923 Organon, pharmaceuticals company founded by Saal van Zwanenberg in Oss.
- 1928 De Internationale Spinpot Exploitatie Maatschappij (ISEM) manufacturer spinning devices.
Enka's rayon spinning machines continually breakdown. Its director, Jacques Coenraad Hartogs, turns to Netherlands electrical pioneer and friend Rento Hofstede Crull  for a solution. To manufacturer the spinning pot one of Hofstede Crull's companies, De Vijf and Jacques Coenraad Hartogs Nederlandse Kunstzijdefabriek form a joint venture: ISEM. The profit of this joint venture allowed the Nederlandse Kunstzijdefabriek to establish subsidiaries in the United States, the American Enka Company as also circumventing trade protectionism.
- 1929 merger of Vereinigte Glanszstoff Fabriken with Nederlandse Kunstzijdefabriek, forming Algemene Kunstzijde Unie (AKU).
- 1938 intergration of ISEM with the AKU after Hofstede Crull's death.
- 1947 merger of Zwanenberg and Organon to Zwanenberg–Organon, renamed in 1953 Koninklijke Zwanenburg Organon (KZO)
- 1949 Armour Industrial Chemical Co. opens world’s first commercial fatty amine plant in McCook, Illinois, USA.
- 1962 merger of Koninklijke Nederlandse Zoutindustrie and Ketjen to Koninklijke Zout Ketjen, Sikkens joints the merger
- 1965 take over of Kortman and Schulte and merger of Noury & Van der Lande merges with Koninklijke Zwanenburg Organon
- 1967 merger Koninklijke Zout Ketjen and Koninklijke Zwanenberg Organon to Koninklijke Zout Organon (KZO).
AKZO 1969-1994 (merge of AKU and Koninklijke Zout Organon to AKZO), 1969)
- 1969 The AKU and the Koninklijke Zout Organon (KZO) merge, forming AKZO.
- 1970 acquires chemical activities of Amour and Co.
- 1987 acquires specialty chemicals division of Stauffer.
- 1992 divest polyamides and polyesters plastics engineering business to DSM.
- 1993 forms the 50/50 % joint venture Akcros Chemicals - together with "Harrisons Chemicals (UK) Ltd." (Harcros), a subsidiary of Harrisons & Crosfield.
- 1994 merges with Nobel Industries, forming Akzo Nobel. The new Akzo Nobel has 20 business entities.
Nobel Industries 1646-1994 (Group)
The Swedish weapons manufacturer Bofors was founded in Karlskoga in 1646. Nobel Industries was created in 1984 by the merger of a chemical company, KemaNobel, and the armaments maker, Bofors. Both Bofors and KemaNobel had historic ties to Alfred Nobel, the great 19th century Swedish inventor who was the first to discover a way to detonate the flammable liquid nitroglycerin.
Bofors 1646-1984 (merge with KemaNobel to become Nobel Industries, 1984)
- 1646 Bofors swedish weapons manufacturer is founded in Karlskoga.
- 1893 Bofors becomes a company majority owned by Alfred Nobel .
- 1984 Bofors acquires KemaNobel.
KemaNobel 1841-1984 (merge with Bofors to become Nobel Industries, 1984)
- 1841 Liljeholmens Stearinfabrik, stearin candles factory, founded by Lars Johan Hierta(also the founder of the Swedish newspaper Aftonbladet) in Stockholm Sweden.
- 1863 Nitroglycerin, stearin candles factory is founded by Alfred Nobel in Stockholm.
- 1868 Barnängen Tekniska Fabrik AB, soap factory at Bondegatan on Södermalm in Stockholm.
- 1871 Stockholms Superfosfat Fabrik, superphosphate factory is founded by Oscar F Carlson - with help from Lars Johan Hierta - in Gäddviken, Nacka outside Stockholm.
- 1874 KemaNord chemical company was founded by Alfred Nobel in Stockholm.
