- Powder coating
Powder coating is a type of dry coating, which is applied as a free-flowing, dry powder. The main difference between a conventional liquid paint and a powder coating is that the powder coating does not require a
solventto keep the binder and filler parts in a liquid suspension form. The coating is typically applied electrostatically and is then cured under heat to allow it to flow and form a "skin." The powder may be a thermoplasticor a thermoset polymer. It is usually used to create a hard finish that is tougher than conventional paint. Powder coating is mainly used for coating of metals, such as "whiteware", aluminium extrusions, and automobileand motorcycleparts. Newer technologies allow other materials, such as MDF ( medium-density fibreboard), to be powder coated using different methods.
Application of Powder
The application of powder is very simple. Filtered, compressed air, usually at 20-30 psi (137-207 kPa) pushes the powder out of the gun past the electrode which gives the powder a positive charge. The part being coated is grounded so the positive powder particles are attracted to it. When the part is completely covered, the ground is removed and the part is put into the oven.
Advantages and disadvantages of powder coating
There are several advantages of powder coating over conventional liquid coatings:
# Powder coatings emit zero or near zero volatile organic compounds (VOC).
# Powder coatings can produce much thicker coatings than conventional liquid coatings without running or sagging.
# Powder coating overspray can be recycled and thus it is possible to achieve nearly 100% use of the coating.
# Powder coating production lines produce less
hazardous wastethan conventional liquid coatings.
# Capital equipment and operating costs for a powder line are generally less than for conventional liquid lines.
# Powder coated items generally have fewer appearance differences between horizontally coated surfaces and vertically coated surfaces than liquid coated items.
# A wide range of specialty effects is easily accomplished which would be impossible to achieve with other coating processes.
While powder coatings have many advantages over other coating processes, there are limitations to the technology. While it is relatively easy to apply thick coatings which have smooth, texture-free surfaces, it is not as easy to apply smooth thin films. As the film thickness is reduced, the film becomes more and more orange peeled in texture due to the particle size and TG (
glass transition temperature) of the powder.
For optimum material handling and ease of application, most powder coatings have a particle size in the range of 30 to 50 μm and a TG > 40° C . For such powder coatings, film build-ups of greater than 50 μm may be required to obtain an acceptably smooth film. The surface texture which is considered desirable or acceptable depends on the end product. Many manufacturers actually prefer to have a certain degree of orange peel since it helps to hide metal defects that have occurred during manufacture, and the resulting coating is less prone to show fingerprints.
There are very specialized operations where powder coatings of less than 30 micrometres or with a TG < 40° C are used in order to produce smooth thin films. One variation of the dry powder coating process, the Powder Slurry process, combines the advantages of powder coatings and liquid coatings by dispersing very fine powders of 1–5 micrometre particle size into water, which then allows very smooth, low film thickness coatings to be produced.
Powder coatings have a major advantage in that the overspray can be recycled. However, if multiple colors are being sprayed in a single spray booth, this may limit the ability to recycle the overspray.
Types of powder coatings
There are two main categories of powder coatings: Thermosets and thermoplastics. The thermosetting variety incorporates a cross-linker into the formulation. When the powder is baked, it reacts with other chemical groups in the powder polymer and increases the molecular weight and improves the performance properties. The thermoplastic variety does not undergo any additional reactions during the baking process, but rather only flows out into the final coating.
The most common polymers used are
polyester, polyester- epoxy(known as hybrid), straight epoxy( Fusion bonded epoxy) and acrylics.
# The polymer granules are mixed with hardener, pigments and other powder ingredients in a mixer
# The mixture is heated in an extruder
# The extruded mixture is rolled flat, cooled and broken into small chips
# The chips are milled to make a fine powder
The powder coating process
The powder coating process involves three basic steps:
# Part preparation or the Pre treatment
# The powder application
Part Preparation Processes & Equipment
Removal of oil, soil, lubrication greases, metal oxides, welding scales etc. is essential prior to the powder coating process. It can be done by a variety of chemical and mechanical methods. The selection of the method depends on the size and the material of the part to be powder coated, the type of soil to be removed and the performance requirement of the finished product.
