- King's Lynn
Infobox UK place
static_image_caption=The Customs House
country = England
latitude = 52.7543
longitude = 0.3976
official_name = King's Lynn
population = 34,564 (2001 Census)
King's Lynn and West Norfolk
region = East of England
constituency_westminster = North West Norfolk
post_town = KING'S LYNN
postcode_district = PE30
postcode_area = PE
dial_code = 01553
os_grid_reference = TF619201
area_total_sq_mi = 10.97
local_name = Lynn
King's Lynn is a town and
portin Norfolk, England. Over the years, the town has been known variously as Bishop's Lynn and Lynn Regis, while it is occasionally referred to by locals as simply Lynn, the Celtic word for lake.
King's Lynn is the third largest settlement in Norfolk after the city of
Norwichand the town of Great Yarmouth. Sandringham House, the Norfolk residence of the British Royal Family, is convert|6|mi|km|1 north-east of King's Lynn.
While it is believed there has been some form of habitation at King's Lynn for well over a thousand years, it was not until St Margaret's Church was founded in 1101 by Bishop Herbert de Losinga that the town started appearing on records. The town would originally have been named something like Llyn, after the Brythonic (Celtic) for 'lake'. Later, it acquired the prefix 'Bishop's' as the town was part of the manor of the
Bishop of Norwichin the 12th century.By the 14th century, the town ranked as the third port of England– and is considered as important to England in Medieval times as Liverpool was during the Industrial Revolution. It retains two buildings that were warehouses of the Hanseatic Leaguethat were in use between the 15th and 17th centuries. They are the only remaining building structures of the Hanseatic league in England.
When Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries in 1538, the town and manor became royal property. As a result, the town became renamed King's Lynn and Lynn Regis; it was King's Lynn which stuck. The town became prosperous from the 17th century through the export of corn; the fine Customs House was built in 1683 to the designs of local architect Henry Bell. In 1708 an 11-year-old girl and her 7-year-old brother were convicted of theft of a loaf of bread in King's Lynn and sentenced to death by hangingFact|date=June 2007, a sentence which was carried out publicly from the South Gates of the town to make an example out of them. At the time of the hangings Sir Robert Walpole was member of parliament for King's Lynn.
The town went into decline after this period, and was only rescued by the relatively late arrival of railway services in 1847 – with services mainly provided by the
Great Eastern Railway(subsequently London and North Eastern Railway) and its fore-runners, and by the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway, which had its headquarters in the town at Austin Street, and an important station at South Lynn (now dismantled) which was also its operational control centre. Lynn had the misfortune of being one of the first towns in Great Britain to be bombedfrom the air by a Zeppelinin 1915, the Savage's Iron Works, where aeroplaneparts where being made, being the target.
In the post-Second World War period, King's Lynn was designated a London Expansion Town and its population roughly doubled as thousands of people were relocated from the capital.
In 2006 King's Lynn formally became Great Britain's first member of Die Hanse – the modern-day equivalent of the
Hanseatic League. [cite web| url=http://www.west-norfolk.gov.uk/default.aspx?page=23286 |title=Kings Lynn, a Hanse League Member|publisher= King's Lynn and West Norfolk Borough Council Website |accessdate=2007-01-15]
The unparished urban area that makes up the town of King's Lynn has an area of convert|10.97|sqmi|km2|2 and in the 2001 census had a population of 34,564 in 15,285 households. It is the main town in the larger district of
King's Lynn and West Norfolk. [cite web| publisher=Office for National Statistics & Norfolk County Council |year=2001 |url=http://www.norfolk.gov.uk/consumption/groups/public/documents/general_resources/ncc017867.xls |title=Census population and household counts for unparished urban areas and all parishes |format=Excel |accessdate=2005-12-02]
King's Lynn is mainly on the east bank of the
River Great Ouseclose to where it flows into the Wash, 35 miles (55 km) north-east of Peterborough, 44 miles (70 km) west of Norwich, and the same distance north of Cambridge. Londonlies about 112 miles (180 km) to the south. [cite book| publisher=Ordnance Survey |year=2002 |title=OS Explorer Map 250 - Norfolk Coast West |isbn=0-319-21886-4] [cite book| publisher=Ordnance Survey |year=1999 |title=OS Explorer Map 236 - King's Lynn, Downham Market & Swaffham |isbn=0-319-21867-8] The Great Ouse at Lynn is about convert|200|m|yd|-1 wide and the outfall for much of the drainage system created the Fens (systematically drained from the seventeenth century onwards). It flows into the Wash, a bleak landscape of saltmarsh, shifting sandbanks and tidal flows. The much smaller Gaywood Riveralso flows through the town, joining the Great Ouse at the southern end of South Quay close to the town centre.
