- Emory University
caption= Emory University Seal
motto= _la. Cor prudentis possidebit scientiam
(The wise heart will possess knowledge, Proverbs 18:15)
established=1836cite web|url=http://www.emory.edu/PROVOST/IPR/AP2006_FINAL_4web2.pdf |title=A Profile of Schools and Academic Resources |accessdate=2007-05-30 |last=Teodorescu |first=Daniel |date=2006-12-01 |format=PDF |work=The Office of Institutional Research |publisher=Emory University ]
calendar = Semester
James W. Wagner
Suburban, 631 acres (2.6 km²)
colors=Blue and Gold color box|#000066color box|#CC9900
endowment=US $5.6 billion
athletics = NCAA Division III UAA
United Methodist Church[cite web|url = http://public.gbhem.org/iamscu/search_results.asp?act=search_gen&search_txt=EMORY+UNIVERSITY&type=schools&submit=GO| title = Emory University |publisher = International Association of Methodist Schools, Colleges, and Universities (IAMSCU)|accessdate = 2007-06-29] cite web|url = http://www.emory.edu/about_eu.cfm| title = About Emory|publisher = Emory University|accessdate = 2007-06-29]
website= [http://www.emory.edu www.emory.edu]
Emory was founded in 1836 and is named after
John Emory, a popular bishop of the Georgia Methodist Conference. It consists of nine academic divisions including schools of arts and sciences, theology, business, law, medicine, public health, and nursing. Emory is currently ranked 18th among national universities according to " U.S. News & World Report" and the undergraduate business program of its Goizueta Business Schoolwas ranked 5th nationally by " BusinessWeek" in 2008.
Approximately half of its students are enrolled in the undergraduate program and the other half are enrolled in one of Emory University's seven graduate programs. Its nine academic divisions include:
* College of Arts and Sciences; "formerly known as Emory College (1836 - 2008)" [ [http://www.emorywheel.com/detail.php?n=25810] ]
* Oxford College
* Graduate School; "formerly known as Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (1919-2008)" [ [http://www.emorywheel.com/detail.php?n=25810] ]
Candler School of Theology
Goizueta Business School
Emory University School of Law
Emory University School of Medicine
Rollins School of Public Health
* Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing
In addition to its nine schools, the university encompasses
The Carter Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Centerand Emory Healthcare, Georgia's largest and most comprehensive healthcare system.Fact|date=September 2008
In 1833 the Georgia Methodist Conference first contemplated the establishment of a church-sponsored manual labor school, where students would combine farm work with a college preparatory curriculum. In doing so, they planted the seed that became Emory College—and later Emory University.
Events preceding the chartering of Emory College began in 1834. That year, at a meeting of the Georgia Methodist Conference, a preacher known as "Uncle" Allen Turner suggested that Georgia
Methodistsshould have their own college instead of supporting Randolph-Macon in Virginia. On December 18 1834, the Georgia General Assemblychartered the Georgia Methodists Conference Manual Labor School. In 1835, the school opened in Newton County, with physician and minister Alexander Meansas superintendent. During the first year of operation the Board of Trustees, at the urging of Ignatius Alphonso Few, asked the Conference to expand the school into a college. Few was a Princeton-educated lawyer and skeptic-turned-Methodist who would later be elected the first president of Emory College.
December 10 1836, the Georgia General Assemblygranted the Georgia Methodist Conference a charter to establish a college to be named for John Emory, a popular bishop who had presided at the 1834 conference but was killed in 1835 from a carriage accident. In 1837, at its first meeting, the Board of Trustees accepted land belonging to and to establish both a "contemplated college" and a proposed new town of Oxford, Georgia. By 1838, Emory College began admitting students.English, Thomas H. "Emory University 1915–1965: A Semicentennial History" (Atlanta: Emory University, 1966).]
For the duration of the nineteenth century, Emory College remained a small institution which offered students both a classical curriculum and professional training. Its students studied four years of Greek,
Latin, and mathematicsand devoted three years to the English Bibleand the sciences of geography, astronomy, and chemistry. In 1875, the first laboratory-based studies for students commenced, alongside a rise of activity by the college's debating societies. Such debates included the justifiability of war, women's suffrage, the morality of slavery, and prohibition.