Another method of preparing the surface prior to coating is known as abrasive blasting or
Sandblastingand shot blasting. Blast media and blasting abrasives are used to provide surface texturing and preparation, etching, finishing, and degreasing for products made of wood, plastic, or glass. The most important properties to consider are chemical composition and density; particle shape and size; and impact resistance.
Silicon carbide grit blast media is brittle, sharp, and suitable for grinding metals and low-tensile strength, non-metallic materials. Plastic media blast equipment uses plastic abrasives that are sensitive to substrates such as aluminum, but still suitable for de-coating and surface finishing. Sand blast media uses high-purity crystals that have low-metal content. Glass bead blast media contains glass beads of various sizes.
Cast steel shot or steel grit is used to clean and prepare the surface before coating. Shot blasting recycles the media and is environmentally friendly. This method of preparation is highly efficient on steel parts such as I-beams, angles, pipes, tubes and large fabricated pieces. Different powder coating applications can require alternative methods of preparation such as abrasive blasting prior to coating. The online consumer market typically offers media blasting services coupled with their coating services at additional costs.
Powder Application Processes
The most common way of applying the powder coating to metal objects is to spray the powder using an electrostatic gun, or Corona gun. The gun imparts a positive electric charge on the powder, which is then sprayed towards the object, which is grounded. The object is then heated, and the powder melts into a uniform film, and is then cooled to form a hard coating. It is also common to heat the metal first and spray the powder onto the hot substrate. Preheating can help to achieve a more uniform finish but can also create other problems, such as runs caused by excess powder. See the article "
Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coatings"
Another type of gun is called a "Tribo" gun, which charges the powder by (triboelectric) friction. In this case, the powder picks up a positive charge while rubbing along the wall of a Teflon tube inside the barrel of the gun. These charged powder particles then adhere to the grounded substrate. Using a Tribo gun requires a different formulation of powder than the more common Corona guns. Tribo guns are not subject to some of the problems associated with Corona guns, however, such as
back ionizationand the Faraday CageEffect.
Powder can also be applied using specifically adapted electrostatic discs.
Another method of applying powder coating, called the Fluidized Bed method, is by heating the substrate and then dipping it into an aerated, powder-filled bed. The powder sticks and melts to the hot object. Further heating is usually required to finish curing the coating. This method is generally used when the desired thickness of coating is to exceed 300 micrometres. This is how most dishwasher racks are coated.
Electrostatic Fluidized Bed Coating: Electrostatic fluidized bed application uses the same fluidizing technique and the conventional fluidized bed dip process but with much less powder depth in the bed. An electrostatic charging media is placed inside the bed so that the powder material becomes charged as the fluidizing air lifts it up. Charged particles of powder move upward and form a cloud of charged powder above the fluid bed. When a grounded part is passed through the charged cloud the particles will be attracted to its surface. The parts are not preheated as they are for the conventional fluidized bed dip process.
Electrostatic magnetic Brush (EMB) Coating: an innovative coating method for flat materials that applies powder coating with roller technique, enabling relative high speeds and a very accurate layer thickness between 5 and 100 micrometre. The base for this process is conventional copier technology . Currently in use in some high- tech coating applications and very promising for commercial powder coating on flat substrates ( steel, Aluminium, MDF, paper, board) as well in sheet to sheet and/or roll to roll processes. This process can potentially be integrated in any existing coating line.
When a thermoset powder is exposed to elevated temperature, it begins to melt, flows out, and then chemically reacts to form a higher molecular weight
polymerin a network-like structure. This cure process, called crosslinking, requires a certain degree of temperature for a certain length of time in order to reach full cure and establish the full film properties for which the material was designed. Normally the powders cure at 200° C (390° F) in 10 minutes. The curing schedule could vary according to the manufacturer's specifications.
The application of energy to the product to be cured can be accomplished by
convectioncure ovens or infraredcure ovens.
Removing Powder Coating
Methylene Chlorideis generally effective at removing powder coating, however most other organic solvents (Acetone, thinners, etc.) are completely ineffective.
Fusion bonded epoxy coating
* [http://www.finishing.com/Library/pennisi/powder.html Powder Coating Process Description]
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