- Level crossing
A level crossing occurs where a railway line is intersected by a road or path on one level, without recourse to a bridge or tunnel. It is a type of at-grade intersection. The term also applies when a light rail line with separate right-of-way or reserved track crosses a road in the same fashion. Other names include railway crossing, railroad crossing, road through railroad, train crossing or grade crossing.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Major accidents
- 3 Crossings around the world
- 4 Unusual crossings
- 5 Gallery
- 6 See also
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Early level crossings had a flagman in a nearby booth who would, on the approach of a train, wave a red flag or lantern to stop all traffic and clear the tracks. Manual or electrical closable gates that barricaded the roadway were later introduced. The gates were intended to be a complete barrier against intrusion of any road traffic onto the railway. In the early days of the railways much road traffic was horsedrawn or included livestock. It was thus necessary to provide a real barrier. Thus, crossing gates, when closed to road traffic, crossed the entire width of the road. When opened to allow road users to cross the line, the gates were swung across the width of the railway, preventing any pedestrians or animals getting onto the line. The first U.S. patent for such crossing gates was awarded on 27 August 1867, to J. Nason and J. F. Wilson, both of Boston.
With the appearance of motor vehicles, this barrier became less effective and the need for a barrier to livestock diminished dramatically. Many countries therefore substituted the gated crossings with weaker but more highly visible barriers and relied upon road users following the associated warning signals to stop.
In many countries, level crossings on less important roads and railway lines are often "open" or "uncontrolled", sometimes with warning lights or bells to warn of approaching trains. Ungated crossings represent a safety concern; many accidents have occurred due to failure to notice or obey the warning. Railways in the United States are adding reflectors to the side of each train car to help prevent accidents at level crossings. In some countries, such as Ireland, instead of an open crossing there may be manually operated gates, which the motorist must open and close. These too have significant risks, as they are unsafe to use without possessing a knowledge of the train timetable: motorists may be instructed to telephone the railway signaller, but may not always do so.
The director of rail safety at the UK HM Railway Inspectorate commented in 2004 that "the use of level crossings contributes the greatest potential for catastrophic risk on the railways." Eighteen people were killed in the UK on level crossings in 2003-4. Bridges and tunnels are now favoured, but this can be impractical in flat countryside where there is insufficient space to build a roadway embankment or tunnel (because of nearby buildings).
At railway stations, a pedestrian level crossing is sometimes provided to allow passengers to reach other platforms in the absence of an underpass or bridge.
Where third rail systems have level crossings, there is a gap in the third rail over the level crossing, but the power supply is not interrupted since trains have current collectors on multiple cars.
An innovation yet to be proved practical is to transmit level crossing warning signals by radio into the cabin of the road vehicle. This would be particularly useful at passive crossings not yet fitted with flashing lights.
Level crossings present a significant risk of collisions between trains and road vehicles. This list is not a definitive list of the world's worst accidents and the events listed are limited to those where a separate article describes the event in question.
Accident Deaths Country Year Langenweddingen level crossing disaster 94 Germany 1967  Nagpur level crossing disaster 55 India 2005  Marhanets train and bus collision 45 Ukraine 2010  Polgahawela level crossing accident 35 Sri Lanka 2005  Lake Balaton level crossing disaster, Siófok 33 Hungary 2003  Xirivella level crossing accident, Valencia 27 Spain 1980  Dorion level crossing accident 19 Canada 1966  2009 Slovak coach and train collision 12 Slovakia 2009  Bourbonnais train accident 11 United States 1999  Hixon rail crash 11 United Kingdom 1968  Glendale train crash 11 United States 2005  Kerang rail accident 11 Australia 2007  Lockington rail crash 9 United Kingdom 1986  Gerogery level crossing accident 5 Australia 2001  Fox River Grove level crossing accident 7 United States 1995  Ufton Nervet rail crash 7 United Kingdom 2004 
Crossings around the world
Level crossings in China, Thailand, and Malaysia are still largely manually-operated, where the barriers are lowered using a manual switch when trains approach. A significant number of crossings are without barriers. Railway electrification in Malaysia has gradually eliminated level crossings in Peninsular Malaysia, replacing those along nearly all upgraded lines with large overhead viaducts or deep underground tunnels, and simply cutting off non-essential crossings outright.