One of Emory College's most famous alumni from this early period was
Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar (II), a native Georgian who graduated from Emory College in 1845. Lamar married the daughter of Augustus Baldwin Longstreet, one of the school's early presidents. Lamar would go on to represent Mississippiin the United States Senateand become the only Mississippian to have ever served on the Supreme Court of the United States.
headquarters. The school's library and other archives were destroyed. It was not until the summer of 1865 that the campus was able to fully return to its academic functions. By that time the campus was largely in shambles and the college's small endowment was depleted.
In the autumn of 1866, Emory College reopened its doors with a limited endowment and just 120 students. The first postbellum commencement was held in 1867 and conferred degrees on the class of 1862, most of whom had fought in the war and with some already interred in military graves. In the years following the Civil War, Emory, along with the rest of the South, struggled to overcome financial devastation. A key moment came in 1880, when Emory president
Atticus G. Haygoodpreached a Thanksgiving Day sermon declaring that slavery had been evil and urging southerners to cultivate industrial growth. The printed sermon was read by George I. Seney, a New York banker and Methodist, who responded by giving Emory College $5,000 to repay its debts, $50,000 for construction, and $75,000 to establish a new endowment—enormous sums for the time.
Emory remained small and financially limited for the next thirty years. Its enrollment peaked at about 400 students. Nonetheless, Emory College produced several notable graduates during this transitional era.
Alben W. Barkleywent on to represent Kentuckyin both the United States House of Representativesand the Senate before becoming—at age 71 in 1949—the oldest Vice-President of the United Statesin history. Thomas M. Riversbecame one of the nation's premier virologists at the Johns Hopkins UniversityMedical School, investigating encephalitisand smallpoxand later leading the National Science Foundation's quest for a polio vaccine. Dumas Malonewent on to become the head of Harvard University Press, one of the nation's leading academic publishers, and completed a Pulitzer Prize–winning six-volume study of Thomas Jeffersonwhen he was past 90 years of age.
Move to Atlanta
In 1913, Bishop
Warren A. Candler, a former Emory College president, persuaded the Methodist Episcopal Church, Southto make Emory the nucleus of a new university. The General Conference, eager to establish a Methodist university with a school of theology, decided to charter one university east of the Mississippi River and one to the river's west.
The move coincided with a challenge to church authority at
Vanderbilt University. When the Tennessee Supreme Courtstripped the church of authority in 1914, the church established Southern Methodist Universityand sanctioned the move to more important status for Emory. [ [http://pages.prodigy.net/nhn.slate/nh00073.html Vanderbilt University and Southern Methodism] by Frank Gulley, prodigy.net. Retrieved February 20, 2008.] At the same time, Emory began its long-standing association with The Coca-Cola Companyin Atlanta, as the bishop's brother was Asa Griggs Candler, who had gained ownership of the company by purchasing it from the inventor of the drink, John Pemberton. Candler had become wealthy from promoting the popular soft drink and agreed to endow the school with one million dollars. He also convinced the school's administration to move to the Atlanta area and for the Methodist Church to designate the college as its eastern university. The Candler family provided a hilly 75 acres (304,000 m²) in the new emerging Druid Hills neighborhood northeast of downtown Atlanta in DeKalb County. The campus is less than a mile from the current Atlanta city limits. For Asa's generosity, the campus library at the east end of the quadrangle—recently restored to its original 1920s look—was named after him.
In light of these developments, Emory College was rechartered by DeKalb County on January 25, 1915, as Emory University, which explains both the dates 1836 and 1915 sometimes featured on the school's seal.
Henry Hornbostelwas chosen to design many of the buildings on Emory University's new campus. His designs incorporated local stone and materials in the Georgia marbleand red terracottatile of the structures, which established the institution's unique architectural character. Emory University first opened its theologyand lawschools on the new campus quadrangle.
In 1919, Emory College moved from Oxford to DeKalb County. Emory University later added graduate,
business, medical, public health, nursing, and dental schools. The Emory Dental School has since been closed. Doctoral studies at Emory University were established in 1946, and the school has continued to strengthen its graduate and professional schools since. In 1949, Alben Barkley returned to Emory to receive an honorary LLD degree and give the commencement address, the first Emory event to be televised.