- 1928 Casco, adhesives factory, producing of casein glue, founded by Lars Amundsen (son of brother to Roald Amundsen, the first person at the South Pole) - with help from Marcus Wallenberg - in Kristinehamn
Stockholms Superfosfat Fabriks - Fosfatbolaget
- 1931 Stockholms Superfosfat Fabriks ends its Swedish superphosphate production and a new potassium nitrate factory opens a year later in Ljungaverk.
- 1941 begins Swedish production of carbide and calcium nitrate at a new plant in Stockvik.
- 1944 begins making plastics and starts trial production of synthetic rubber.
- 1945 opens a PVC plant at Stockvik.
- 1947 acquires Liljeholmens Stearinfabrik.
- 1964 Stockholms Superfosfat Fabriks becomes Fosfatbolaget.
- 1935 Casco forms subsidiary in Norway.
- 1946 forms subsidiary in Denmark.
- 1970 forms subsidiary in Finland, taken over by KemaNord
- 1970 Liljeholmens Stearinfabriks’ candle production moves to Oscarshamn.
- 1970 Fosfatbolaget changes its name to KemaNord. KemaNord acquires Liljeholmens Stearinfabriks’ chemicals business, Barnängen Tekniska Fabrik and Casco. Liljeholmens Stearinfabriks’ chemicals businesst becomes a division within KemaNord, KemaNord Specialty Chemicals.
- 1972 paper chemicals business is combined into one paper chemicals product group within KemaNord Specialty Chemicals.
- 1973 CascoGard, a product group within Casco, joins KemaNord Specialty Chemicals.
- 1965 Nitroglycerin becomes Nitro Nobel.
- 1978 KemaNord acquires Swedish civil explosives chemical group Nitro Nobel and changes its name to KemaNobel.
The specialty chemicals division KemaNord Specialty Chemicals changes its name to KenoGard. At that time KenoGard produces organic specialty chemicals for plant and wood protection, disinfection and hygiene, paper production, plastics production, oil production, road construction, fertilizer production and mineral purification.
- 1978 KemaNobel, Barnängen Tekniska Fabrik acquires Liljeholmens Stearinfabrik.
- 1979 Casco began cooperation with Norwegian adhesives and explosives group Dyno Industries regarding particleboard resin.
- 1981 acquires Swedish electronics group Pharos from AGA.
- 1982 acquires Swedish paints group Nordsjö in Malmö.
- 1983 combines the food systems groups of KenoGard and Kema Nobel to form Probel.
Probel produces specialty chemicals and systems for agriculture, food and technical industries. Probel is in turn divided into two areas, Kenogard, for plant and wood protection, and Surfactants, for initiators, detergents, anti-caking and ScanRoad.
- 1984 Casco formed subsidiary in Singapore, which later opens offices in Malaysia (1989), Thailand (1990), Indonesia (1991), the Philippines (1991), the People's Republic of China (1993), Hong Kong (1994), and Vietnam (1994).
- 1984 Bofors acquires KemaNobel.
Nobel Industries 1984-1993 (Holding Company)
- 1984 Bofors acquires the majority shareholding in KemaNobel
- 1985 Bofors changes its name to Nobel Industries and integrates the entire KemaNobel group. Probel becomes Nobel Biotech within KemaNobel Specialty Chemicals. KenoGard Specialty Chemicals became KeNobel.
- 1986 divests Nitro Nobel business area civil explosives.
- 1988 acquires Berol Kemi, Swedish surface chemistry group, from Procordia and merges it with KeNobel to form a new business area, Berol Nobel.
- 1988 merge with the two Swedish holding companies Investment AB Asken and Investment AB D. Carnegie.
- 1986 acquires Swedish paper and pulp group Eka AB, which became a business area, Eka Nobel. As a result sodium chlorate becomes a major Eka product and operations expanded to North America.
- 1990 Eka Nobel acquires Alby Klorat and Stora Kemi from Swedish forest group Stora Kopparberg, Albright and Wilson's paper chemicals division, starts joint venture in India viz. Arjun Chemicals and makes heavy investments in new plants. Eka runs production in 14 countries around the world. Lignox, a patented, hydrogen peroxide bleaching process is introduced.