As most railways in Taiwan were built during Japanese administration, railway level crossings remain very common, though many urban crossings have been eliminated when the railroads have been moved underground, e.g., segments of the Western Line in Taipei City, or abolished, e.g. the former TRA Tamsui Line that is now the Taipei Metro Tamsui Line with no level crossings.
The Act Governing the Punishment of Violation of Road traffic Regulations (zh:道路交通管理處罰條例) defines three types of railway level crossing violations:
- Not obeying a direction of a flagman or insisting to cross when the gate starts lowering or when the bell rings or the lights flash is a violation for drivers of motorized and non-motorized vehicles and pedestrians.
- Directly crossing a railway level crossing not guarded by any flagman, gate, bell, or flashing light equipment without stopping as required when a warning sign is present is also a violation for drivers of motorized and non-motorized vehicles and pedestrians.
- Overtaking, making a U-turn, backing up, stopping or parking on a railway level crossing is a violation for drivers of motorized and non-motorized vehicles but not pedestrians.
The same Act provides different penalties against different types of railway level crossing violators as follows, with very heavy penalties against drivers of motorized vehicles and much lighter penalties against drivers of non-motorized vehicles and pedestrians:
- Article 54: A driver of a motor vehicle shall be administratively fined 6000 to 12000 new Taiwan dollars for a railway level crossing violation. Should an accident occur, the driver license shall also be revoked permanently according to Article 67. This lifetime revocation used to be absolute, but the amendment of the law proclaimed on 28 December 2005 and effective on 1 July 2006 has allowed a possible waiver after serving at least 6 years of the revocation.
- Article 75: A driver of a non-motorized vehicle (e.g., a bicycle) shall be administratively fined 1200 to 2400 New Taiwan dollars for a railway level crossing violation.
- Article 80: A pedestrian shall be administratively fined 1200 New Taiwan dollars for a railway level crossing violation.
Accidents at railway level crossings remain a very serious concern. The Taiwan Railway Administration alone has hundreds of level crossings along its routes of slightly more than 1100 km. In average, there is a level crossing in less than 2 km.
Red emergency buttons have been installed to allow the public to report an emergency at a level crossing, such as stalled vehicles or any obstacles that would be very dangerous should any train approach. However, willfully misusing the emergency button is a criminal offence. In an emergency, the public is asked to:
- First, press the button and be sure of its activation with a flashing light.
- Second, try to clear any obstacles, including any vehicles.
- Third, if unable to clear the obstacles and the warning bell rings, leave quickly. "A train is coming and please quickly leave the level crossing" will be announced in Mandarin, Taiwanese and Hakka.
At a level crossing, any overhead electric power cables must also cross. This led to a conflict where a mainline railway that crossed one of the country's once extensive interurban tramlines (vicinal or buurtspoorweg) was electrified. In at least one location, this led to the tram overhead being dismantled.
Automatic Level crossings in Belgium have two red lights, a "moon-white" light and (usually) barriers. However, the white flashes for half a second every certain number of seconds just to inform drivers and pedestrians that they can cross the level crossing, and that the signal is in working order. In some cases the white light is absent, but the Belgian law of Traffic of 1975 does not enforce anything special regarding that.
The cable-hauled section of the tramway up the hill from Trieste to Opicina has an interesting level crossing with a minor road at midpoint. As well as the rails, people crossing have to step or drive over two haulage cables, separated by wooden planking.
During 1998-2008 the Norwegian rail administration (Jernbaneverket) removed about 1000 level crossings, but thereafter, still about 3500 were in use. 160 km/h is maximum speed for trains over level crossings. In addition, Oslo's and Bergen's tram or light rail systems have some level crossings. Oslo's metro (T-banen) is free from them, and on the old suburban railways in the western parts of the city, the level crossings were removed when the lines were upgraded to metro standard.
