- Rhodes Scholarship
The Rhodes Scholarship named after
Cecil Rhodesis an international award for study at the University of Oxfordand was the first large-scale programme of international scholarships. [The American Rhodes Scholarships: A Review of the First Forty Years, Review author [s] : Harvie Branscomb, The American Historical Review © 1947 American Historical Association] Rhodes Scholars may study any full-time postgraduate course offered by the University [Periodically the Rhodes Trustees include or exclude the MBA from the courses offered.] – whether a taught Master’s programme, a research degree, or a second undergraduate degree (senior status).
The Scholarship is for two years in the first instance, though may be held for one year only; applications for a third year are considered during the course of the 2nd year.
University and College fees are paid by the Rhodes Trust. In addition, Scholars receive a monthly maintenance stipend to cover accommodation and living expenses. Although all scholars become affiliated with a
residential collegewhile at Oxford, they also enjoy access to Rhodes House, an early 20th century mansion with numerous public rooms, gardens, a library, study areas, and other facilities.
The scholarships are administered and awarded by the
Rhodes Trustwhich was established in 1902 under the terms and conditions of the will of Cecil John Rhodes, and funded by his estate. Scholarships have been awarded to applicants annually since 1904 on the basis of academic achievement and strength of character. There have been more than 7,000 Rhodes Scholars since the inception of the Trust. More than 4,000 are still living. [http://www.rhodeshouse.ox.ac.uk/history.htm Brief history of the Rhodes Trust] ] In 1925, the Commonwealth Fund Fellowships (later renamed the Harkness Fellowships) were established to reciprocate the Rhodes Scholarships by enabling British graduates to study in the United States. [http://nla.gov.au/nla.ms-ms9258 History of the Harkness Fellowships] ]
Rhodes' legacy specified four standards by which applicants were to be judged:
* literary and scholastic attainments;
* energy to use one's talents to the full, as exemplified by fondness for and success in sports;
* truth, courage, devotion to duty, sympathy for and protection of the weak, kindliness, unselfishness and fellowship;
* moral force of character and instincts to lead, and to take an interest in one's fellow beings.
This legacy originally provided for scholarships for the British colonies, the
United States, and Germany. These three were chosen so that "an understanding between the three great powers will render war impossible."
Rhodes, who attended Oxford University, chose his "alma mater" as the site of his great experiment because he believed its
residential colleges provided the ideal environment for intellectual contemplation and personal development.
Rhodes' original aim with the Scholarship, and subsequent changes
There has been some controversy over the original aim of the scholarships, as it has been alleged that Rhodes held
racistopinions about the superiority of the Anglorace, and that his intention was to use the scholarships to educate future foreign leaders in Britain so that they could help spread British influence when they returned to their home countries. The Secretary of the Rhodes Trust 1925-1939 was Philip Kerr, 11th Marquess of Lothianwho was a progressive imperialist, and an ex-member of Milner's Kindergarten.
An early change was the elimination of the scholarships for
Germanyduring World Wars I and II. No German scholars were chosen from 1914 to 1932, [ Adam von Trott zu Solzwas Germany's Rhodes Scholar in 1931. He was executed by the Nazis in 1944.] nor from 1939 to 1970. Also, between the wars, for political and propaganda reasons Erich Vermehrenwas prevented by the German government from taking up a Rhodes Scholarship.
Rhodes' bequest was whittled down considerably in the first decades after his death, as various scholarship trustees were forced to pay taxes upon their own deaths. A change occurred in 1929, when an
Act of Parliamentestablished a fund separate from the original proceeds of Rhodes's will. This made it possible to expand the number of scholarships. For example, between 1993 and 1995, scholarships were extended to other countries in the European Community.
Sex Discrimination Act 1975in the United Kingdom did not affect wills, it took another Act of Parliament to change the Rhodes' will to extend selection criteria in 1977 to include women.
For at least its first 75 years, scholars usually studied for a
Bachelor of Artsdegree. While that remains an option, more recent scholars usually study for an advanced degree.
There were originally 52 scholarships. During the ensuing 100 years, the Trustees added at one time or another approximately another 40 scholarships, though not all have continued. Some of these extended the scheme to Commonwealth countries not mentioned in the Will. A more detailed allocation by region by year can be found at
Rhodes Scholarship Allocations. Very brief summaries of some of the terms and conditions can be found on the Trust's web site. [ [http://www.rhodeshouse.ox.ac.uk/faq.htm Rhodes Scholarship FAQ] ] [ [http://www.rhodeshouse.ox.ac.uk/infoscholar.htm Information about the Scholarships] ] Complete details can be obtained from the nominating countries. [ [http://www.rhodeshouse.ox.ac.uk/countries_complete.htm Country Websites and Information] ]
Currently, scholars are selected from citizens of 14 specified geographic constituencies, [ [http://www.rhodeshouse.ox.ac.uk/countrysites.htm Rhodes Scholarship constituencies] ] [ [http://www.rhodeshouse.ox.ac.uk/infoscholar.htm Countries from which Rhodes Scholars are selected] ] namely: Australia; Bermuda; Canada; Germany; Hong Kong; India; Jamaica & Commonwealth Caribbean; Kenya; New Zealand; Pakistan; Southern Africa (South Africa and neighbours Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia and Swaziland); USA; Zambia; and Zimbabwe.