- 1991 Eka's j.v in India Arjun Chemicals started the production with fortified rosin soaps intended for the application paper industry
- 1991 Eka Nobel's starts hydrogen peroxide production in Venezuela.
- 1987 acquires the majority shareholding in Sadolin & Holmblad, a Danish paints and adhesives group, from ATP, Hafnia, Norsk Hydro, and the Foss and Sadolin families.
Together with Casco and Nordsjo forms the business area, Casco Nobel.
- 1988 Casco Nobel acquires Parteks adhesives and joint compound operations in Finland and Raison Tehtaats adhesives operations in Finland, and the adhesives company Arkol in Italy.
- 1989 acquires Swedish inks group G-man from Swedish forest group Stora Kopparberg and merges it with Sadolin Printing Inks to Casco Nobel Inks, later Akzo Nobel Inks.
- 1990 acquires Crown Berger, English paints group, which became part of Casco Nobel.
- 1991 Casco Nobel begins cooperation with Martinswerk GmbH regarding production of Lacquer additive Pergopak at Stockvik
Other business areas
- 1990 Pharos acquires the American electronics group Spectra-Physics, and change name to Spectra-Physics.
- 1991 Nobel Industries and Sadolin & Holmblad sells
- 1991 forms a 50/50 % joint venture together with FFV, named Swedish Ordnance, Bofors's electonics activities are gathered in NobelTech.
- 1992 sells Nobel Consumer Goods business area - mainly Barnängen Tekniska Fabrik, Liljeholms, Sterisol, and Vademecum - to the German group Henkel.
- 1992 sells its 50 % shareholding in Swedish Ordnance to joint venture partner FFV's new owner Celsius Industries.
- 1993 sells NobelTech to Celsius Industries and Nobel Chemicals to.[clarification needed]
- 1994 merges with AKZO, forming Akzo Nobel. Nobel Industries contributes to Akzo Nobel with the business areas
- paints and adhesives (Casco Nobel),
- paper and pulp chemicals (Eka Nobel)
- surface chemistry (Berol Nobel),
Nobelpharma (Nobel Biotech) and Spectra-Physics, becomes listed on Stockholm Stock-Exchange. The new Akzo Nobel has 20 business entities.
Eka 1895-1986 (entered Nobel Industries, 1986)
- 1895 Elektrokemiska Aktiebolaget (EKA), Swedish for electrochemical factory, is founded by Alfred Nobel (founder of the Nobel Prize), C. W. Collander, and Rudolf Liljeqvist (who becomes Managing Director) in Bengtsfors.
- 1924 moves to Bohus, north of Göteborg.
- 1927 manufactures 3,000 tons of chemicals in Bohus, and starts production of water glass.
- 1930 adds many new chemicals to the product range; i.e. ferric chloride, hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide.
- 1951 is acquired by the Swedish forest company, Iggesunds Bruk AB.
- 1956 starts production of ammonia.
- 1968 begins new hydrogen peroxide production, based on a Russian license.
- 1972 invest in a new chlorine-alkali plant in Bohus, with employees totalling 460 employees, and begins wiht large investments in environmental protection.
- 1980 begins sodium metasilicate production in Maastricht, the Netherlands; which becomes Eka’s first plant outside Bohus.
- 1983 grows in paper chemicals, based on Compozil, and established a subsidiary in Finland
- 1986 Nobel Industrier acquires Eka.
Sadolin & Holmblad 1777-1987
- 1777 Holmblad & Co., Danish paints company, founded by Swedish born Jacob Holmblad in Copenhagen.
- 1907 Sadolins Farver, paints company, founded by Gunnar Asgeir Sadolin in Copenhagen.
- 1909 Sadolins Farver enters the field of inks - later named Sadolin Printing Inks.
- 1912 merger of Sadolins Farver and Holmblad & Co. as Sadolin & Holmblad.