In Sweden there are 8,500 level crossings, according to Trafikverket, the Swedish Transport Administration (former Banverket, Swedish Rail Administration). On public roads they have light signals with or without gates. On private roads there are level crossings without signals. Most accidents occur on crossings without gates. For many years there have been activities to reduce the number of accidents, usually by adding gates, or adding light signals if there were none. On the main lines many bridges have been built, and also anywhere a new road or new railway has been built. Still there are some level crossings left on the main lines. A train speed of 200 km/h is allowed in Sweden over level crossings, if there are gates and an obstacle detection unit. This unit detects cars on the track and prevents the gates from closing fully and stops the train. According to Trafikverket in 15 years there has only been one serious collision between a car and a train on such a level crossing, when a car ran through the gates just in front of the train.
In Finland, level crossings have dual light units that contain a daytime running light as well as the more common red lights. The tracks at all types of level crossings and of other warning devices are used only for pedestrian and bicycle lanes. Finland does not use full-length gate barriers because of the risk of a vehicle becoming trapped on the tracks between the barriers in the path of an oncoming train. Finnish level crossings are the sixth safest level crossings in Europe. Finland's state railway system has over 3,000 level crossings, according to TraFi. Finland is the whole of the railway`s history occurred during a lot of level crossing accidents, when the accident statistics are compared to other Scandinavian countries. In Finland, the maximum speed is 140km/h at the railways where is some level crossings.
There were 8,200 level crossings in the UK in 2005, of which, 1,600 were road crossings. This number is gradually being reduced as the risk of accident at level crossings is considered high. The director of the UK Railway Inspectorate commented in 2004 that "the use of level crossings contributes the greatest potential for catastrophic risk on the railways." Bridges and tunnels are now favoured, and there is a commitment on the part of UK rail authorities not to build new level crossings, and to reduce the number of existing level crossings. The cost of making significant reductions, other than by simply closing the crossings, is substantial; some commentators argue that the money could be better spent. Some 6500 crossings are user-worked crossings or footpaths with very low usage. The removal of crossings can also improve train performance as some crossings have low rail speed limits enforced on them to protect road users. In fact, between 1845 and 1933, a 4 mph speed limit was notionally in force over level crossings.
In the United Kingdom, major crossings were normally situated within easy viewing distance of a signal box, and usually directly adjacent to the signal box. This ensured that the signalman could verify that the road was clear before allowing a train onto the crossing. The traditional form of road crossing on British railways from the mid 19th century consisted of four wooden gates (two on each side of the railway). These prevented road traffic from crossing when closed and when open lay across the railway to prevent horses and livestock inadvertently escaping from the road to the railway. Many gated crossings have been replaced by lifting barriers, which are easier to mechanise. "Full barriers" consist of barriers each side of the track, which block the full width of the road and "half barriers" consist of a single arm each side of the road, which block only oncoming traffic. Half barriers were considered to have an advantage as motorists are less likely to be stranded on the crossing and unable to exit, but cases where impatient motorists have driven around the barriers have raised safety concerns. Video cameras are now often used at crossings to allow the human operator to be some distance from the crossing. On lightly used railways many crossings are sited next to station stops or other stopping points and are crew operated. The guard pushes a plunger to operate the crossing. On completion of the crossing sequence, an indicator light permits the train to proceed if the crossing is observed by the train driver to be clear. After the train has cleared the crossing, it re-opens to road traffic.
To ensure that the barriers are noticed and to draw attention, public road crossings may be fitted with a ringing warning bell or siren and with lights. Some crossings also have telephones which connect to the relevant signal box, so that in case of an emergency, or a large slow moving vehicle wanting to use the crossing, the signalman's attention can be drawn promptly to the hazard and action can be taken. Some "automatic open crossings", with warning lights and bells but no barriers, were introduced, but their expansion was largely halted after the Lockington rail crash. Some smaller crossings, particularly pedestrian crossings on low-speed lines consist of nothing but a warning sign and raised pathway across the track itself.