Expansion since 1950
Formerly an all-male school, in 1953 Emory opened its doors to women. Sororities soon followed, and first appeared in 1959. In 1962, in the midst of the American Civil Rights Movement, Emory embraced the initiative to end racial restrictions when it asked the courts to declare portions of the Georgia
statutesunconstitutional. Previously, Georgia law denied tax-exempt status to private universities with racially integrated student bodies. The Supreme Court of Georgia ruled in Emory's favor and Emory became officially racially integrated.
In the 1970s, the university embarked on an ambitious building program, substantially improving its facilities. New concrete brutalist structures appeared, including the Robert W. Woodruff Library in 1969, the Sanford S. Atwood Chemistry Center in 1974, the Goodrich C. White Hall in 1977, and the Paul Rudolph-designed William R. Cannon Chapel in 1982. Spurred on by the recent expansion of Emory University,
Robert W. Woodruff—previously the president of the Coca-Cola Company—and his brother George presented the institution with a gift of $105 million in 1979. This was largely in Coca-Cola stockand represented the largest one-time endowment gift to a university in United Stateshistory.
An important factor in the university's growth over the last two decades has been its location in metropolitan Atlanta. The 740-acre Emory campus in the historic Druid Hills neighborhood shares the Clifton Corridor with the U.S.
Centers for Disease Control and Preventionand the American Cancer Society. A few miles away is the Carter Center. Former U.S. president Jimmy Carter, winner of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize, is a University Distinguished Professor and occasionally visits classes and lectures students. Each year, Carter has a town hall meeting at the university, in which he gives a lecture and answers questions from Emory students and members of the Atlanta community.
The latest additions to the Emory campus include the
Rollins School of Public Health, the O. Wayne Rollins Research Center, the Michael C. Carlos Museum(designed by Michael Graves), the Roberto C. Goizueta Business School, the Whitehead Biomedical Research Building, the Mathematics and Science Center, the Donna and Marvin Schwartz Center for the Performing Arts, a recent expansion to the business school that was completed in 2005, as well as the continuous expansion of Emory University Hospital.
Emory's five libraries have also seen enormous growth over the 1990s as they increased their holdings to more than 3.1 million volumes. The Special Collections Department of Woodruff Library houses the papers of the British poet
Ted Hughes, as well as an extensive Irish collection ( William Butler Yeats, Lady Gregory, Maud Gonne, Seamus Heaney, and several contemporary Irish writers). Emory's Special Collections also has concentrations on southern imprints and writers ( James Dickey, Alfred Uhry, Mary Hood, and certain papers of Huey Long, for example), and a growing concentration of African American papers, including the work of activist Malcolm Xand the Hatch/Billops Collection. Recently, author Salman Rushdie, who has joined the faculty as a Distinguished Writer in Residence, announced he will donate his extensive archive to Woodruff Library.
The Michael C. Carlos Museum houses a permanent collection of some 18,000 objects, including art from
Egypt, Greece, Rome, the Near East, the Americas, Asia, Africa, and Oceaniaas well as European and American prints and drawings ranging from the Middle Agesto the twentieth century. Twenty-nine galleries are maintained for permanent collections, and eight galleries present special exhibitions from all periods.
Emory has received four of the 100 largest donations in higher education history. Emory is the only university with two donations among the fifteen largest in higher education history. These records are tracked by the
Chronicle of Higher Education. Many of these donations stemmed from the school's close ties to the Coca-Cola Companyand its leaders.
The largest donation to Emory was for $295 million, received in 1996 from the Lettie Pate Evans, Joseph B. Whitehead, and Robert W. Woodruff Foundations. Other large donations include:
* $50 million: July 9, 2007. From the O. Wayne Rollins Foundation and Grace Crum Rollins to the Rollins School of Public Health to double its physical space and attract new faculty.
*$83.3 million: 1999. From the estates of W.I.H. and Lula Pitts.
* $109 million (the largest gift in higher education history at the time): 1979. From the Robert W. Woodruff Foundation. Established the Emory Scholars Program and facilitated Emory's rise in national prominence.
* $261.5 million: Nov. 16, 2006. From the
Robert W. WoodruffFoundation to overhaul the Emory Clinic, renovate the Woodruff Health Sciences Center Administration Building, and facilitate Emory's Strategic Plan.