- 1914 Sadolin & Holmblad divide its operations into Sadolin Paints and Sadolin Printing Inks.
- 1933 founding a joint venture Polish-Danish Ink Factory in Poland, lost the shareholding in 1939.
Sadolin Paints growth
- 1949 Sadolin & Holmblad Norge A/S in Oslo, Norway.
- 1954 Sadolin Oy/AB in Helsinki, Finland, Dyo A.S. in Izmir, Turkey, together with Durmuş Yaşar, and opens a decorative coatings factory and marine coatings factory.
- 1958 Sadolin France S.A. in Paris, France, Sadolin ve Yasarin A.S. in Izmir, Turkey opens an industrial resins factory.
- 1959 Sadolin Paints (E.A.) Ltd. in Nairobi, Kenya.
- 1960 buys Farve- og Lakfabrikken Svend Overgaard, A/S in Aalborg, Denmark.
- 1962 Sadolin Bilfarg, A/B in Stockholm, Sweden, Sadolin GmbH. in Geesthacht, West Germany, Arrigoni-Sadolin S.p.A. in Milan, Italia, Sadolin Paints (Tanzania) Ltd. in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.
- 1962 buys O.F. Asp Lak- & Fabrik, A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark.
- 1962 Sadolin ve Yasarin A.S. becomes Dyo ve Sadolin A.S. and opens an automotive refinishes factory, a metal and plast industrial coatings factory and wood finishes factory in Izmir, Turkey.
- 1964 Sadolin Paints (Uganda) Ltd. in Kampala, Uganda.
- 1968 Sadolin Paints (Ethiopia) S.P. in Addis Abba, Ethiopia
- 1968 marketing companies Sadolin (U.K.) Ltd. in Saffron Walden, England (in 1981 moves to Huntingdon); Division Technique du Bâtiment Sadolin S.A.R.L. in Paris
- 1970 P.T. Danapaints Indonesia in Jakarta, Indonesia.
- 1970 rebuild Kemo-Skandia, A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark from a chemical factory to a paint factory.
- 1973 sells Sadolin France S.A. in Paris, France, the company continues with a licensing agreement.
- 1975 merges Kemo-Skandia, A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark, into Farve- og Lakfabrikken Svend Overgaard, A/S in Aalborg, Denmark.
- 1975 loses Sadolin Paints (Ethiopia) S.P. in Addis Abba, Ethiopia, which is nationalized.
- 1976 buys the paint factory Danlac A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark.
- 1976 Sadolin Paints (Oman) Ltd. in Muscat, Oman
- 1977 buys an interest in Pars Sadolin Chemicals Ltd. in Tehran, Iran
- 1977 marketing company Sadolin Produkten B.V. in Rotterdam, the Netherlands - serving Benelux
- 1978 marketing company Sadolin A/G in Zürich, Switzerland - serving Austria and Switzerland.
- 1980 sells Sadolin Paints (Oman) Ltd. in Muscat, Oman, the company continues with a licensing agreement.
- 1981 buys an interest in the paint factory Chemcraft Sadolin Inc. in Port Hope, Ontario, Canada.
- 1982 buys Mercandia Sie's Farve- & Lakfabrik, A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark.
- 1982 sells Sadolin Paints (Tanzania) Ltd. in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, and Sadolin Paints (Uganda) Ltd. in Kampala, Uganda, the companies continues with licensing agreements.
- 1983 Sadolin of America, Inc. and Sadolin Technology. in Greensboro, North Carolina, USA.
- 1984 sells Pars Sadolin Chemicals Ltd. in Tehran, Iran, the company continues with a licensing agreement.
- 1984 buys Sadolin Paint Products, Inc. in Walkertown, North Carolina, USA.
Sadolin Printing Inks growth
- 1946 Sadolin Fargfabrik, AB in Stockholm, Sweden.
- 1955 Sadolin Painovarit Oy in Helsinki, Finland.
- 1960 Sadolin Trykkfarvefabrikk A/S in Oslo, Norway.