In November 2004 there were two major accidents on UK level crossings: one involved a car driver committing suicide, who caused the death of seven people (Ufton Nervet rail crash); another involving a train carrying 50 school children resulted in no fatalities but a number of injuries. These incidents have increased efforts to review the placing of level crossings and to eliminate them where this is practicable. In the UK it has also been suggested that cameras similar to the type used to detect drivers who run traffic lights be deployed at level crossings, and that penalties for ignoring signals should be much more severe. British Transport Police typically prosecute motorists who jump the barriers with either trespass or failing to conform with a traffic signal. A particular problem has been that the responsibility for the road safety at crossings is entirely outside the control of the railways. In 2006 legislative activities are in progress to permit Network Rail to be involved in the road side safety of crossings. This will allow the introduction of anti-slip surfaces and also barriers to prevent motorists driving around crossing arms and, it is hoped, reduce the number of crossing related deaths.
The use of pedestrian crossings at stations is now rare in more modern countries, although historically it was common that passengers walked across the line between platforms. It is still common in many countries, or on lines with less traffic.
At Settle, for example, before the footbridge was installed in the 1990s, the time taken while passengers from Leeds walked across the line was happily used to top up the driver's kettle with hot water. With a few exceptions, such as at Carmarthen, the remaining examples occur only on heritage railways or as a means for passengers who cannot climb stairs to move between platforms where the only other route is a footbridge.
For the episode of British motoring television programme Top Gear on 25 February 2007, Network Rail staged an incident in which a locomotive was driven into a Renault Espace at around 80 mph to graphically illustrate the dangers of "running the risk" (see British Rail Class 31 in the media).
The idea of 'modular' level crossing barriers were a consideration by Network Rail when they introduced a new modular building system in 2008. The term 'modular' meaning they can be assembled and erected into place in a mere matter of hours.
Grade crossing protection practices in Canada are virtually identical to those in the United States (see below) using the same alternating flashing red lights and gate arms. The only significant differences are the crossbuck signs, which have no wording but are white with a red outline, and the advance-warning sign, which is a yellow diamond shape with a diagram of a track crossing a straight segment of road (similar to a crossroads sign, except that the horizontal road is replaced by a track). Before changes in regulations mandated bilingual (English and French) or no-wording signs, crossbucks were nearly identical to those in the States, except that they read "Railway Crossing" instead of "Railroad Crossing." The red lights also flash a little faster than in the United States.
In the United States and in countries following United States practices, a locomotive must have a bright headlight and ditch lights (two lights located below the headlight), a working bell, and a whistle or horn that must be sounded four times (long-long-short-long), similar to the signal for the International Morse Code letter "Q", as the train approaches the crossing.
Some American cities, in the interest of noise abatement, have passed laws prohibiting the sounding of bells and whistles; however, their ability to enforce such rules is debatable. In December 2003, the U.S. Federal Railroad Administration published regulations that would create areas where train horns could be silenced, provided that certain safety measures were put in place, such as concrete barriers preventing drivers from circumventing the gates or automatic whistles (also called wayside horns) mounted at the crossing (which reduce noise pollution to nearby neighborhoods). Implementation of the new "Quiet Zone" Final Rule was delayed repeatedly but was finally implemented in the summer of 2005. Rail "Quiet Zone" crossings still require bells as part of the automatic warning devices (AWDs) in addition to the wayside horns. The wayside horns usually are sets of speakers that are directed at the crossing mounted right up on a pole. These audible devices are not similar to a train horn.
Every crossing, whether above grade, below grade, or at grade, is required to be assigned a unique identifier which is a six-digit number and a trailing letter used as a checksum. This identifier is called a Grade Crossing Number, and is usually posted with a sign or sticker on the sign or equipment. This allows a particular crossing anywhere in the United States to be precisely identified as to its exact location in the event of an incident involving that crossing.