From 2006, 11 scholarships were suspended for a period of 5 years.Fact|date=December 2007 The scholarships for
Hong Kongwere abolished in July 1997 following its withdrawal from the Commonwealth (due to the transfer of sovereignty from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic of China). However, with the benefaction from the Lee HysanFoundation (described by the Rhodes Trust as "substantial and generous"Fact|date=December 2007), the Rhodes Scholarships for Hong Kong were reintroduced in late 2006. [ [http://www.rhodeshouse.ox.ac.uk/documents/HongKongMemorandumfor2007_000.pdf The Rhodes Scholarship for Hong Kong - Memorandum for 2007] ] "Geographic
Australia[ [http://www.usyd.edu.au/registrar/rhodes/index.shtml The Rhodes Scholarships in Australia] ] 9 6 Bermuda[ [http://www.rhodes.bm The Rhodes Scholarships in Bermuda] ] 1 1 Canada 11 2 & Newfoundland 1 1 Germany[ [http://www.rhodes-deutschland.de The Rhodes Scholarships in Germany] ] 2 - Hong Kong - - India[ [http://www.rhodesscholarships-india.com The Rhodes Scholarships in India ] ] 6 - Jamaica[ [http://www.rhodes-caribbean.com The Rhodes Scholarships for Jamaica & the Commonwealth Caribbean] ] 1 1 & Commonwealth Caribbean 1 - Kenya 2 - New Zealand[ [http://www.nzvcc.ac.nz/default.aspx?l=4&p=64 The Rhodes Scholarships in New Zealand] ] 3 1 Pakistan 1 - Southern Africa [ [http://www.rhodestrust.org.za The Rhodes Scholarships in South Africa ] ] 10 5 USA [ [http://www.rhodesscholar.org The Rhodes Trust, USA] ] 32 32 Zambia 1 Zimbabwe 2 (formerly Rhodesia) 3 Total 83 52
Notable Rhodes Scholarship recipients
A table of Notable Rhodes Scholarship recipients can be found at
Notable Rhodes Scholars.
:"See also: category"
In recognition of the centenary of the foundation of the Rhodes Trust in 2003, four scholars were awarded honorary degrees by the University of Oxford:
John Brademas(Indiana & Brasenose 1950), President of New York University, U.S. Congressman (Indiana), 1959-1981
*Robert J. L. (Bob) Hawke (Western Australia & University 1953), Prime Minister of
Rex Nettleford(Jamaica & Oriel 1957), Vice-Chancellor of the University of the West Indies, author, dance director
David R. Woods(Rhodes & University 1963), Vice-Chancellor of Rhodes University
The Trust [ [http://www.rhodeshouse.ox.ac.uk/whoswho.htm Rhodes Trust Board of Trustees] ] is governed by a Board of Trustees:
William Waldegrave, Baron Waldegrave of North Hill(Chairman)
*Professor Sir John Bell (Alberta & Magdalen 1975)
Robin Butler, Baron Butler of Brockwell
Rod Eddington(Western Australia & Lincoln 1974)
*Professor Elizabeth Fallaize
Robert Fellowes, Baron Fellowes
*Rosalind Hedley-Miller [ [http://www.efinancialnews.com/investmentbanking/fn100/content/2449053386/rosalindhedleymiller Top 100 Women in European Finance 2007] Financial News Online, 29 Oct 2007]
John Kerr, Baron Kerr of Kinlochard
*Thomas W. Seaman
The business of the Trust is administered by the Warden of Rhodes House and Secretary to the Trust, Colin Lucas.
Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey
Douglas Hogg, 1st Viscount Hailsham
References and notes
*R.I. Rotberg, "The Founder: Cecil Rhodes and the Pursuit of Power" (Oxford University Press, New York, 1988)
*Anthony Kenny (ed.), "The History of the Rhodes Trust" (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001)
title= Legacy: Cecil Rhodes, the Rhodes Trust and Rhodes Scholarships
publisher= Yale University Press
* [http://www.rhodeshouse.ox.ac.uk/ The Rhodes Trust]
* [http://www.rhodeshouse.ox.ac.uk/history.htm History of Rhodes Trust and Rhodes Scholarship]
* [http://bigsight.org/affiliation/rhodesscholars Updates on Rhodes Alumni]
* [http://www.rhodeshouse.ox.ac.uk/infoscholar.htm Scholarship and application information page]
* [http://www.usyd.edu.au/su/rhodes/ The Australian Rhodes Scholarship]
* [http://www.rhodes.bm/ Bermuda Selection Committee]
* [http://www.canadian-rhodes-scholars.ca/index.html The Canadian Association of Rhodes Scholars]
* [http://www.rhodes-deutschland.de/ The Rhodes Trust in Germany]
* [http://www.rhodesindia.com/ Indian Rhodes Scholarships]
* [http://www.rhodes-caribbean.com/ Committee for Jamaica and the Commonwealth Caribbean]
* [http://www.nzvcc.ac.nz/default.aspx?l=4&p=64 New Zealand Vice-Chancellors' Committee page on Rhodes Scholarships]
* [http://www.teara.govt.nz/1966/R/RhodesScholarships/RhodesScholarships/en New Zealand Rhodes Scholars, listed for 1903 to 1964]
* [http://www.rhodescentenary.co.za/Mandela_frame.htm The Mandela Rhodes Foundation in South Africa]
* [http://www.rhodestrust.org.za/ Southern African Rhodes Scholarships]
* [http://www.ru.ac.za/ Rhodes University — South Africa]
* [http://www.rhodesscholar.org/ The Rhodes Trust, USA]
* [http://www.americanrhodes.org/ Association of American Rhodes Scholars]
* [http://www.usna.edu/Admissions/Notables/RhodesScholars/index.htm/ United States Naval Academy Rhodes Scholars]
* [http://www.rhodesproject.com/ The first in-depth study of Rhodes women]
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