Twaron is the brandname of
Teijin Aramidfor a para-aramid.
Twaron is a heat-resistant and strong
synthetic fiberdeveloped in the early 1970s by the Dutch company AKZO, division Enka, later Akzo Industrial Fibers. The research name of the para-aramid fiber was originally Fiber X, but it was soon called Arenka. Although the Dutch para-aramid fiber was developed only a little later than DuPont's Kevlar, introduction of Twaron as a commercial product came much later than Kevlar due to financial problems at the AKZO company in the 1970s.
A short overview of the history of Twaron [ cite journal |author= Year of Twaron| title= Twaron - A history of innovation | journal= Twaron News| year= | volume= | issue= June 2007| pages=10–11| url= http://www.twaron.com/pdf/news20070605/TEI7005TNJune%2010-11.pdf| format= dead link|date=June 2008 – [http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=intitle%3ATwaron+-+A+history+of+innovation&as_publication=Twaron+News&as_ylo=&as_yhi=&btnG=Search Scholar search] ] :
* In 1960s start of research program for Fiber X.
* In 1972 the ENKA Research laboratory develops a para-aramid called Arenka.
* In 1973 Akzo decides to use sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as a solvent for spinning.
* In 1976 a pilot plant is built. First production in 1977.
* In 1984 the product is renamed Twaron.
* In 1986 commercial production is started at three locations and nine plants.
* In 1987 Twaron is introduced as a commercial product.
* In 1989 the aramid business of Akzo becomes an independent Business Unit called Twaron BV.
* Since 2000 Twaron BV is owned by the Teijin Group, now called Teijin Twaron BV and based in
Arnhem, The Netherlands. The main production facilities for Twaron are in Emmen en Delfzijl.
* In 2007 Teijin Twaron expands for the fourth time in six years [ cite journal |author= International Fiber Journal| title= Teijin Launches Fourth Production Expansion in Six Years| journal= Fiber Journal| year= 2007| volume= | issue= February| pages=20| url= https://www.ifj.com/industryNews/rsIndustryNews2.asp?id=788] and also changes its name into
Twaron is a "p"-phenylene terephtalamide (P"p"PTA), the simplest form of the AABB para polyaramide. P"p"PTA is a product of "p"-phenylene diamine (PPD) and terephtaloyl dichloride (TDC). To dissolve the
aromatic polymerTwaron used a co-solvent of N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) and an ionic component (Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) to occupy the hydrogen bonds of the amide groups. Prior to the invention of this process by Leo Vollbracht, working at the Dutch chemical firm AKZO, no practical means of dissolving the polymer was known. The use of this system by DuPontled to a patent war between AKZO and DuPontas Dupont initially used the carcinogenic HMPT( Hexamethylphosphoramide). Despite heavy research DuPont now also uses the AKZO patent to use the less hazardous NMP in the Kevlarprocess.
After the production of the Twaron polymer in Delfzijl, the polymer is brought to Emmen, where fibers are produced by spinning the dissolved polymer into a
solidfiber from a liquidchemical blend. Polymer solvent for spinning PPTA is generally 100% (water free) sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The polymer is dissolved by mixing frozen sulfuric acid in powder form with the polymer in powder form and gently heating the mixture. This process, which differs from the more difficult DuPont process, was invented by Henri Lammers and patented by AKZO.
Major industrial uses
Twaron is a para-aramid and is used in automotive, construction, sport, aerospace, military and industry applications, e.g., "bullet-proof" body armor, fabric, and as an
* Protective Gear (Heat Resistant /
** protective clothing and
** Anti-cut or heat resistant gloves
** sporting goods
** body armor
** technical paper
** hot air
** speaker woofers
fiber reinforced concrete
** turbo hoses
** V-belts and
tires that incorporate Sulfron (sulfur modified Twaron)
* Linear Tension:
** optical fiber cables (OFC)
ropes, wire ropes, cables [ [http://www.cranestodaymagazine.com/story.asp?storycode=2047050 Cranes Today: Rope Trick] ]
** Electrical Mechanical Cable (EMC)
Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipes
* Belt track
Personal protective equipment
*cite book |author=JWS Hearle |publisher=Woodhead Publishing Ltd., Abington, UK - The Textile Institute |title=High-performance fibres |isbn=1855735393
* L. Vollbracht and T.J. Veerman, US Patent 4308374 (1976)
* [http://www.teijinaramid.com/smartsite.dws?id=90 Official Twaron website]
* [http://www.pslc.ws/macrog/aramid.htm General Aramid information]
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