All public crossings in the United States are required to be marked by at least a crossbuck; most crossings intersecting rural roads have this setup. If the crossing has more than one railroad track, the crossbuck will usually have a small sign beneath it denoting the number of tracks. As traffic on the road crossing or the rail crossing increases, safety features are increased accordingly. More heavily trafficked crossings have AWDs, with alternately flashing red lights to warn automobile drivers and a bell to warn pedestrians. Additional safety is attained through crossing gates that block automobiles' approach to the tracks when activated. Increasingly, crossings are being fitted with four-quadrant gates to prevent circumventing the gates.
Operation of a typical AWD-equipped railroad crossing in the United States is as follows:
- Approximately 30 seconds before arriving at the crossing, the train trips a track circuit near the crossing, triggering the crossing signals. The lights begin to flash alternately, and a bell (or bells) mounted at the crossing begins ringing. After several seconds of flashing lights and ringing bells, the crossing gates (if equipped) begin to lower, which usually takes 5–10 seconds. Some AWDs will silence the bell once the gates are fully lowered (typically seen on most Norfolk Southern and CSX crossings); most continue ringing the bells throughout (Union Pacific, BNSF Railway). The lights continue to flash throughout regardless.
- Approximately 15 to 20 seconds before arriving at the crossing, the train begins ringing its bell and sounding its horn in accordance with NORAC rule 14L or GCOR rule 5.8.2(7): two longs, one short, and one long. These are prolonged or repeated until the engine occupies the crossing. If the AWD is equipped with a horn in accordance with FRA Quiet Zone rules, the AWD may provide the whistle signal instead of the train; however, the train is required to ring its bell regardless.
- After the train has cleared the crossing, the bells (if silenced) may begin ringing again( such as the Florida East Coast Railway), and the gates (if equipped) begin to rise. Once the gates have completely risen back to their fully raised position, all warning signals, including the lights and bells, are deactivated.
Some AWD track circuits are equipped with motion detectors that will deactivate the crossing signal if the train stops or slows significantly before arriving at the crossing.
As indicated above, the pattern of the bells at each individual crossing can be different. (These bells should not be confused with the bells that are mounted on the trains.) Generally, the bells follow one of these patterns:
- The bell begins ringing when the lights begin flashing and stops when the gates have completely lowered.
- The bell begins ringing when the lights begin flashing and stops when the gates begin to go up following the passing of the train.
- The bell begins ringing when the lights begin flashing and stops when the gates have completely lowered, and then resums ringing when the gates begin to go up, until the gates have returned to their original position.
- The final, and most common, practice is for the bells to begin ringing when the lights begin flashing and continue till the gates have gone up after the train passes.
Some level crossings that are located too close to intersections with traffic lights will program the signals so when the approaching train trips the track circuit, it not only activates the crossing signals, but also changes the traffic lights facing the crossing to red. Some track circuits place the signals into flash mode the entire time the AWDs are active.
In cases where railroads share the right of way with vehicular traffic, simple railroad preemption may cause an all-red flash in traffic lights.
A few level crossings still use wigwag signals, which were developed in the early 1900s by the Pacific Electric Railway interurban system in the Los Angeles region to protect its many level crossings. Though now considered to be antique, around 100 such signals are still in use, almost all on branch lines. By law, these signals must be replaced by the now-standard alternating red lights when they are retired.
U.S. Federal Railroad Administration regulations restrict trains to a maximum speed of 110 mph (177 km/h) at standard grade crossings. Crossings are permitted up to 125 mph (201 km/h) only if an "impenetrable barrier" is in place to block traffic when a train approaches. Crossings are prohibited at speeds in excess of 125 mph (201 km/h).
A track that will run high-speed trains in excess of 120 mph (193 km/h) is being tested in Illinois between Chicago and St. Louis, Missouri. Here, due to the high speed of the trains, gates that totally prevent road traffic from reaching the tracks are mandatory on all level crossings. Steel mesh nets were tested on some crossings to further prevent collisions, but these were removed because of maintenance issues in 2001.
