Dartmouth College

Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College
Latin: Collegium Dartmuthensis
Motto Vox clamantis in deserto
Motto in English The voice of one crying in the wilderness
Established December 13, 1769 (1769-12-13) (241 years ago)
Type Private
Endowment USD$3.413 billion (As of June 30, 2011)[1]
President Jim Yong Kim
Academic staff 607[2] (995 including non-tenure-track)
Undergraduates 4,196[3]
Postgraduates 1,791[3]
Location United States Hanover, New Hampshire, U.S.
43°42′12″N 72°17′18″W / 43.70333°N 72.28833°W / 43.70333; -72.28833Coordinates: 43°42′12″N 72°17′18″W / 43.70333°N 72.28833°W / 43.70333; -72.28833

Rural, Total 31,869 acres (128.97 km2)

269 acres (1.09 km2), Hanover campus

4,600 acres (19 km2), Mount Moosilauke

27,000 acres (110 km2), Second College Grant
Colors Dartmouth green      [4]
Athletics NCAA Division I, Ivy League
34 varsity teams
Nickname Big Green
Mascot Indian,[5] Keggy the Keg,[6] and Dartmouth Moose[7] (all unofficial)
Affiliations University of the Arctic, Matariki Network of Universities
Website Dartmouth.edu
Dartmouth Logo SN.png

Dartmouth College (often referred to as Dartmouth play /ˈdɑrtməθ/ dart-məth) is a private, Ivy League university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. The institution comprises a liberal arts college, Dartmouth Medical School, Thayer School of Engineering, and the Tuck School of Business, as well as 19 graduate programs in the arts and sciences.[8] Incorporated as "Trustees of Dartmouth College,"[9][10] it is one of the nine Colonial Colleges founded before the American Revolution.[11] With an undergraduate enrollment of 4,196 and a total student enrollment of 5,987, Dartmouth is the smallest school in the Ivy League.[3]

Dartmouth College was established in 1769 by Congregational minister Eleazar Wheelock. After a long period of financial and political struggles, Dartmouth emerged in the early 20th century from relative obscurity.[12] Dartmouth alumni, from Daniel Webster to the many donors in the 19th and 20th centuries, have been famously involved in their college.[13]

Dartmouth is located on a rural 269 acres (1.09 km2) campus in the Upper Valley region of New Hampshire. Given the College's isolated location, participation in athletics and the school's Greek system is high.[14] Dartmouth's 34 varsity sports teams compete in the Ivy League conference of the NCAA Division I. Students are well known for preserving a variety of strong campus traditions.[15][16][17][18]



Dartmouth was founded by Eleazar Wheelock, a Puritan minister from Columbia, Connecticut, who had previously sought to establish a school to train Native Americans as missionaries. Wheelock's ostensible inspiration for such an establishment largely resulted from his relationship with Mohegan Indian Samson Occom. Occom became an ordained minister after studying under Wheelock from 1743 to 1747, and later moved to Long Island to preach to the Montauks.[19]

Wheelock founded Moor's Indian Charity School in 1755.[20] The Charity School proved somewhat successful, but additional funding was necessary to continue school’s operations, and Wheelock sought the help of friends to raise money. Occom, accompanied by Reverend Nathaniel Whitaker, traveled to England in 1766 to raise money from churches. With these funds, they established a trust to help Wheelock.[19] The head of the trust was a Methodist named William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth.

The Charter of Dartmouth College on display in Baker Memorial Library. The Charter was signed on December 13, 1769, on behalf of King George III of Great Britain.

Although the fund provided Wheelock ample financial support for the Charity School, Wheelock had trouble recruiting Indians to the institution, primarily because its location was far from tribal territories. In seeking to expand the school into a college, Wheelock relocated it to Hanover, in the Province of New Hampshire. The move from Connecticut followed a lengthy and sometimes frustrating effort to find resources and secure a charter. The Royal Governor of New Hampshire, John Wentworth, provided the land upon which Dartmouth would be built and on December 13, 1769, issued the charter in the name of King George III establishing the College. That charter created a college "for the education and instruction of Youth of the Indian Tribes in this Land ... and also of English Youth and any others." The reference to educating Native American youth was included to connect Dartmouth to the Charity School and enable use of the Charity School's unspent trust funds. Named for William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth — an important supporter of Eleazar Wheelock's earlier efforts but who, in fact, opposed creation of the College and never donated to it — Dartmouth is the nation's ninth oldest college and the last institution of higher learning established under Colonial rule.[21] The College granted its first degrees in 1771 .[22]

Given the limited success of the Charity School, however, Wheelock intended his new College as one primarily for whites.[19][23] Occom, disappointed with Wheelock's departure from the school's original goal of Indian Christianization, went on to form his own community of New England Indians called Brothertown Indians in New York.[19][23]

The earliest known image of Dartmouth appeared in the February 1793 issue of Massachusetts Magazine. The engraving may also be the first visual proof of cricket being played in the United States.[24]

In 1819, Dartmouth College was the subject of the historic Dartmouth College case, which challenged New Hampshire's 1816 attempt to amend the College's royal charter to make the school a public university. An institution called Dartmouth University occupied the College buildings and began operating in Hanover in 1817, though the College continued teaching classes in rented rooms nearby.[19] Daniel Webster, an alumnus of the class of 1801, presented the College's case to the Supreme Court, which found the amendment of Dartmouth's charter to be an illegal impairment of a contract by the state and reversed New Hampshire's takeover of the College. Webster concluded his peroration with the famous words: "It is, Sir, as I have said, a small college. And yet there are those who love it."[19]