In the town centre, the Guildhall (1421) and the Town Hall (1895) are King's Lynn's most impressive secular buildings, built with flint-chequered facades, and adjacent to the Saturday Market Place (the original hub of the town). It also has three impressive churches: All Saints' Church, St. Margaret's (also on the Saturday Market Place) and St Nicholas' Chapel — the latter built close to the newer Tuesday Market Place, at the heart of a massive Georgian expansion and one of the finest public squares in England. The roads connecting the two markets contain many fine historic buildings, and run parallel to the quays that lined the
River Great Ouse(now largely superseded by docks).
In 1987, the town became the first in the UK to install town centre CCTV (though
Bournemouthhad previously used CCTV in non-central locations). The single most numerous crime prosecuted as a result of this comprehensive system is men urinating in public on their way home at night from pubs.
Currently huge plans are under way to regenerate the entire town. King's Lynn has undergone a multi-million pound regeneration scheme. In 2005 the Vancouver Shopping Centre, originally built in the 1960s, was refurbished as part of the town centre regeneration project (which is planned for 'further' extension) which also saw a new £6 million multi-storey car park built, which has won several awardsFact|date=February 2008. And to the south of town a huge swathe of brown-field land is being transformed into a housing development (including contemporary apartments lining the
River Nar), a business park, parkland, a school, shops and a new relief road in a £300 million+ scheme. The town's college will also be moving to this area (at a cost of £100 million) along with a possible Anglia Ruskin Universitycampus. A 250-berth marina, surrounded by apartments, hotel, shops, bars and restaurants is also planned.
Industry and commerce
King's Lynn has always been a centre for the fishing and seafood industry (especially inshore prawns, shrimps and cockles). There have also been
glass-making and small-scale engineering works (many fairground and steam engines were built here), and today it is still the location for much agricultural-related industry including food processing. There are a number of chemical factories and the town retains a role as an import centre. It is a regional centre for what is still a sparsely populated part of England.
King's Lynn railway stationis the terminus of the Fen Line, and gives connections to Ely, Cambridgeand London King's Cross. It is the only remaining station of several the town once boasted.
The town is connected to the local cities of Norwich and Peterborough via the A47 and to Cambridge via the A10.
The town has three secondary schools, educating students from the town and the surrounding areas: [http://www.keshigh.co.uk/home.php King Edward VII High School] ,
The Park High Schooland [http://www.springwood.norfolk.sch.uk/ Springwood High School] . There is also The College of West Anglia (the largest further education campus in town).
The "Lynn News" is the local newspaper which is published twice a week, while the biggest selling regional morning newspaper in the country, the Eastern Daily Press, publishes a West and Fens edition daily from its district office in King's Lynn High Street.
KL.FM 96.7is the local commercial radio station.
The town holds two festivals each summer, King's Lynn Festival and Festival Too. The latter is one of the top three largest free music festivals in Europe and is held on Tuesday Market Place: it has attracted crowds of more than 12,000. Past performers include Midge Ure, Wizzard, Deacon Blue, Suzi Quatro, Gerry and The Pacemakers,10CC, Mungo Jerry, The Human League, The Buzzcocks, M People and Atomic Kitten. The King's Lynn Festival is primarily classical music; it is held in historic venues throughout town, and attracts big names from orchestras to opera and stage-plays. There are also literature and poetry festivals. The Guildhall stages many events and Shakespeare's company may have performed there.
Every year on St Valentine's Day, a travelling funfair called The Mart sets up in Tuesday Market Place for roughly a fortnight, after which it moves to other towns. Traditionally, this is the first funfair in the Showmen's calendar where new rides are tried and favourites brought out from winter storage. 500 years ago, Lynn had two marts and these were important trading fairs which would attract visitors from as far afield as Italy and Germany. Over the years trading fairs became less important and the Mart changed from a trading to a funfair. It also became annual. Also upon the Tuesday Market Place, the town holds several Vehicle Shows where the local car dealers display.
There are two cinemas in the town centre, the bigger the Majestic Cinema – a lovely building, which has been refurbished in the last few years. The Majestic had been the butt of jokes on the
Scott Millsshow on BBC Radio 1 due to an excited telephone voice recording. However the King's Lynn Arts Centre also shows films and performances, it is one of the Festival Too venues during the summer months.
The town centre has a large park (grade II listed - established in the 1700s) called
The Walks. The town centre has a variety of pubs as well as three nightclubs, Heights, Zoots and Chicago's.
King's Lynn F.C.football club (nicknamed "The Linnets") is in the Conference North. Its ground is The Walks football ground on Tennyson Road.
King's Lynn also has a
motorcycle speedwayteam, the King's Lynn Stars, who race at the Norfolk Arena on Saddlebow Road. The track has operated since 1965 when it operated on an open licence. Speedway type events were staged at the stadium in the 1950s.