Emory University celebrated its
sesquicentennialanniversary in 1986, when it featured a student body of about 8,500 undergraduate and graduate students. Emory is generally considered a shortlist member of the so-called " Southern Ivy League" and consistently ranks among the top universities in the United States. In 2004, Emory University's endowment was ranked 8th in the nation at an estimated $4.4 billion.
Emory University recently completed a strategic planning process in 2005 led by Emory President
James W. Wagner, Provost Earl Lewisand Executive Vice President Mike Mandl. After broad consultation with the entire Emory community, the comprehensive plan was put forward and approved by the Board of Trustees. The anticipated $3 billion plan will strengthen Emory University's programs in specific areas focused on key themes centered on major world issues.
On November 16, 2006, the Robert W. Woodruff Foundation announced that it would give Emory $261.5 million over four years to enhance the Emory Clinic, establish a Presidential Fund to provide seed money for the strategic plan, and to renovate the Woodruff Health Sciences Administration Building.
On September 15, 2008, "
The Emory Wheel" reported that the Emory Board of Trustees had officially changed the name of Emory College to College of Arts and Sciences and the name of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences to Graduate School. The former ends the founding Emory College name after 172 years. [ [http://www.emorywheel.com/detail.php?n=25810] ]
The Graduate School has degree programs in 26 divisions in which students receive either
master'sor doctoraldegrees. The Candler School of Theologyis allied with the United Methodist Church, but enrolls students from many denominations. The Goizueta Business Schoolwas ranked 20th nationally by "U.S. News" and 18th by "Forbes" for their MBA program; the undergraduate program was ranked 4th by "BusinessWeek" in 2007. Emory Law Schoolis currently ranked 22nd by "U.S. News and World Report".
The Emory Healthcare System is the largest healthcare provider in Georgia and educates doctors, nurses, and other health professionals. The
Emory University School of Medicineenrolls approximately 425 medical students, 1,000 residents and fellows, and 350 allied health students. Collaborating with the nearby Centers for Disease Control and Preventionand other public health organizations, the Rollins School of Public Healthhas about 800 graduate students. The Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursingenrolls approximately 175 undergraduate students and 175 graduate students.
The Financial Aid Office awards need-based financial aid to all qualifying students through institutional and federal grant and loan packages. In January 2007, the University announced its newest aid program, Emory Advantage. Emory Advantage seeks to help undergraduate dependent students from families with assessed annual incomes $100,000 or less who demonstrate a need for financial aid. The program reduces the amount of money borrowed to pay for an undergraduate Emory degree. The goal is to make an Emory education attainable for any qualified student, regardless of income.
The Loan Replacement Grant (LRG] replaces loans for dependent undergraduate students whose families' assessed annual incomes are $50,000 or less. Grants replace need-based loans to cover expenses including tuition, room, and board. The eligible grant amount represents the student's self-help portion normally given in the form of a loan.
The Loan Cap Program (LCP) caps cumulative need-based debt at $15,000 for dependent undergraduate students whose families' assessed annual incomes are between $50,001 and $100,000. With the Loan Cap Program, students receive a standard financial aid award for freshman and sophomore years. This estimated award could include federal or state aid, institutional loans or grants, or Work-Study. After a student has accrued a total of $15,000 in need-based loans, Emory will provide grants to cover any remaining need-based funding incurred through degree completion.
Traditions and student life
Traditions at Emory include Dooley, the "Spirit of Emory" and the unofficial mascot of the university. Dooley is a
skeletonand is usually dressed in black. The name "Dooley" was given to the unofficial mascot in 1909. Each year in the spring, during Dooley's Week, Dooley roams Emory's campus flanked by bodyguards ("Dooley guards") and lets students out of class with unscheduled appearances in classrooms. He typically walks slowly with an exaggerated limp. A spokesperson amongst the bodyguards walks with him to deliver his messages as he never speaks himself. His identity is unknown and this is often fodder for campus gossip. He adopts the first name and middle initial of the University's current president. As such, Dooley's current full name is James W. Dooley, after James W. Wagner. Dooley's Week culminates with Dooley's Ball, a grand celebration that takes place in the center of campus on McDonough Field held in celebration of Dooley and Emory University. A sporting match called the Dooley Cup is played between the university administration and the student government association (SGA) each spring as well, and the SGA remains undefeated.