Dartmouth emerged onto the national academic stage at the turn of the 20th century. Prior to this period, the College had clung to traditional methods of instruction and was relatively poorly funded.[12] Under the presidency of William Jewett Tucker (1893–1909), Dartmouth underwent a major revitalization of facilities, faculty, and the student body, following large endowments such as the $10,000 given by Dartmouth alumnus and law professor John Ordronaux.[25] 20 new structures replaced antiquated buildings, while the student body and faculty both expanded threefold. Tucker is often credited for having "refounded Dartmouth" and bringing it into national prestige.[26]

Lithograph of the President's House, Thornton Hall, Dartmouth Hall, and Wentworth Hall, circa 1834.

Presidents Ernest Fox Nichols (1909–16) and Ernest Martin Hopkins (1916–45) continued Tucker's trend of modernization, further improving campus facilities and introducing selective admissions in the 1920s.[12] John Sloan Dickey, serving as president from 1945 until 1970, strongly emphasized the liberal arts, particularly public policy and international relations.[12][27]

During World War II, Dartmouth was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission.[28]

In 1970, longtime professor of mathematics and computer science John George Kemeny became president of Dartmouth.[29] Kemeny oversaw several major changes at the College. Dartmouth, previously serving as a men's institution, began admitting women as full-time students and undergraduate degree candidates in 1972 amid much controversy.[30] At about the same time, the College adopted its "Dartmouth Plan" of academic scheduling, permitting the student body to increase in size within the existing facilities.[29]

During the 1990s, the College saw a major academic overhaul under President James O. Freedman and a controversial (and ultimately unsuccessful) 1999 initiative to encourage the school's single-sex Greek houses to go coed.[12][31] The first decade of the 21st century saw the commencement of the $1.3 billion Campaign for the Dartmouth Experience, the largest capital fundraising campaign in the College's history, which as of January 2008 has surpassed $1 billion and is on schedule to be completed before 2010.[32][33] The mid- and late first decade of the 21st century have also seen extensive campus construction, with the erection of two new housing complexes, full renovation of two dormitories, and a forthcoming dining hall, life sciences center, and visual arts center.[34] In 2004, Booz Allen Hamilton selected Dartmouth College as a model of institutional endurance "whose record of endurance has had implications and benefits for all American organizations, both academic and commercial," citing Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodward and Dartmouth's successful self-reinvention in the late 19th century.[35]

Since the election of a number of petition-nominated trustees to the Board of Trustees starting in 2004, the role of alumni in Dartmouth governance has been the subject of ongoing conflict.[36] President James Wright announced his retirement in February 2008[37] and was replaced by Harvard University professor and physician Jim Yong Kim on July 1, 2009.[38]

In May 2010 Dartmouth joined the Matariki Network of Universities (MNU) together with Durham University (UK), Queen’s University (Canada), University of Otago (New Zealand), University of Tübingen (Germany), University of Western Australia (Australia) and Uppsala University (Sweden).[39]

Academics, administration, and ranking

University rankings (overall)
Forbes[40] 30
U.S. News & World Report[41] 11
Washington Monthly[42] 21
ARWU[43] 101–151
QS[44] 99
Times[45] 99

Dartmouth, a liberal arts institution, offers a four-year Bachelor of Arts and ABET-accredited Bachelor of Engineering degree to undergraduate students.[11][46] The college boasts 39 academic departments offering 56 major programs, while students are free to design special majors or engage in dual majors.[47] In 2008, the most popular majors were economics, government, history, psychological and brain sciences, English, biology, and engineering sciences.[48] The Government Department, whose prominent professors include Stephen Brooks, Richard Ned Lebow, and William Wohlforth, was ranked the top solely undergraduate political science program in the world by researchers at the London School of Economics in 2003.[49] The Economics Department, whose prominent professors include David Blanchflower, and Andrew Samwick, also holds the distinction as the top-ranked economics program in the world where a masters as well as a doctorate degree is not offered.[50]

In 2011, Dartmouth was ranked eleventh among undergraduate programs at national universities by U.S. News & World Report.[51] However, since Dartmouth is ranked in a category for national research universities, some Dartmouth students and administrators have questioned the fairness of the ranking given the College's emphasis on undergraduate education.[52][53][54] Dartmouth's strength in undergraduate education is highlighted by U.S. News & World Report when in 2009, 2010, and 2011 it ranked Dartmouth first in undergraduate teaching at national universities, ahead of Princeton, Yale, Stanford, Brown, Duke, and Harvard.[55] Dartmouth ranks number seven in the Wall Street Journal's ranking of top feeder schools.[56] The 2006 Carnegie Foundation classification listed Dartmouth as the only "majority-undergraduate", "arts-and-sciences focus[ed]", "research university" in the country that also had "some graduate coexistence" and "very high research activity."[57][58][59] Internationally, Dartmouth College was ranked 99th in the world in the 2011 QS World University Rankings.[60]

22,385 students applied for approximately 1,100 places in 2011, and 9.7% of applicants were admitted. 94% of admitted students were ranked in the top 10% of their high school graduating class. 40% of admitted students were valedictorians and 10% were salutatorians. The mean SAT scores of admitted students by section were 734 for verbal, 740 for math, and 744 for writing.[61]