- 1967 Dyo ve Sadolin A.S. makes an ink factory in Izmir, Turkey.
- 1977 buys Corona Trykfarver in Copenhagen, Denmark.
- 1986 Sadolin Iberica S.A.. in Barcelona, Spain.
Saldolin other activities
- 1934 founding the Danish color and textile pigments and herbicides company Kemisk Vaerk Koege (KVK) or Chemical Works Koege .
- 1946 becomes a parent company, when the Danish color and textile pigments and herbicides activities is transferred to a new subsidiary company Kemisk Vaerk Koege, A/S (KVK) or Chemical Works Koege
- 1948 co-founds the chemical factory Kemo-Skandia, A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark.
- 1958 selling 50 % of its 100 % shareholding in the Danish color and textile pigments and herbicides subsidiary company Kemisk Vaerk Koege, A/S (KVK) or Chemical Works Koege to the American pigment group Inmont.
- 1959 Sadolin & Holmblad takes full control over chemical factory Kemo-Skandia, A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark.
- 1960 sells consumer and industrial adhesives business and the Danish 3M agency to Lars Foss, who founds Lars Foss Kemi (the 3M agency is in 1963 sold to 3M.
- 1971 Sadolin & Holmblad buys back the 50 % shareholding in the Danish color and textile pigments and herbicides subsidiary company Kemisk Vaerk Koege, A/S (KVK) or Chemical Works Koege from the American pigment group Inmont.
- 1975 Sadolin & Holmblad merger with the Danish producer of consumer and industrial adhesives Lars Foss Kemi, A/S in Fredensborg, Denmark, and renames the business to Sadofoss. Also included in the merger is "Espe-Foss Oy/AB" in Helsinki, Finland, renamed in 1977.
- 1976 founding the adhesives factory Sadofoss S.A. in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.
- 1987 Nobel Industries acquires Danish paints group Sadolin & Holmblad.
Berol Kemi 1937-1988 (entered Nobel Industries, 1988)
- 1937 Swedish producer of coatings for fishing lines Berol is founded by fishing enthusiast Bernström and his friend Olson, a chemist, to make coatings to reinforce cotton fishing lines in Södertälje, and within a few years, Berol, whose name is derived from the first letters of the founders' last names, is established as a manufacturer of water-proofing agents for shoes, leather jackets and sheepskin.
- 1943 Berol, now with six employees, extended its product range to include products to protect food from being destroyed by wet conditions for the defense industry.
- 1945 Berol moves to Mölndal, and begins producing non-ionic, surface active products for washing powder as well as adhesives and paint improvers.
- 1945 Mo och Domsjö AB (MoDo) buys Berol. MoDO, a swedish forest products company, was preparing to produce ethylene glycol from its paper mill waste products in Örnsköldsvik, .
- 1960 MoDo builds a petrochemical ethylene plant in the ice-free, deep water port of Stenungsund, Sweden, in an agreement with Stockholms Superfosfat Fabriks and the U.S. oil company Exxon (Esso). Over the course of the decade, MoDo buys more chemical companies, where of some of them gets integrated within Berol.
- 1971 MoDo consolidates its Swedish chemicals companies into a new company called MoDoKemi, headquartered in Stenungsund, the Berol name disappears as a registered company.
- 1973 Statsföretag buys MoDoKemi. Statsföretag, a Swedish state's private holding company, (later called Procordia), changes the name to Berol Kemi.
- 1974 Berol Kemi buys from MoDo the Swedish production units of cellulose derivatives at Domsjö, near Örnsköldsvik.
- 1979 Berol Kemi made major investment made in modernizing and expanding cellulose derivatives plant in Domsjö.
- 1980 Berol Kemi participates in founding of Oleochemicals Sdn. Bhd. in Malaysia.
- 1988 Bofors acquires Berol Kemi.
Crown Berger 1770-1990 (entered Nobel Industries, 1990)
- 1788 John Hall & Sons founded.
