- Calcium nitrate
Calcium nitrate Identifiers CAS number ,
PubChem ChemSpider UN number 1454 RTECS number EW2985000 Jmol-3D images Image 1 Properties Molecular formula Ca(NO3)2 Molar mass 164.088 g/mol (anhydrous)
Appearance colorless solid Density 2.504 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
1.896 g/cm3 (tetrahydrate)
561 °C (anhydrous)
42.7 °C (tetrahydrate)
132 °C (tetrahydrate)
Solubility in water anhydrous:
121.2 g/100 mL (20 °C)
271.0 g/100 mL (40° C)
195 g/100 mL (0 °C)
129 g/100 mL (20 °C)
363 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility dissolves in alcohol and acetone Structure Crystal structure cubic (anhydrous)
Hazards MSDS ICSC 1037 EU Index Not listed NFPA 704 Flash point Non-flammable Related compounds Other anions Calcium sulfate
Other cations Magnesium nitrate
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Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Calcium nitrate, also called Norgessalpeter (Norwegian saltpeter) is the inorganic compound with the formula Ca(NO3)2. This colourless salt absorbs moisture from the air and is commonly found as a tetrahydrate. It can also be found in a complex salt as Calcium Ammonium Nitrate decahydrate or Calcium Potassium Nitrate decahydrate. It is mainly used as a component in fertilizers but also technical applications. Nitrocalcite is the name for a mineral which is a hydrated calcium nitrate that forms as an efflorescence where manure contacts concrete or limestone in a dry environment as in stables or caverns.
Production and reactivity
Norgessalpeter was the first synthetic nitrogen fertilizer compound to be manufactured. Production began at Notodden, Norway in 1905 by the Birkeland–Eyde process. Most of the world's calcium nitrate is now made in Porsgrunn.
It is produced by treating limestone with nitric acid, followed by neutralization with ammonia:
- CaCO3 + 2 HNO3 → Ca(NO3)2 + CO2 + H2O
It is also a byproduct of the Odda Process for the extraction of calcium phosphate, what is the case for the production in Porsgrunn:
- Ca3(PO4)2 + 6 HNO3 + 12 H2O → 2 H3PO4 + 3 Ca(NO3)2 + 12 H2O
- 2 NH4NO3 + Ca(OH)2 → Ca(NO3)2 + 2 NH4OH
- 2 Ca(NO3)2 → 2 CaO + 4 NO2 + O2 ΔH = 369 kJ/mol
Use in fertilizer
The fertilizer grade (15.5-0-0 + 19% Ca) is popular in the greenhouse and hydroponics trades; it contains ammonium nitrate and water, as the "double salt" 5Ca(NO3)2.NH4NO3.10H2O. Formulations lacking ammonia are also known: Ca(NO3)2.4H2O (11.9-0-0 + 16.9%Ca). A liquid formulation (9-0-0 + 11% Ca) is also offered. An anhydrous, air-stable derivative is the urea complex Ca(NO3)2.4[OC(NH2)2], which has been sold as Cal-Urea.
Use in technical applications
Calcium Nitrate is used in various technical applications. Most important ones are waste water pre-conditioning for odour emission prevention and set accelerating concrete admixtures.
The waste water pre-conditioning bases on establishing an anoxic biology in the waste water system. At the presence of Nitrate the metabolism for Sulfates is stopped. This results in prevention of hydrogen sulphide formation . Additionally easy degradable organic matter is consumed, what otherwise can cause anaerobic conditions downstream as well as odour emissions itself   . The concept is also applicable for surplus sludge treatment .
The Calcium Nitrate use within concrete and mortar applications bases on two effects. The Calcium ion leads to an earlier formation of Calcium Hydroxide and thus precipitation sets off faster and the setting time gets reduced . This effect is used also in cold weather concreting agents as well as some combined plasticizers   . The Nitrate ion leads to Iron hydroxide formation. Those protective layers reduce the corrosion of the concrete reinforcement   .
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CaB6 · CaBr2 · CaC2 · CaCN2 · CaCO3 · CaC2O4 · CaCl · CaCl2 · Ca(ClO)2 · Ca(ClO3)2 · CaCrO4 · CaF2 · CaH2 · Ca(HCO3)2 · CaH2S2O6 · CaI2 · Ca(IO3)2 · Ca(MnO4)2 · Ca(NO3)2 · CaO · CaO2 · Ca(OH)2 · CaS · CaSO3 · CaSO4 · CaSi2 · CaTiO3 · Ca2P2O7 · Ca2SiO4 · Ca3(AsO4)2 · Ca3(BO3)2 · Ca3(C6H5O7)2 · Ca3N2 · Ca3P2 · Ca3(PO4)2 · Ca(H2PO4)2 · CaHPO4 · C36H70CaO4
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