Dartmouth meets 100% of students' demonstrated financial need in order to attend the College, and currently admits all students, including internationals, on a need-blind basis. Beginning in the 2008–2009 academic year, Dartmouth instituted a new financial aid policy extending need-blind admission to international students and replaced all student loans with scholarships and grants. Students from families with a combined annual income of less than $75,000 are not charged any tuition.[62][63] However, in early 2010, the College announced that it would re-introduce loans to its financial aid packages beginning in the 2011–2012 school year due to its changed financial situation.[64][65]

In order to graduate, a student must complete 35 total courses, eight to ten of which are typically part of a chosen major program.[66] Other requirements for graduation include the completion of ten "distributive requirements" in a variety of academic fields, proficiency in a foreign language, and completion of a writing class and first-year seminar in writing.[66] Many departments offer honors programs requiring students seeking that distinction to engage in "independent, sustained work," culminating in the production of a thesis.[66] In addition to the courses offered in Hanover, Dartmouth offers 57 different off-campus programs, including Foreign Study Programs, Language Study Abroad programs, and Exchange Programs.[67][68]

Through the Graduate Studies program, Dartmouth grants doctorate and master's degrees in 19 Arts & Sciences graduate programs. Although the first graduate degree, a PhD in classics, was awarded in 1885, many of the current PhD programs trace their origins to the 1960s.[11] Furthermore, Dartmouth is home to three professional schools: Dartmouth Medical School (established 1797), Thayer School of Engineering (1867) — which also serves as the undergraduate department of engineering sciences — and Tuck School of Business (1900). With these professional schools and graduate programs, conventional American usage would accord Dartmouth the label of "Dartmouth University";[11] however, because of historical and nostalgic reasons (such as Dartmouth College v. Woodward), the school uses the name "Dartmouth College" to refer to the entire institution.[19]

Dartmouth employs a total of 597 tenured or tenure-track faculty members, including the highest proportion of female tenured professors among the Ivy League universities.[11] Faculty members have been at the forefront of such major academic developments as the Dartmouth Conferences, the Dartmouth Time Sharing System, Dartmouth BASIC, and Dartmouth ALGOL 30. As of 2005, sponsored project awards to Dartmouth faculty research amounted to $169 million.[69]

Dartmouth serves as the host institution of the University Press of New England, a university press founded in 1970 that is supported by a consortium of schools that also includes Brandeis University, the University of New Hampshire, Northeastern University, Tufts University and the University of Vermont.[70]

The Dartmouth Plan

Baker Memorial Library at Dartmouth College

Dartmouth functions on a quarter system, operating year-round on four ten-week academic terms. The Dartmouth Plan (or simply "D-Plan") is an academic scheduling system that permits the customization of each student's academic year. All undergraduates are required to be in residence for the fall, winter, and spring terms of their freshman and senior years, as well as the summer term of their sophomore year.[71] During all other terms, students are permitted to choose between studying on-campus, studying at an off-campus program, or taking a term off for vacation, outside internships, or research projects.[71] The typical course load is three classes per term, and students will generally enroll in classes for 12 total terms over the course of their academic career.[72]

The D-Plan was instituted in the early 1970s at the same time that Dartmouth began accepting female undergraduates. It was initially devised as a plan to increase the enrollment without enlarging campus accommodations, and has been described as "a way to put 4,000 students into 3,000 beds."[12] Although new dormitories have been built since, the number of students has also increased and the D-Plan remains in effect. It was modified in the 1980s in an attempt to reduce the problems of lack of social and academic continuity.

Board of Trustees

Dartmouth Hall, built in 1784

Dartmouth is governed by a Board of Trustees comprising the College president (ex officio), the state governor (ex officio), 13 trustees nominated and elected by the board (called "charter trustees"), and eight trustees nominated by alumni and elected by the board ("alumni trustees").[73] The nominees for alumni trustee are determined by a poll of the members of the Association of Alumni of Dartmouth College, selecting from among names put forward by the Alumni Council or by alumni petition.

Although the Board elected its members from the two sources of nominees in equal proportions between 1891 and 2007,[74] the Board decided in 2007 to add several new members, all charter trustees.[75] In the controversy that followed the decision, the Association of Alumni filed a lawsuit, although it later withdrew the action.[76][77] In 2008, the Board added five new charter trustees.[78]


"This is what a college is supposed to look like."

Dartmouth College is situated in the rural town of Hanover, New Hampshire, located in the Upper Valley along the Connecticut River in New England. Its 269 acres (1.09 km2) campus is centered on a five-acre (two-hectare) "Green",[80] a former field of pine trees cleared by the College in 1771.[81] Dartmouth is the largest private landowner of the town of Hanover,[82] and its total landholdings and facilities are worth an estimated $434 million.[9] In addition to its campus in Hanover, Dartmouth owns 4,500 acres (18 km2) of Mount Moosilauke in the White Mountains Region[83] and a 27,000 acres (110 km2) tract of land in northern New Hampshire known as the Second College Grant.[84]

Dartmouth's campus buildings vary in age from Wentworth and Thornton Halls of the 1820s (the oldest surviving buildings constructed by the College) to new dormitories and mathematics facilities completed in 2006.[85][86] Most of Dartmouth's buildings are designed in the Georgian American colonial style,[87][88][89] a theme which has been preserved in recent architectural additions.[90] The College has actively sought to reduce carbon emissions and energy usage on campus, earning it the grade of A- from the Sustainable Endowments Institute on its College Sustainability Report Card 2008.[91][92]