Fraternities on Emory's campus have existed, officially and unofficially, since 1840. Sororities first came to campus in 1959. For undergraduates, Greek life comprises approximately 30% of the Emory student population, with the Office of Greek Life at Emory University consisting of 12 Fraternities and 13 Sororities. For most students, student life includes involvement in one or more of the 320 campus organizations, which includes a nationally ranked chess team and nationally ranked debate team, the latter having won the NDT in 2007, 2000, and 1996 (the [http://www.emory.edu/BF/ Barkley Forum] ). The organizations give students opportunities to explore cultural, political, and social outlets, as well as allow them to voice collective concerns on current events and issues. Approximately 40% of students study abroad during their careers at Emory. More than 100 students work for the University's award-winning student newspaper "
The Emory Wheel" and many work for the school's other student publications, including The Hub, The Spoke, Emory Political Review, the Lullwater Review and the Black Star. Over 30% of undergraduates pursue independent research or work with faculty on research projects during their four years at Emory. Emory also has four secret societies—the D.V.S. Senior Honor Society, the oldest society, founded in 1902; Ducemus; the Order of Ammon; and the Paladin Society.
According to the school website, about 25% of Emory students volunteer with Volunteer Emory, Emory's umbrella community service group. For the 2004-2005 academic year, undergraduates put in over 5,000 hours of community service. Volunteer groups include the Green Park Society, which is dedicated to improving blighted parks and recreation areas in
Atlanta. The Society was created in Fall 2004 in response to a lack of student-catered community service options. GPS has "adopted" Maddox Park in Atlanta's Bankhead area and Storza Woods in Piedmont Park. Green Park students clean, restore foliage, and build nature trails on weekends. Green Park won the 2005 Joel Gellar Humanitarians Award.
After graduation, 42% of undergraduates plan to continue to graduate/professional school; 30% of those pursue an MD; and 20% plan to pursue a JD. Emory College has produced 18 Rhodes Scholars and 10 Marshall Scholars. In terms of class size, two-thirds of all Emory College classes have fewer than 20 students; 7% have more than 50.
Since the 1960s, Emory's student body has become more regionally and ethnically diverse. According to the school's website, more than 50% of its students are from outside the South, with about 30% from either the mid-Atlantic or northeast United States. Within Emory College's Class of 2012, 43% identify themselves as a member of one or more minority group. 30.6% of the students are Asian, 8.7% African American and 3.5% Hispanic. Since the early 1990s, Emory has also been one of a few Southern universities to include sexual orientation in its non-discrimination policy. The school offers benefits to the domestic partners of gay and lesbian students, staff and faculty. In addition, the campus features centers devoted to female students, Jewish students, international students, "multicultural" students, and
As of 2006, tuition, room, and board for the school totals at about $40,000 a year. According to the Princeton Review, 38% percent of undergraduates receive need-based financial aid and the average freshman aid package for those receiving aid is $21,616.
In 1897, Emory College became a pioneer with intramural sports. Emory's "athletics for all" program, which emphasizes the physical and social aspects of student development and learning, in addition to academic pursuits, soon rose to national prominence during the 1920s, prompting many other institutions to emulate it. In 1986, Emory formed the
University Athletic Association(UAA) with seven other urban research universities — Carnegie Mellon University, Case Western Reserve University, Johns Hopkins University, New York University, University of Chicago, University of Rochester, and Washington University in St. Louis. Johns Hopkins University no longer participates in the UAA and Brandeis Universityhas since joined. The UAA is sometimes referred to as the " Nerdy Nine" (even though there are now only eight members).
gymnasium from 1945 was simply a converted World War IIairplane hangar, with some renovations and modifications. However, in 1983 it was replaced by the new George W. Woodruff Physical Education Center (WoodPEC for short), built into the side of a hill opposite the old 1949 Alumni Memorial University Center building. By 1985, the Alumni Memorial University Center itself had been extended and remodeled into the R. Howard Dobbs University Center (the DUC for short). Today, the WoodPEC houses racquetballand tenniscourts, an outdoor track and field, and a swimmingpool.
Emory athletics today
Emory's sports teams are called the
Eagles. They participate in the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division IIIand the UAA. The eagle mascot of the university is named "Swoop". The previous Emory eagle logo, in use since the 1980s, was redesigned in 2005. To this day, the school fields no football team, prompting students to wear shirts that humorously claim that the Emory football team is "still undefeated".