A new device called "StopGate" has been installed at four locations, one in Madison, Wisconsin; another in Monroe, Wisconsin and two in Santa Clara, California (on a light rail system). This system resembles a fortified version of a standard crossing gate, with two larger arms blocking the entire width of the roadway and locking into a securing device on the side of the road opposite the gate pivot mechanism. The gate arms are reinforced with high-strength steel cable, which helps the gate absorb the impact of a vehicle attempting to crash through the gate. The manufacturer claims that the StopGate can arrest a 2,000 kg (4,400 lb) truck within 13 feet (four meters). Already the system has been tested at the Madison crossing, when the system stopped a truck while a Wisconsin and Southern Railroad train was in the crossing.
Another new type of barrier is being tested in Michigan that is hoped will reduce the number of times drivers attempt to drive around lowered crossing gates. The new devices are called "delineators" consisting of a series of flexible bollards that raise vertically out of vertical tubes in the pavement when the crossing signal is activated. The delineators are designed so that they will not be broken and will not damage vehicles if they are hit, allowing vehicles to exit the level crossing if they are already within it when the gates are activated. The test period for the new barrier began on 5 December 2007, and will run for a period of 17 months.
Australian railways generally follow United States practices, and they have increasingly been employing American-made crossing warning equipment, such as grade crossing predictors, which are able to provide a consistent amount of warning time for trains of widely varying speeds.
One recent innovation in Australia is to provide crossbucks with a pair of flashing yellow lights at a distance of say 200m from the level crossing itself, particularly where there are curves and visibility problems on the road. These are called Advance Active Warning Signals.
In Melbourne, Australia, there are several level crossings where electrified train tracks cross roads with electrified tram tracks. These crossings are fitted with equipment to change the voltage supplied to the overhead wiring depending on the vehicle using the crossing at that point in time. Trains are severely speed-limited across these intersections.
Although all cases where a train line crosses a road are level crossings whether or not they are signed, a tram track in its own right of way crossing a road can also be a level crossing if it is signed with a crossbuck which can read either "TRAM WAY CROSSING" or "RAIL WAY CROSSING". Otherwise, it is a regular intersection and usually has either traffic lights or a give way sign facing the road (see Gallery).
There are 1390 public road level crossings in New Zealand. Of those, 290 crossings are protected by flashing red lights, bells and half-arm barriers, and 430 are protected by flashing red lights and bells only. The remainder are controlled by Stop and Give Way signs. Level crossings are the responsibility of rail infrastructure owner ONTRACK, the New Zealand Transport Agency, and if the crossing is on a local road, the local city or district council.
On the Taieri Gorge line and the Hokitika Branch, in rural South Island, New Zealand, roads and railways share the same bridge when crossing a river, with the rail line in the road. Motorists, as well as giving way to oncoming traffic if required (the bridges have one lane) must ensure that the bridge is clear of a train, end to end, before starting to cross the bridge. For safety, trains are limited to 10 km/h (6 mph) while crossing the bridges.
A unique level crossing exist near Gisborne, in which the Palmerston North - Gisborne Line crosses one of Gisborne Airport's runways. Aircraft landing on sealed 1310-metre runway 14L/32R are signalled with two red flashing lights on either side of the runway and a horizontal bar of flashing red lights to indicate the runway south of the railway line is closed, and may only land on the 866 m section of the runway north of the railway line. When the full length of the runway is open, a vertical bar of green lights signal to the aircraft, with regular rail signals on either side of the runway indicating trains to stop.
Level crossing safety in New Zealand is relatively poor, with 85 level crossing deaths in the past five years. One of the most notable level crossing accidents occurred in August 1993, when a southbound Southerner passenger train hit a cement mixer at a level crossing at Rolleston, near Christchurch. The accident resulted in three deaths, including Louise Cairns, sister of New Zealand international cricketer Chris Cairns.
Bishton level crossing in Wales is unusual in that it is partly replaced by an underpass for low clearance cars, leaving the level crossing for high clearance trucks. There are many similar crossings on the line between London Liverpool Street and King's Lynn (built by the Great Eastern Railway Company), including at Ely and Great Chesterford, and also near Cambridge Science Park on the former line to St Ives. The level crossing at Manningtree station in Essex also features this set-up.