Academic facilities

The Hopkins Center

The College's creative and performing arts facility is the Hopkins Center for the Arts ("the Hop"). Opened in 1962, the Hop houses the College's drama, music, film, and studio arts departments, as well as a woodshop, pottery studio, and jewelry studio which are open for use by students and faculty.[93] The building was designed by the famed architect Wallace Harrison, who would later design the similar-looking façade of Manhattan's Metropolitan Opera House at the Lincoln Center.[94] Its facilities include two theaters and one 900-seat auditorium.[93] The Hop is also the location of all student mailboxes ("Hinman boxes")[95] and the Courtyard Café dining facility.[96] The Hop is connected to the Hood Museum of Art, arguably North America's oldest museum in continuous operation,[97] and the Loew Auditorium, where films are screened.[98]

A view of the Sherman Fairchild Physical Science Center and Wheeler Hall from the tower of Baker Memorial Library

In addition to its 19 graduate programs in the arts and sciences, Dartmouth is home to three separate graduate schools. Dartmouth Medical School is located in a complex on the north side of campus[99] and includes laboratories, classrooms, offices, and a biomedical library.[100] The Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, located several miles to the south in Lebanon, New Hampshire, contains a 396-bed teaching hospital for the Medical School.[101] The Thayer School of Engineering and the Tuck School of Business are both located at the end of Tuck Mall, west of the center of campus and near the Connecticut River.[100] The Thayer School presently comprises two buildings;[100] Tuck has seven academic and administrative buildings, as well as several common areas.[102] The two graduate schools share a library, the Feldberg Business & Engineering Library.[102]

Dartmouth's nine libraries are all part of the collective Dartmouth College Library, which comprises 2.48 million volumes and 6 million total resources, including videos, maps, sound recordings, and photographs.[11][103] Its specialized libraries include the Biomedical Libraries, Evans Map Room, Feldberg Business & Engineering Library, Jones Media Center, Kresge Physical Sciences Library, Paddock Music Library, Rauner Special Collections Library, and Sherman Art Library. Baker-Berry Library is the main library at Dartmouth, comprising Baker Memorial Library (opened 1928) and Berry Library (opened 2000[104]). Located on the northern side of the Green, Baker's 200-foot (61 m) tower is an iconic symbol of the College.[105][106][107]

Athletic facilities

Dartmouth's original sports field was the Green, where students played cricket and old division football during the 19th century.[81] Today, two of Dartmouth's athletic facilities are located in the southeast corner of campus.[108] The center of athletic life is the Alumni Gymnasium, which includes the Karl Michael Competition Pool and the Spaulding Pool, a state of the art fitness center, a weight room, and a 1/13th-mile (123 m) indoor track.[109] Attached to Alumni Gymnasium is the Berry Sports Center, which contains basketball and volleyball courts (Leede Arena), as well as the Kresge Fitness Center.[110] Behind the Alumni Gymnasium is Memorial Field, a 15,600-seat stadium overlooking Dartmouth's football field and track.[111] The nearby Thompson Arena, designed by Italian engineer Pier Luigi Nervi and constructed in 1975, houses Dartmouth's ice rink.[112] Also visible from Memorial Field is the 91,800-square-foot (8,530 m2) Nathaniel Leverone Fieldhouse, home to the indoor track.

Dartmouth's other athletic facilities in Hanover include the Friends of Dartmouth Rowing Boathouse and the old rowing house storage facility (both located along the Connecticut River), the Hanover Country Club, Dartmouth's oldest remaining athletic facility (established in 1899),[113] and the Corey Ford Rugby Clubhouse.[114] The College also maintains the Dartmouth Skiway, a 100 acres (0.40 km2) skiing facility located over two mountains near the Hanover campus in Lyme Center, New Hampshire[115] that serves as the winter practice grounds for the nationally dominant Dartmouth ski team.

Housing and student life facilities

Lord Hall in the Gold Coast Cluster

Instead of ungrouped dormitories or residential colleges, Dartmouth has nine residential communities located throughout campus.[116] The dormitories vary in design from modern to traditional Georgian styles, and room arrangements range from singles to quads and apartment suites.[116] Since 2006, the College has guaranteed housing for students during their freshman and sophomore years.[117] More than 3,000 students elect to live in housing provided by College.[116]

Campus meals are served by Dartmouth Dining Services, which operates 11 dining establishments around campus.[118] Four of them are located at the center of campus in Thayer Dining Hall.[119]

The Collis Center is the center of student life and programming, serving as what would be generically termed the "student union" or "campus center."[120] It contains a café, study space, common areas, and a number of administrative departments, including the Academic Skills Centre.[121][122] Robinson Hall, next door to both Collis and Thayer, contains the offices of a number of student organizations including the Dartmouth Outing Club and The Dartmouth daily newspaper.[123]

Student life

In 2006, The Princeton Review ranked Dartmouth third in its "Quality of Life" category, and sixth for having the "Happiest Students."[124] Athletics and participation in the Greek system are the most popular campus activities;[14] in all, Dartmouth offers more than 350 organizations, teams, and sports.[125] The school is also home to a variety of longstanding traditions and celebrations.

Student groups

Robinson Hall houses many of the College's student-run organizations, including the Dartmouth Outing Club. The building is a designated stop along the Appalachian Trail.