Emory offers intercollegiate teams for men and women in cross country, swimming, tennis, track and field, basketball, and soccer, as well as golf and baseball for men, and volleyball and softball for women. The teams consistently top the UAA standings and are consistently ranked among the best in NCAA Division III, both regionally and nationally. Specifically, the swimming and diving team, according to the NCAA rankings, is considered to be one of the top programs in the nation. The men's tennis team placed first in the nation in 2003 and 2006, the women's tennis team placed first in 1996, 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006, and the women's swimming and diving team placed first in 2005 and 2006. In 2003 and 2004, Emory finished second in the nation among more than 395 NCAA Division III schools in the
NACDA Director's Cupfor the best all-around athletic program. In golf Emory won three tournaments in the 2006 -2007 season, Rodrigo Olivero won back to back tournaments with 4 rounds under par setting new records. More recently, the Emory baseball team has emerged in prominence, finishing seventh in the nation in 2000, fifth in 2003, and second in 2007. According to 2008 pre-season polls, the team is ranked fifth in the nation.
Club sports, recreation, and intramural sports provide additional competitive opportunities. Club teams include crew, rugby, ultimate frisbee, roller hockey, lacrosse, racquetball, volleyball, sailing, and table tennis, among others. Emory's crew, ultimate frisbee and lacrosse teams have had considerable success and deserve particular note. Many intramural sports are also offered at Emory, ranging from basketball to dodgeball and from wrestling to golf, with flag football and soccer being the most popular. The student body participates heavily in athletics, with eighty percent of students participating in intercollegiate, club, recreation, or intramural sports sometime during their time at Emory. Many students also participate in the Outdoor Emory Organization (OEO)—an organization that sponsors weekend trips of outdoor activities, such as rafting, rock climbing, and hiking.
Notable faculty members at Emory have included:
Jimmy Carter, former President of the United States, Nobel Laureate(2002) and University Distinguished Professor since 1982
Dalai Lama( Tenzin Gyatso), Nobel Laureate (1989) and [http://www.dalailama.emory.edu/about/professor.html Emory Presidential Distinguished Professor] in 2007
Elizabeth Fox-Genovese(died January 2007), a feministAmerican historian and a primary voice of the conservative women's movement
Deborah Lipstadt, Professor of Modern Jewish and Holocaust Studies and author of "Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory" (1994)
Jean-François Lyotard, late Robert Woodruff Professor and prominent French postmodernist philosopher
*Catherine Manegold (retired to write her second book in 2005),
Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter as part of a team at The New York Times
Salman Rushdie, author and literary scholar
Wole Soyinka, Nobel Laureate (1986) and author, former Distinguished Visiting Professor
Natasha Trethewey, Pulitzer Prize-winning poet and Professor of English
Desmond Tutu, Nobel Laureate (1984) and Anglican archbishop, past visiting professor of theology
Frans de Waal, Charles Howard Candler Professor of Primate Behavior, foreign associate of the United States National Academy of Sciences
Isabel Wilkerson, Pulitzer Prize-winner reporter and former New York Times correspondent
*Johnetta B. Cole, renowned African-American educator, former president of
Spelman Collegeand Bennett College
Nathan McCall, African-American author and lecturer
*"Emory University", in [http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org "New Georgia Encyclopedia"] . Retrieved
July 1, 2006.
*"Emory University", in "Encyclopedia of Southern Culture", ed. C. R. Wilson and William Ferris (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989).
*English, Thomas H. "Emory University 1915–1965: A Semicentennial History". Atlanta: Emory University, 1966.
*Gleason, Jan. "Emory ranked 9th-best national university by U.S. News & World Report magazine" in "Emory Report" 50, no. 1 (1997).
*Hauk, Gary S. "A Legacy of Heart and Mind: Emory since 1836" (Atlanta: Emory University, developed and produced by Bookhouse Group, Inc., 1999).
*Young, James Harvey. "A Brief History of Emory University", in "Emory College Catalog 2003–2005" (Atlanta: Emory University Office of University Publications, 2003), 9–15.
* [http://www.emory.edu/ Official website]
* [http://go.emory.edu/ Official Athletics website]
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