A new Finnish warning sign at Loimaa. It is inexpensive and intended for low-traffic roads.
A railroad crossing in Belton, Missouri, with only the crossbuck, flashing lights, and warning bell
A fence or chicane may prevent pedestrians running across the track.
Level crossing in Katori, Chiba, Japan
A grade crossing with road gates. Some level crossings, such as this one in Acton, Massachusetts, are also equipped with sidewalk gates.
An un-gated pedestrian crossing west of the station in Islip, New York
A level crossing with flashing lights but no barriers on the Tyne and Wear Metro, England
A level crossing in Vancouver, BC, where there are trolley wires above the roadway
- At-grade intersection
- Automatic full barriers
- Billups Neon Crossing Signal
- Boom barrier
- Eugene Patrick Prendergast
- Four-quadrant gate
- Grade separation
- Category:Level crossing accidents
- Whistle post
- Lists of rail accidents
- Level Crossings by Stanley Hall and Peter van der Mark - Ian Allan Publishing ISBN 978-0711033085
- ^ Rivanna Chapter, National Railway Historical Society (2005). "This Month in Railroad History: August". http://avenue.org/nrhs/histaug.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-25.
- ^ http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2007/06/26/1961911.htm
- ^ "Post A Comment". http://blogs.theaustralian.news.com.au/yoursay/index.php/theaustralian/comments/an_unsafe_system/asc/P75.
- ^ Ukraine train and bus collision kills 42, 
- ^ Busunfall in Ungarn, . Retrieved April 26, 2011.
- ^ Europe's history of rail disasters, . Retrieved April 26, 2011.
- ^ Treinta años de la tragedia en el paso a nivel, . Retrieved Decembre 1, 2010.
- ^ "Slovak bus-rail crash 'kills 11'". BBC. 2009-02-21. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7903166.stm. Retrieved 2009-02-21.
- ^ WMAQ TV Chicago (September 28, 2004), Driver Sentenced In Deadly Amtrak Crash. Retrieved January 19, 2006.
- ^ Ministry of Transport (1968). Report of the Public Inquiry into the Accident at Hixon Level Crossing on January 6, 1968. HMSO. ISBN 0-10-137060-1. http://www.railwaysarchive.co.uk/docSummary.php?docID=74.
- ^ Simmons, Ann M. (2008-08-21). "Metrolink killer is sentenced to 11 life terms in prison". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-metrolink21-2008aug21,0,680687.story. Retrieved 2008-08-21.
- ^ Oakes, Dan; Doherty, Ben, Webb, Carolyn, Guerrera, Orietta (2007-06-05). "11 die in train crash". The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/six-dead-in-train-crash/2007/06/05/1180809490082.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2007-06-06.
- ^ British Railway Disasters. Ian Allan. 1996. ISBN 0-7110-2470-7.
- ^ Joseph Kerr (May 14, 2004). "Riding a slow train to nowhere". Sydney Morning Herald (smh.com.au). http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/05/13/1084289819358.html. Retrieved 2008-08-11.
- ^ "Driver says light did not turn green - October 27, 1995". CNN. October 27, 1995. http://www.cnn.com/US/9510/bus_crash/10-27/. Retrieved 2008-11-19.
- ^ "Seven train crash dead are named". BBC News. 2004-11-08. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/3992537.stm. Retrieved 2010-03-30.