Dartmouth's more than 200 student organizations and clubs cover a wide range of interests.[126] As of 2007, the College hosts eight academic groups, 17 cultural groups, two honor societies, 30 "issue-oriented" groups, 25 performing groups, 12 pre-professional groups, 20 publications, and 11 recreational groups.[127] Notable student groups include the nation's largest and oldest collegiate outdoors club, the Dartmouth Outing Club,[128] which includes the nationally recognized[129] Big Green Bus, the controversial conservative newspaper The Dartmouth Review,[130] and The Dartmouth, arguably the nation's oldest university newspaper.[131] The Dartmouth describes itself as "America's Oldest College Newspaper, Founded 1799."[131]

Partially because of Dartmouth's rural, isolated location, the Greek system dating from the 1840s is one of the most popular social outlets for students.[14][132] Dartmouth is home to 27 recognized Greek houses: 15 fraternities, nine sororities, and three coeducational organizations.[133] As of 2007, over 60% of eligible students belong to a Greek organization;[134] since 1987, students have not been permitted to join Greek organizations until their sophomore year.[135] Dartmouth College was among the first institutions of higher education to desegregate fraternity houses in the 1950s, and was involved in the movement to create coeducational Greek houses in the 1970s.[136] In the early first decade of the 21st century, campus-wide debate focused on a Board of Trustees recommendation that Greek organizations become "substantially coeducational";[137] this attempt to the change the Greek system eventually failed.[138] The College has an additional classification of social/residential organizations known as undergraduate societies.[139]


A Dartmouth varsity hockey game against Princeton at Thompson Arena

Approximately 20% of students participate in a varsity sport, and nearly 80% participate in some form of club, varsity, intramural, or other athletics.[140] As of 2007, Dartmouth College fields 34 intercollegiate varsity teams: 16 for men, 16 for women, and coeducational sailing and equestrian programs. Dartmouth's athletic teams compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I eight-member Ivy League conference; some teams also participate in the Eastern College Athletic Conference (ECAC).[141] As is mandatory for the members of the Ivy League, Dartmouth College does not offer athletic scholarships.[141][142] In addition to the traditional American team sports (football, basketball, baseball, and ice hockey), Dartmouth competes at the varsity level in many other sports including track and field, sailing, tennis, rowing, soccer, skiing, and lacrosse.[11]

The College also offers 26 club and intramural sports such as rugby, water polo, figure skating, boxing, volleyball, ultimate frisbee, and cricket, leading to a 75% participation rate in athletics among the undergraduate student body.[11][143] The figure skating team won the national championship five straight times from 2004 through 2008.[144] The Dartmouth Men's Rugby Team, founded in 1951, has also been ranked among the best collegiate teams in that sport over many years. In addition to the academic requirements for graduation, Dartmouth requires every undergraduate to complete a 50-yard (46 m) swim and three terms of physical education.[145]


Students at a bank of Blitz terminals in Baker-Berry Library.

Technology plays an important role in student life, as Dartmouth has been ranked as one of the technologically most advanced colleges in the world (as in Newsweek's 2004 ranking of "Hottest for the Tech-Savvy"[146] and Yahoo!'s 1998 "Wired Colleges" list[147]). BlitzMail, the campus e-mail network, plays a tremendous role in social life, as students tend to use it for communication in lieu of cellular phones or instant messaging programs.[148][149] Student reliance on BlitzMail (known colloquially as "Blitz," which functions as both noun and verb[149]) is reflected by the presence of about 100 public computer terminals intended specifically for BlitzMail use.[149] Since 1991, Dartmouth students have been required to own a personal computer.[150][151]

In 2001, Dartmouth became the first Ivy League institution to offer entirely ubiquitous wireless internet access.[146] With over 1,400 access points, the network is available throughout all College buildings as well as in most public outdoor spaces.[152] Other technologies being pioneered include College-wide Video-on-Demand and VoIP rollouts.[152][153]

Native Americans at Dartmouth

It is often pointed out that the charter of Dartmouth College, granted to Eleazar Wheelock in 1769, proclaims that the institution was created "for the education and instruction of Youth of the Indian Tribes in this Land in reading, writing and all parts of Learning ... as well as in all liberal Arts and Sciences; and also of English Youth and any others."[154] However, Wheelock primarily intended the College to educate white youth and the few Native students that attended Dartmouth experienced much difficulty in an institution ostensibly dedicated to their education. The funds for the Charity School for Native Americans that preceded Dartmouth College were raised primarily by the efforts of a Native American named Samson Occom, and at least some of those funds were used to help found the College.[155]

The College graduated only 19 Native Americans during its first two hundred years.[155] In 1970, the College established Native American academic and social programs as part of a "new dedication to increasing Native American enrollment."[155] Since then, Dartmouth has graduated over 700 Native American students from over 200 different tribes, more than the other seven Ivy League universities combined.[155]


Snow sculpture at the 2004 Dartmouth Winter Carnival

Dartmouth is well known for its fierce school spirit and many traditions.[156] The College functions on a quarter system, and one weekend each term is set aside as a traditional celebratory event, known on campus as "big weekends"[157][158] or "party weekends".[159] In the fall term, Homecoming (officially called Dartmouth Night) is marked by a bonfire on the Green constructed by the freshman class.[160] Winter term is celebrated by Winter Carnival, a tradition started in 1911 by the Dartmouth Outing Club to promote winter sports.[161] In the spring, Green Key is a weekend mostly devoted to campus parties and celebration.[162]