- Smith & Walton is founded.
- 1818 Richard Hilton
- 1844 Potter & Co. (Charles Potter and Harold Potter) acquired xx from Richard Hilton
- 1877 The wallpaper company Lincrusta is founded by Frederick Walton.
- 1887 The wallpaper company Anaglypta in Lancaster is founded by Thomas J Palmer and the Storey Bros.
- 1899 The Wallpaper Manufacturer’s Company (WPM) is founded.
- 1915 The Walpamur Company is created by as the paint company of The Wallpaper Manufacturer’s Company (WPM).
- 1915 The Walpamur Company acquires Kinder & Co.
- 1929 The Walpamur Company acquires Arthur Sanderson & Sons.
- 1931 Anaglypta and Lincrusta merged under the name of Relief Decorations, and at the same time became part of The Wallpaper Manufacturer’s Company (WPM).
- 1963 The Walpamur Company acquires Smith & Walton.
- 1965 Reed International takes over The Wallpaper Manufacturers’ Company (WPM).
- 1965 Crown Decorative Products, a new division within The Wallpaper Manufacturers’ Company (WPM), exist of Polycell, Sanderson & Sons and Smith & Walton
- 1975 The Walpamur Company changes its name to Crown Decorative Products.
- 1980 Crown Decorative Products acquires Relief Decorations.
- 1986 Akzo Coatings acquires Permoglaze.
- 1987 Williams Holdings acquires The Wallpaper Manufacturers’ Company (WPM).
- 1760 Lewis Berger & Sons founded.
- 1840 Jenson & Nicholson founded.
- Berger, Jenson & Nicholson is founded by the merger
- 1988 Williams Holdings from Hoechst acquires Berger, Jenson & Nicolson and merged with The Walpamur Company creating Crown Berger.
- 1989 Williams Holdings acquires Jacoa from Ward White (UK) and merged into Crown Berger.
- 1990 Nobel Industries acquires Crown Berger Ltd. from Williams Holdings, and is split into several businesses.
- Crown Berger Decorative Paints becomes Crown Nobel Decorative Paints Division, an independent division for decorative coatings.
- Crown Berger Industrial Coatings and RCL becomes part of Casco Nobel Industrial Coatings Division,
- Crown Inks becomes part of Casco Nobel Inks Division.
- Sadolin Nobel UK continues as part of Sadolin Nobel Decorative Paints Division.
- 1991 Nobel Industries acquires MacPherson Paints is acquired by from Kemira and becomes part of Crown Nobel Decorative Paints Division.
- 1995 Akzo Decorative Coatings of Akzo Coatings, Crown Nobel Decorative Paints Division of Crown Berger Ltd. and Sadolin Nobel UK Ltd. makes up the new Akzo Nobel Decorative Coatings Ltd.
- 2001 Crown Inks is sold, in line with Akzo Nobel's exit from the ink industry (now part of Flint Group)
- 2001 Relief Decorations, wallpaper manufacturer with the brands Anaglypta and Lincrusta is sold to Imperial Home Décor.
- 2003 Imperial Home Décor is taken over by Crown Wilman Vymura Ltd.
Akzo Nobel 1994–2007/2008
- 1994 divests Nobel Industries fine and pharma chemicals business area Nobel Chemicals, biotech business area Nobel Biotech and electronic business area Spectra-Physics.
- 1995 divests PET resins business to Wellman, Inc..
- 1826 British silk and crepe manufacturer Courtaulds founded by Samuel Courtauld.
- 1990 Courtaulds separates itself into two businesses, viz., Courtaulds Textiles for apparel manufacture and Courtaulds plc for fibres and chemicals.
- 1998 Akzo Nobel acquires Courtaulds of the UK, a chemical company with leading positions in industrial coatings and man-made fibers. EU forces sale of Aeronautical films and sealants businesses to allow completion.
- 1998 November, Akzo Nobel divests Courtaulds plastic packaging, laminate, aluminium tubes, architectural coatings in USA, packaging coatings, plactic tubes, performance film and aerospace coatings and sealants businesses.