The successful basketball team
College of West Anglia Fury, who compete in the second-tier English Basketball League, is also based in King's Lynn.
References in popular culture
King's Lynn is referred to in the film "
The Eagle Has Landed".
The town has appeared in the 1943 film,
The Silver Fleet
King's Lynn appeared on the
Channel 4TV Ramsay's Kitchen Nightmaresas the featured restaurant – "The Rococo" – is on the town's Saturday Marketplace. The restaurant was renamed "Maggie's" during filming, in reference to St. Margaret's Church – which is also on the marketplace. The restaurant, Maggie's, has since closed her doors (April 8, 2008), and will be replaced by an Italian restaurant and coffee bar.
King's Lynn is the subject of a song by British based DJ,
The Greyfriars Tower was featured in the first season of the
BBCTV series Restoration [cite web|title=Restoration - Series 1| url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/programmes/restoration/2003/#greyfriarstower |publisher=BBC |accessdate=2007-01-15] for the Eastern region. While the tower won its regional and proceeded to the national final, the contest was won by the Victoria Bathsin Manchester.
ITVSherlock Holmes series, the area around Purfleet Quay was used in "The Man with the Twisted Lip".
* Emmerich in western
Mláda Boleslav, Czech Republic
Notable current and former residents of King's Lynn include:
Somerset Arthur MaxwellMP for kings Lynn, WW2 soldier and Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for War. Died during the African campaign.
Eugene Aram. 18th century "Usher", namely Assistant Master at the Grammar School: murderer and subject of poem by Thomas Hood.
Robert Armin. 17th century clown of Lord Chamberlain's Men, generally credited with such roles as Touchstone, Feste, and the Fool in King Lear
Thomas Baines. 19th century artistand explorer.
Martin Brundle. 20th century Formula One driver and sports commentator.
Fanny Burney. 19th century novelistand diarist.
Ruth, Lady Fermoy. Founder of the Kings Lynn Festival of the Arts, Lady in Waiting to HM Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother (also grandmother of Diana, Princess of Wales)
Stephen Fry20th century English comedian, actor, author and film maker. Owns a house in West Bilney, outside King's Lynn. He also attended the College of West Anglia in the town.
Margery Kempe. 15th century author.
* Roger Taylor. 20th century
drummerand vocalist with rock band Queen.
Peter Parfitt. 20th century Test cricketer.
Diana, Princess of Wales20th century attendee of a primary school in King's Lynn.
Adam Thoroughgood. 17th century emigrant to the Virginia Colony in America as an indentured servant, later rising to major landholder in the colony.
George Vancouver. 18th century naval officer and explorer, gave his name to Vancouver Islandand the city of Vancouver. (Birthplace.)
Robert Walpole. 18th century statesman, Member of Parliamentfor King's Lynn.
George William Manby. 19th century inventor of the lifesaving rocket apparatus used until recently by HM Coastguardto pass line and breeches buoy to wrecked ships.
* See King's Lynn Festival for details of its history and the role of Lady Fermoy
Buildings in King's Lynn
Kings Lynn Power Station
King's Lynn Docks
* [http://www.kingslynndirectory.co.uk/gallery/c1.html Images & Photographs of King's Lynn]
* [http://www.allsaintskingslynn.org.uk Medieval Church of All Saints, King's Lynn]
* [http://www.randomperspective.com/kingslynn/pol/ A website with a vast catalogue of photographs and information on King's Lynn taken in 2002] oscoor gbx|TF617199.
* [http://www.origins.org.uk/genuki/NFK/places/k/kings_lynn/ Information from Genuki Norfolk] on King's Lynn.
* [http://www.trytel.com/~tristan/towns/lynn1.html History of medieval Lynn]
* [http://www.abports.co.uk/custinfo/ports/kings.htm Port of King's Lynn]
* [http://www.out-and-about.org.uk Out & About – volunteer to help disabled kids in Kings Lynn]
* [http://www.thelinnets.co.uk/ The Linnets, King's Lynn Football Club]
* [http://www.kingslynnonline.com King's Lynn Online] News, pictures, events, community
* [http://www.lynnnews.co.uk Lynn News]
* [http://www.thingstodoinnorfolk.co.uk/norfolk/westernnorfolk/kingslynn/ Details of things to do in King's Lynn with photos]
* [http://www.norfolkcoast.co.uk/location_norfolk/vp_kingslynn.htm Photographs and more details about Kings Lynn]
* [http://www.west-norfolk.gov.uk Borough Council of King's Lynn and West Norfolk]
* [http://www.visitdawn.com Data about King's Lynn and West Norfolk]
* [http://www.wnp.org.uk The West Norfolk Partnership]
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