The summer term was formerly marked by Tubestock, an unofficial tradition in which the students used wooden rafts and inner tubes to float on the Connecticut River. Begun in 1986, Tubestock met its demise in 2006 when Hanover town ordinances and a lack of coherent student protest conspired to defeat the popular tradition.[163] The class of 2008, during their summer term on campus in 2006, replaced the defunct Tubestock with Fieldstock. This new celebration includes a barbecue, live music, and the revival of the 1970s and 1980s tradition of racing homemade chariots around the Green. Unlike Tubestock, Fieldstock is funded and supported by the College.[164]

Another longstanding tradition is four-day, student-run Dartmouth Outing Club trips for incoming freshmen, begun in 1935. Each trip concludes at the Moosilauke Ravine Lodge.[165] In 2010, over 90% of freshman elected to participate.

Insignia and other representations

Motto and song

Dartmouth's motto, chosen by Eleazar Wheelock, is "Vox Clamantis in Deserto". The Latin motto is literally translated as "The voice of one crying in the wilderness",[166][167] but is more often rendered as "A voice crying in the wilderness",[168] which attempts to translate the synecdoche of the phrase. The phrase appears five times in the Bible and is a reference to the College's location on what was once the frontier of European settlement.[167][169] Richard Hovey's "Men of Dartmouth" was elected as the best of Dartmouth's songs in 1896,[160] and became the school's official song in 1926.[170] The song was retitled to "Alma Mater" in the 1980s when its lyrics were changed to refer to women as well as men.[171]


Seal of Dartmouth College

Dartmouth's 1769 royal charter required the creation of a seal for use on official documents and diplomas.[154] The College's founder Eleazar Wheelock designed a seal for his college bearing a striking resemblance to the seal of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, a missionary society founded in London in 1701, in order to maintain the illusion that his college was more for mission work than for higher education.[167] Engraved by a Boston silversmith, the seal was ready by Commencement of 1773. The trustees officially accepted the seal on August 25, 1773, describing it as:

An Oval, circumscribed by a Line containing SIGILL: COL: DARTMUTH: NOV: HANT: IN AMERICA 1770. within projecting a Pine Grove on the Right, whence proceed Natives towards an Edifice two Storey on the left; which bears in a Label over the Grove these Words "vox clamantis in deserto" the whole supported by Religion on the Right and Justice on the Left, and bearing in a Triangle irradiate, with the Hebrew Words [El Shaddai], agreeable to the above Impression, be the common Seal under which to pass all Diplomas or Certificates of Degrees, and all other Affairs of Business of and concerning Dartmouth College.[172]

On October 28, 1926, the trustees affirmed the charter's reservation of the seal for official corporate documents alone.[167] The College Publications Committee commissioned noted typographer W. A. Dwiggins to create a line drawing version of the seal in 1940 that saw widespread use. Dwiggins' design was modified during 1957 to change the date from "1770" to "1769," to accord with the date of the College Charter. The trustees commissioned a new set of dies with a date of "1769" to replace the old dies, now badly worn after almost two hundred years of use.[167] The 1957 design continues to be used under trademark number 2305032.[173]


On October 28, 1926, the Trustees approved a "Dartmouth College Shield" for general use. Artist and engraver W. Parke Johnson designed this emblem on the basis of the shield that is depicted at the center of the original seal. This design does not survive. On June 9, 1944 the trustees approved another coat of arms based on the shield part of the seal, this one by Canadian artist and designer Thoreau MacDonald. That design was used widely and, like Dwiggins' seal, had its date changed from "1770" to "1769" around 1958.[167] That version continues to be used under trademark registration number 3112676 and others.[173]

College designer John Scotford made a stylized version of the shield during the 1960s, but it did not see the success of MacDonald's design.[174] The shield appears to have been used as the basis of the shield of Dartmouth Medical School, and it has been reproduced in sizes as small as 20 micrometers across.[175] The design has appeared on Rudolph Ruzicka's Bicentennial Medal (Philadelphia Mint, 1969) and elsewhere.

Nickname, symbol, and mascot

Keggy posing on the Dartmouth College Green.

Dartmouth has never had an official mascot.[176] The nickname "The Big Green," originating in the 1860s, is based on students' adoption of a shade of forest green ("Dartmouth Green") as the school's official color in 1866.[4][177] Beginning in the 1920s, the Dartmouth College athletic teams were known by their unofficial nickname "the Indians," a moniker that probably originated among sports journalists.[176] This unofficial mascot and team name was used until the early 1970s, when its use came under criticism. In 1974, the Trustees declared the "use of the [Indian] symbol in any form to be inconsistent with present institutional and academic objectives of the College in advancing Native American education."[178] Some alumni and students, as well as the conservative student newspaper, The Dartmouth Review, have sought to return the Indian symbol to prominence,[179] but no team has worn the symbol on its uniform in decades.[180]

Various student initiatives have been undertaken to adopt a new mascot, but none has become "official." One proposal devised by the College humor magazine the Dartmouth Jack-O-Lantern was Keggy the Keg, an anthropomorphic beer keg who makes occasional appearances at College sporting events. Despite student enthusiasm for Keggy,[181] the mascot has only received approval from the student government.[182] In November 2006, student government attempted to revive the "Dartmoose" as a potential replacement amid renewed controversy surrounding the former Indian mascot.[183]