- September 1998 forms a new Fibres Group by mergering Akzo Nobel Fibres and Courtauld Fibres under the name Acordis.
- January 1999 makes Acordis a stand-alone group within Akzo Nobel by dissolving the Fibres Group.
- December 1999 divests Acordis to CVC Capital Partners.
- 1999 acquires the ethical pharmaceutical business of Japan-based Kanebo, Italian pharmaceutical manufacturers Farmaceutici Gellini and Nuova ICC, the veterian pharmecutical group Hoechst Roussel Vet from Hoechst and divests its shareholding in Rovin Pharmaceuticals.
- 2007 Organon pharmaceutical business sold to Schering-Plough for EUR 11 billion.
- 1996 sells crop protection business to Nufarm.
- 1998 acquires the remaining 50% of the joint venture Akcros Chemicals (PVC additives) and the amides business of South Korean chemical company Daejen Fine Chemicals, sells Soda Ash business to Brunner Mond and Eka Chemicals sell their shares in Arjun chemicals India and remains a licensee for paper sizing chemicals.
- 1999 Pulp & Paper Chemicals acquires Korean paper chemicals business, Polymer Chemicals becomes worldwide distributor of the specialty additive products CIRS SpA, AkzoNobel Chemicals starts joint venture with Coin of Taiwan on dicumyl peroxides (DCP) and cumene hydroperoxides (CHP) and divests its Dianol bisphenol A business
- 2000 divests its stake in Rovin's VCM and PVC business to Shin-Etsu Chemical.
- 2001 divests ADC optical monomers business to Great Lakes Chemical and its 50% stake in Akzo-PQ Silica silicate business to joint-venture partner PQ Corporation.
- 2002 divests printing inks business to the management and NeSBIC Buy Out Fund.
- 2004 divests Catalyst business to Albemarle Corp.
- 2005 divests Ink & Adhesive Resins to Hexion.
- 2007 divests Akcros Chemicals to GIL Investments and its 50% stake in Flexsys rubber chemicals to joint-venture partner Solutia.
- 1999 establish joint venture with Nippon Paint Company of Japan on coil coatings, acquires a joint venture partner Dexter's for 40 % participation in Akzo Dexter Aerospace Finishes (AD Aerospace Finishes).
- 2004 diverst Industrial Adhesives' polyurethane adhesives and systems (two-component PUR adhesives) business to Sika and Coatings Resins to Nuplex Industries.
- 2005 divests UV/EB Resins to Cray Valley.
- 1998 acquires BASF's decorative coatings business in Europe, Turkish paint company Marshall Boya and increases it shareholding from 5 % to 60 % in Tunesian paint company Astral.
- 1999 acquires the majority shareholding in American paint company Coatings & Chemicals Corp. (CCC).
- 2006 acquires the quoted Canadian Coatings company SICO Inc..
- 2007 acquires the Canadian Coatings company Chemcraft International, Inc (founded 1976), and which from 1981 to 1994 was known as Chemcraft Sadolin, Inc and owned 40 % by Sadolin & Holmblad.
- 1999 Akzo Nobel divests Akzo Nobel Information Services.
- 2007 Akzo Nobel delists its shares from the US stock market (NASDAQ).
Imperial Chemicals Industries (ICI) 1926–2007/2008
- December 1926: Four major chemical companies in Great Britain merge to become Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI): British Dyestuffs Corporation, Brunner, Mond & Company, Nobel Explosives, and the United Alkali Company.
- 1927: ICI opens for business with 33,000 employees in five main product areas: alkali products, explosives, metals, general chemicals, and dyestuffs.
- 1928 ICI established its Head Office at Millbank in London
- 1929: ICI signs a deal with I.G. Farben, establishing production quotas for nitrogen, the main ingredient in fertilizer.
- 1933: ICI researchers "discover" polyethylene, which is later patented and sold as an insulating material.