- ^ Statistics of level crossings, Taiwan Railway Administration, 2002 (Chinese)
- ^ Statistics of level crossings, Taiwan Railway Administration, 2005 (Chinese)
- ^ Level crossing emergency button, Taiwan Railway Administration, (Chinese)
- ^ http://www.jernbaneverket.no/no/Sikkerhet/Planovergangar/Der-vei-krysser-jernbane/, in Norwegian
- ^ http://www.trafikverket.se/PageFiles/10137/Kartlaggning_av_plankorsningar_2006.pdf Kartläggning av plankorsningar, kap 9.4 (Swedish)
- ^ http://www.ammattilehti.fi/uutiset.html?a2200=403 (Finnish)
- ^ http://www.trafi.fi/rautatiet/tasoristeysturvallisuus/tasoristeysten_maara (Finnish)
- ^ http://www.liikenneturva.fi/tietolehti/2010/pdf/tasoristeys.pdf (Finnish)
- ^ "New Summary: Automatic "Gates" Britain's first automatically operated level crossing barriers are now in operation at Spath Level Crossing near Uttoxeter. The barriers, electronically operated by an approaching train, consist of a single pole fixed each side of the road only, and are conspicuously marked with red and white bands. Additional warning is given by flashing red lights and gongs.". Practical Motorist 7 (nbr 81): 957. May 1961.
- ^ BBC report on Ufton Nervet rail crash
- ^ Railways Clauses Consolidation Act 1845, s.48
- ^ Attorney General v London & North Western Railway Co  1 QB 78
- ^ The requirement that trains travel at 4mph across level crossings was abolished by the Road and Rail Traffic Act 1933, Sch 3.
- ^ Goodman, Michael (1977). "Railways in the Law Reports". Trent Law Journal 1 (1): 47. http://www.ntu.ac.uk/research/school_research/nls/clr/journal/pdf/80392.pdf.
- ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F9Jk2m9hi2U
- ^ High-Speed Grade Crossings, Federal Railroad Administration
- ^ Mulcahy, John (2007-12-06). "Railroad barrier put to the test". Ann Arbor News. http://www.mlive.com/news/annarbornews/index.ssf?/base/news-25/1196953912227620.xml&coll=2. Retrieved 2007-12-07.
- ^ Helms, Matt (2007-12-06). "Railroad crossing in Wayne Co. to test new technology". Detroit Free Press. http://www.freep.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20071206/NEWS10/71206013/1035/RSS04. Retrieved 2007-12-07. [dead link]
- ^ "Level Crossing Safety: New Zealand Railways Corporation". Archived from the original on 2008-03-24. http://web.archive.org/web/20080324204301/http://www.ontrack.govt.nz/PublicSafety/LevelCrossingSafety/tabid/63/Default.aspx. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
- ^ "Gisborne (NZGS) aerodrome diagram". Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand. 2009-09-24. http://www.aip.net.nz/pdf/NZGS_51.1_51.2.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-04.
- ^ "Gisborne (NZGS) Operational Signal Lights". Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand. 2003-09-04. http://www.aip.net.nz/pdf/NZGS_46.1.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-04.
- Cost-effective Systems for Railway Level-Crossing Protection from the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
- Train horn rule at the US Federal Railroad Administration
- Part 8. Traffic Controls for Highway-Rail Grade Crossings of the U.S. Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices
- Fatal example of crossings danger - News story from the BBC on a 2004 accident in which 7 people died.
- Level Crossing Strategy Council - New South Wales, Australia.
- Level Crossing News - News and updates of level crossing incidents in the UK.
- Level Crossing 2008 - 10th World Level Crossing Symposium Safety and Trespass Prevention - From 2008-06-24 to 2008-06-27, PARIS.
- Solagard Solar-powered radio-controlled level crossing warning system
- HiRAiL Rubber Grade Crossing Systems
- The life of a gate keeper on an Indian-rail village crossing
Railway infrastructure Permanent way Trackwork and track structures Signalling and safety Buildings Railway signalling Block systems Signalling control Signals Train detection Train protectionAutomatic Train Control • Automatic Train Protection • Automatic Warning System • Automatische treinbeïnvloeding • Balise • Catch points • Chinese Train Control System • Continuous Automatic Warning System • Contrôle de vitesse par balises • EBICAB • Integra-Signum • Interoperable Communications Based Signaling • Le Crocodile • Linienzugbeeinflussung • Pulse code cab signaling • Punktförmige Zugbeeinflussung • RS4 Codici • Sistema Controllo Marcia Treno • Slide fence • Train Automatic Stopping Controller • Train Protection & Warning System • Train stop • Transmission Voie-Machine • Level crossing Organisations By country
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