Dartmouth's alumni are known for their devotion to the College.[13] Most start by giving to the Senior Class Gift. According to a 2008 article in The Wall Street Journal, Dartmouth graduates also earn higher median salaries at least 10 years after graduation than alumni of any other American university surveyed.[184]

Salmon P. Chase, class of 1826, was an American politician: Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, Secretary of the Treasury under Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

As of 2008, Dartmouth has graduated 238 classes of students and has over 60,000 living alumni in a variety of fields.[185]

Nelson A. Rockefeller, 41st Vice President of the United States and 49th Governor of New York, graduated cum laude from Dartmouth with a degree in economics in 1930. Over 164 Dartmouth graduates have served in the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives,[186] such as Massachusetts statesman Daniel Webster.[186] Cabinet members of American presidents include Attorney General Amos T. Akerman,[187] Secretary of Defense James V. Forrestal,[188] Secretary of Labor Robert Reich,[189] former Secretary of the Treasury Henry Paulson, and the current Secretary of the Treasury Timothy Geithner. C. Everett Koop was the Surgeon General of the United States under President Ronald Reagan.[190] Two Dartmouth alumni have served as justices on the Supreme Court of the United States: Salmon P. Chase and Levi Woodbury.[191][192] Eugene Norman Veasey (class of 1954) served as the Chief Justice of Delaware.

In literature and journalism, Dartmouth has produced nine Pulitzer Prize winners: Thomas M. Burton,[193] Richard Eberhart,[194] Robert Frost,[195] Paul Gigot,[196] Jake Hooker,[197] Nigel Jaquiss,[198] Martin J. Sherwin,[199] David K. Shipler,[200] and Joseph Rago.[201]

Other authors and media personalities include ABC Senior White House correspondent Jake Tapper, novelist/screenwriter Budd Schulberg,[202] political analyst Dinesh D'Souza,[203] radio talk show host Laura Ingraham,[204] commentator Mort Kondracke,[205] and journalist James Panero.[206] Theodor Geisel, better known as children's author Dr. Seuss, was a member of the class of 1925.[207]

In the area of religion and theology, Dartmouth alumni include priests and ministers Jonathan Clarkson Gibbs, Caleb Sprague Henry, Arthur Whipple Jenks, Solomon Spalding, and Joseph Tracy; and rabbis Marshall Meyer, Arnold Resnicoff, and David E. Stern.[208][209][210][211][212] Hyrum Smith, brother of Mormon Prophet Joseph Smith also attended the college in his teens. He was Patriarch of the LDS Church.

Dartmouth alumni in academia include Stuart Kauffman and Jeffrey Weeks, both recipients of MacArthur Fellowships (commonly called "genius grants").[213][214] Dartmouth has also graduated three Nobel Prize winners: Owen Chamberlain (Physics, 1959),[215] K. Barry Sharpless (Chemistry, 2001),[216] and George Davis Snell (Physiology or Medicine, 1980).[217] Educators include the current chancellor of the University of California, San Diego Marye Anne Fox (PhD. in Chemistry, 1974),[218] founding president of Vassar College Milo Parker Jewett,[219] founder and first president of Bates College Oren B. Cheney,[220] founder and first president of Kenyon College Philander Chase,[221] first professor of Wabash College Caleb Mills,[222] and former president of Union College Charles Augustus Aiken.[223][224] Nine of Dartmouth's 17 presidents were alumni of the College.[225]

Timothy Geithner, class of 1983, is the current United States Secretary of the Treasury.

Dartmouth alumni serving as CEOs or company presidents include Charles Alfred Pillsbury, founder of Pillsbury Company and patriarch of Pillsbury family, Sandy Alderson (San Diego Padres),[226] John Donahoe (eBay), Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. (IBM),[227] Charles E. Haldeman (Putnam Investments),[228] Donald J. Hall, Sr. (Hallmark Cards),[229] Jeffrey R. Immelt (General Electric),[230] Gail Boudreaux (United Health Care),[231] Grant Tinker (NBC),[232] and Brian Goldner (Hasbro).[233]

In film, entertainment, and television, Dartmouth is represented by Budd Schulberg, Academy Award winning screenwriter of On the Waterfront, Michael Phillips, who won the Academy Award for best picture as co-producer of The Sting, Rachel Dratch, a cast member of Saturday Night Live,[234] creator of Grey's Anatomy Shonda Rhimes,[235] film director and producer Jethro Rothe-Kushel ("The Oscars"),[234] VP of Fox Searchlight, Zola Mashariki,[234] Chris Meledandri Executive Producer of Ice Age, Horton Hears a Who! (film), and "Despicable Me",[234] and the titular character of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, Fred Rogers.[236] Other notable actors include Sarah Wayne Callies (Prison Break),[234] Mindy Kaling (The Office),[237] Emmy Award winner Michael Moriarty,[234] Andrew Shue of Melrose Place,[238] Aisha Tyler of Friends and 24,[234] and Connie Britton of Spin City, The West Wing, and Friday Night Lights.[234]