- 1935: Due to declining demand for fertilizer, ICI agrees to let I.G. Farben exclusively sell nitrogen in parts of Asia, Europe, and South and Central America.
- 1948: The result of a U.S. antitrust suit, ICI and du Pont end the exchange of technical information and cooperation on prices and markets.
- 1952: ICI opens a huge chemical complex in Wilton, England.
- 1965: ICI begins an ambitious building plan in Britain, Germany, and the United States.
- 1972: Britain joins the Common Market, focusing its attention on the United States.
- 1977: ICI continues its American investment, with acquisitions that include a paraquat plant in Bayport, Texas.
- 1982 Sir John Harvey-Jones assumes the role of chief executive, changing the company's focus from outdated products to drugs and specialty chemicals.
- 1986 ICI turns its focus to paint and specialty products with the purchase of Beatrice's Chemical division and Glidden Paint.
- 1993 ICI "demerges" its bioscience businesses, splitting into two companies: ICI and the separate, publicly listed Zeneca Group, which later merges into AstraZeneca,
- 1997 ICI makes its biggest-ever acquisition of four businesses from Unilever: National Starch, Quest, Unichema, and Crosfield -- and moves into specialty products and begins the divestment of its bulk commodity businesses.
- 1999 ICI forms Uniqema, a health and personal care products company, with the merger of five ICI businesses.
- 1999 Huntsman acquires ICI's polyurethanes, the titanium dioxide and aromatics businesses, and ICI's share of the olefins supply at Wilton, Teesside.
- 2008 Akzo Nobel acquires English Imperial Chemical Industries plc (ICI), and rebrands the company to AkzoNobel.
AkzoNobel 2008 and later
- 2009 Akzo Nobel divests Chemicals Pakistan to KP Chemical.
- 2010 AkzoNobel's rebrand was formally recognised when they appeared on the shortlist of the Transform Awards for rebranding and brand transformation.
- June 2010 AkzoNobel divests National Starch business to Corn Products.
- Herbol industrial coating brand AkzoNobel
- Twaron trade name aramid synthetic fiber
- Teijin Aramid producer of Twaron, former company AkzoNobel
- GLARE composite material patented by AkzoNobel
- List of Dutch companies
- List of Swedish companies
- ^ a b c d e f g "Annual Results 2010". AkzoNobel. http://www.akzonobel.com/system/images/AkzoNobel_Q4_2010_Report_tcm9-55264.pdf. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
- ^ Jonathan Steffen, ed (2008) (in Dutch). Tomorrow's Answers Today. The history of AkzoNobel since 1646. Amsterdam: Akzo Nobel N.V.. pp. 280. ISBN 978.90.5730.622.8.
- ^ "AkzoNobel Fact File 2011". AkzoNobel. http://www.akzonobel.com/system/images/AkzoNobel_Fact_File_tcm9-60501.pdf. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
- ^ Top companies: Most profitable CNNMoney.com. Retrieved on March 4, 2009.
- ^ Tomorrow's answers today, AkzoNobel 2008, ISBN 978 90 9022883 9, English version
- ^ AkzoNobel company history, fundinguniverse.com
- ^ Jaap Tuik. Een bijzonder energiek ondernemer-Rento Wolter Hendrik Hofstede Crull (1863-1938): pioneer van de elektriciteits voorziening in Nederland Zutphen, The Netherlands: Historischcentrumoverijssel & Walburg Pers, 2009. pp.: 137-138 ISBN 978.90.5730.640.2; also http://www.enka-ede.com/IMSE.htm
- ^ http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rento_Hofstede_Crull (Dutch)
- ^ http://southern.railfan.net/ties/1961/61-10/enka.html
- ^ a b "ICI: History". ICI. http://www.ici.com/History.
- ^ "Shortlist announced for the Transform Awards for rebranding". Communicate magazine. January 2010. http://www.communicatemagazine.co.uk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=886:shortlist-announced-for-the-transform-awards-for-rebranding&catid=1:stories&Itemid=115.
AEX companies of the Netherlands
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