Twaron is the brandname of Teijin Aramid for a para-aramid.


Twaron is a heat-resistant and strong synthetic fiber developed in the early 1970s by the Dutch company AKZO, division Enka, later Akzo Industrial Fibers. The research name of the para-aramid fiber was originally Fiber X, but it was soon called Arenka. Although the Dutch para-aramid fiber was developed only a little later than DuPont's Kevlar, introduction of Twaron as a commercial product came much later than Kevlar due to financial problems at the AKZO company in the 1970s.

A short overview of the history of Twaron [ cite journal |author= Year of Twaron| title= Twaron - A history of innovation | journal= Twaron News| year= | volume= | issue= June 2007| pages=10–11| url=| format= dead link|date=June 2008 – [ Scholar search] ] :
* In 1960s start of research program for Fiber X.
* In 1972 the ENKA Research laboratory develops a para-aramid called Arenka.
* In 1973 Akzo decides to use sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as a solvent for spinning.
* In 1976 a pilot plant is built. First production in 1977.
* In 1984 the product is renamed Twaron.
* In 1986 commercial production is started at three locations and nine plants.
* In 1987 Twaron is introduced as a commercial product.
* In 1989 the aramid business of Akzo becomes an independent Business Unit called Twaron BV.
* Since 2000 Twaron BV is owned by the Teijin Group, now called Teijin Twaron BV and based in Arnhem, The Netherlands. The main production facilities for Twaron are in Emmen en Delfzijl.
* In 2007 Teijin Twaron expands for the fourth time in six years [ cite journal |author= International Fiber Journal| title= Teijin Launches Fourth Production Expansion in Six Years| journal= Fiber Journal| year= 2007| volume= | issue= February| pages=20| url=] and also changes its name into Teijin Aramid.


Polymer preparation

Twaron is a "p"-phenylene terephtalamide (P"p"PTA), the simplest form of the AABB para polyaramide. P"p"PTA is a product of "p"-phenylene diamine (PPD) and terephtaloyl dichloride (TDC). To dissolve the aromatic polymer Twaron used a co-solvent of N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) and an ionic component (Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) to occupy the hydrogen bonds of the amide groups. Prior to the invention of this process by Leo Vollbracht, working at the Dutch chemical firm AKZO, no practical means of dissolving the polymer was known. The use of this system by DuPont led to a patent war between AKZO and DuPont as Dupont initially used the carcinogenic HMPT (Hexamethylphosphoramide). Despite heavy research DuPont now also uses the AKZO patent to use the less hazardous NMP in the Kevlar process.


After the production of the Twaron polymer in Delfzijl, the polymer is brought to Emmen, where fibers are produced by spinning the dissolved polymer into a solid fiber from a liquid chemical blend. Polymer solvent for spinning PPTA is generally 100% (water free) sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The polymer is dissolved by mixing frozen sulfuric acid in powder form with the polymer in powder form and gently heating the mixture. This process, which differs from the more difficult DuPont process, was invented by Henri Lammers and patented by AKZO.

Major industrial uses

Twaron is a para-aramid and is used in automotive, construction, sport, aerospace, military and industry applications, e.g., "bullet-proof" body armor, fabric, and as an asbestos substitute.

* Protective Gear (Heat Resistant / Ballistics):
** flame-resistant clothing
** protective clothing and helmets
** Anti-cut or heat resistant gloves
** sporting goods
** fabrics
** body armor
* Composites:
** composite materials
** technical paper
** asbestos replacement
** hot air filtration
** sail cloth
** speaker woofers
** boat hull material
** fiber reinforced concrete
** drumheads
* Automotive:
** brake pads
** turbo hoses
** V-belts and Timing belts
** tires that incorporate Sulfron (sulfur modified Twaron)
** mechanical rubber goods reinforcement
* Linear Tension:
** optical fiber cables (OFC)
** ropes, wire ropes, cables [ [ Cranes Today: Rope Trick] ]
** umbilical cables
** Electrical Mechanical Cable (EMC)
** Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipes

ee also

* Aramid
* Belt track
* Fibers
* Nylon
* Personal protective equipment
* Teijin
** Technora
** Teijin Aramid
* Textile
* Wire rope


*cite book |author=JWS Hearle |publisher=Woodhead Publishing Ltd., Abington, UK - The Textile Institute |title=High-performance fibres |isbn=1855735393
* L. Vollbracht and T.J. Veerman, US Patent 4308374 (1976)

External links

* [ Official Twaron website]
* [ General Aramid information]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Twaron — Aramide ist die Bezeichnung für aromatische Polyamide. Diese polymeren Kunststoffe besitzen strukturelle Ähnlichkeit mit Proteinen. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Übersicht 2 Para Aramid Herstellungsprozess 3 Anwendungen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Twaron — Арамидная ткань Twaron Microfilament Арамид полипарафенилентерефталамид, синтетическое волокно высокой механической и термической прочности. Состоит из бензольных колец, соединённых друг с другом через группу NH CO , между водородными и… …   Википедия

  • Twaron — Kevlar Représentation du poly para phénylène téréphtalamide …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Teijin Aramid — Infobox Company company type = Industrial fiber producer company name = Teijin Aramid BV parent = Teijin Ltd slogan = The Power of Aramid foundation = 1983 by Akzo Nobel location = flagicon|Netherlands The Netherlands, Arnhem key people = E.… …   Wikipedia

  • Aramid — fibers are a class of heat resistant and strong synthetic fibers. They are used in aerospace and military applications, for ballistic rated body armor fabric, and as an asbestos substitute. The name is a shortened form of aromatic polyamide .… …   Wikipedia

  • Sulfron — IntroductionSulfron 3000, modified aramid derived from Twaron, is a rubber ingredient which improves hysteresis and heat generation in sulfur vulcanized rubber compounds. Sulfron is produced and sold by Teijin Aramid.In practice, sulfur… …   Wikipedia

  • Matériaux à voile — Une voile est fabriquée depuis la nuit des temps à partir de fibre. Les matériaux traditionnels d une voile sont des fibres naturelles comme le lin, le chanvre ou le coton qui une fois tissées forment un tissu[1]. Néanmoins, les voiles modernes… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ballistic vest — A ballistic vest is an item of protective clothing that absorbs the impact from gun fired projectiles and shrapnel fragments from explosion. This protection is for the torso. Soft vests are made from many layers of woven or laminated fibers and… …   Wikipedia

  • Sailcloth — Sails have been made from cloth for all of recorded history. Typically sails were made from flax (linen), hemp or cotton in various forms including canvas. However, modern sails are rarely made from natural fibers. Most sails are made from… …   Wikipedia

  • Gilet Pare-Balles — Un policier londonien portant un gilet pare balles …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”