A number of Dartmouth alumni have found success in professional sports. In baseball, Dartmouth alumni include All-Star and three-time Gold Glove winner Brad Ausmus[239] and All-Star Mike Remlinger.[240] Professional football players include former Miami Dolphins quarterback Jay Fiedler,[241] linebacker Reggie Williams,[242][243] three-time Pro Bowler Nick Lowery,[244] quarterback Jeff Kemp,[245] and Tennessee Titans tight end Casey Cramer.[246] Dartmouth has also produced a number of Olympic competitors. Adam Nelson has won silver medals in the shotput in the 2000 Sydney Olympics and the 2004 Athens Olympics to go along with his gold medal in the 2005 World Championships in Athletics in Helsinki.[247] Kristin King and Sarah Parsons were members of the United States' 2006 bronze medal-winning ice hockey team.[248][249] Cherie Piper, Gillian Apps, and Katie Weatherston were among Canada's ice hockey gold medalists in 2006.[250][251][252]

Dick Durrance and Tim Caldwell competed for the United States in skiing in the 1936 and 1976 Winter Olympics, respectively.[253][254] Arthur Shaw,[255] Earl Thompson,[256] Edwin Myers,[255] Marc Wright,[255] Adam Nelson,[247] Gerry Ashworth,[255] and Vilhjálmur Einarsson[255] have all won medals in track and field events. Former heavyweight rower Dominic Seiterle is a member of the Canadian national rowing team and won a gold medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics in the men's 8+ event.[257]

Alumni income

According to Payscale, Dartmouth College alums have among the highest average starting salaries ($58,200) in the United States, as well as the second highest average income ten years after graduation ($123,000), placing after Harvey Mudd College and tying with Princeton University.[258][259] Most recently in 2010, Payscale also ranked Dartmouth first in producing CEOs of for-profit companies, out of all undergraduate programs at United States universities.[260]

In popular culture

Dartmouth College has appeared in or been referenced by a number of popular media.

The 1978 comedy film National Lampoon's Animal House was co-written by Chris Miller '63, and is based loosely on a series of stories he wrote about his fraternity days at Dartmouth. In a CNN interview, John Landis said the movie was "based on Chris Miller's real fraternity at Dartmouth," Alpha Delta Phi.[261]

Dartmouth's Winter Carnival tradition was the subject of the 1939 film Winter Carnival starring Ann Sheridan and written by Budd Schulberg '36 and F. Scott Fitzgerald.[161]

Dartmouth College has been mentioned three times on the FOX animated sitcom, The Simpsons, with two of the three occurring on season 11 episodes and associating Dartmouth College with alcoholic consumption.[262] On "Alone Again, Natura-Diddily", a Christian rock singer named Rachel Jordan sings that she "was drinking like a Dartmouth boy." In "Pygmoelian", during the Duff Days festival, Duffman introduces the trick-pouring contest by saying that it counts as course credit at Dartmouth College.[262] In the 1969 movie "Goodbye, Columbus, Richard Benjamin finds out all the men at a party are from Dartmouth. The Association, a popular rock group at the time, recorded the soundtrack and performed an instrumental during the scene entitled "Dartmouth? Dartmouth!".[263]

In addition, Dartmouth has served as the alma mater for a number of fictional characters, including Stephen Colbert's fictional persona,[264] Michael Corleone of The Godfather,[265] Meredith Grey of Grey's Anatomy,[266] Thomas Crown of The Thomas Crown Affair (1968),[267] Howie Archibald of Gossip Girl,[268] Pete Lattimer of Warehouse 13 and Pete Campbell of Mad Men.[269] The characters Evan and Fogell of the 2007 film Superbad were also slated to attend Dartmouth.[270] In the vampire romance series Twilight, main characters Bella Swan and Edward Cullen plan to go to Dartmouth as a ruse. In the second season of Scrubs, J.D. argues that not all surgeons are stupid and cites as proof the fact that another doctor at the hospital had attended Dartmouth. Dartmouth is repeatedly referenced in the 1990s sit-com "Newsradio." The character Dan Rydell in the short lived series Sports Night was a Dartmouth alumnus, a subject that is mentioned in numerous episodes.[271] In The Last of the Mohicans, Hawkeye says he attended Reverend Wheelock's school which is presumably Dartmouth. In the television show The West Wing, President Bartlet was a tenured professor at Dartmouth before beginning his political career. Freddie Prinze, Jr. as Zachary "Zack" Siler in the 1999 film She's All That gets offered a place by Dartmouth.


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Further reading

  • Behrens, Richard K., “From the Connecticut Valley to the West Coast: The Role of Dartmouth College in the Building of the Nation,” Historical New Hampshire, 63 (Spring 2009), 45–68.
  • Chase, Frederick; John King Lord (1913). A History of Dartmouth College and the Town of Hanover, New Hampshire, Volume 2 (1 ed.). Concord, N.H.: J. Wilson, The Rumford Press. OCLC 11267716.  (Read and download public domain copy via Google Books.)
  • Drake, Chuck (2004). Dartmouth Outing Guide (Fifth edition ed.). Dartmouth Outing Club. 
  • Graham, Robert B. (1990). The Dartmouth Story: A Narrative History of the College Buildings, People, and Legends. Dartmouth Bookstore. 
  • Glabe, Scott L. (2005). Dartmouth College: Off the Record. College Prowler. ISBN 978-1-59658-038-1. 
  • Hughes, Molly K.; Susan Berry (2000). Forever Green: The Dartmouth College Campus — An arboretum of Northern Trees. Enfield Books. ISBN 978-1-893598-01-0. 
  • Richardson, Leon B. (1932). History of Dartmouth College. Dartmouth College Publications. OCLC 12157587. 
  • Listen, Look, Likeness: examining the portraits of Félix de la Concha 2009 ArtsEditor.com article

External links

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