Anthropomorphism is the attribution of uniquely
humancharacteristics to non-human creatures and beings, natural and supernatural phenomena, material states and objects or abstract concepts. Subjects for anthropomorphism commonly include animals and plants depicted as creatures with human motivation able to reason and converse, forces of naturesuch as winds or the sun, components in games, unseen or unknown sources of chance, etc. Almost anything can be subject to anthropomorphism. The term derives from a combination of Greek "ἄνθρωπος" ("anthrōpos"), "human" and "μορφή" ("morphē"), "shape" or "form".
Humans seem to have an innate capacity to project human characteristics in this way. Evidence from art and artifacts suggests it is a long-held propensity that can be dated back to earliest times. It is strongly associated with the art of
storytellingwhere it also appears to have ancient roots. Most cultures possess a long-standing fabletradition with anthropomorphised animals as characters that can stand as commonly recognised types of human behaviour. The use of such literature to draw moral conclusions can be highly complex.
Within these terms, humans have more recently been identified as having an equivalent opposite propensity to deny common traits with other species - most particularly apes - as part of a feeling that humans are unique and special. This tendency has been referred to as Anthropodenial by primatologist
Frans de Waal.
In religions and mythologies
religionand mythology, anthropomorphism refers to the perception of a divine being or beings in human form, or the recognition of human qualities in these beings. Many mythologies are almost entirely concerned with anthropomorphic deities who express human characteristics such as jealousy, hatred, or love. The Greek gods, such as Zeusand Apollo, were often depicted in human form exhibiting both commendable and despicable human traits. Anthropomorphism in this case is sometimes referred to as Anthropotheism.
sects throughout history have been called "anthropomorphites" attributing such things as hands and eyes to God, including a sect in Egyptin the 4th century, and a heretical, 10th-century sect, who literally interpreted Book of Genesischapter 1, verse 27: "So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them."1728 [http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/HistSciTech/HistSciTech-idx?type=turn&entity=HistSciTech000900240147&isize=L Anthropomorphite] .] Among modern adherents of this view are members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saintsor the Mormons, followers of Joseph Smith.
Opposition to anthropomorphism
Many religions and philosophies have condemned anthropomorphism for various reasons. Some Ancient Greek philosophers did not approve of, and were often hostile to their people's mythology. These philosophers often developed monotheistic views.
Plato's (427–347 BC) Demiurge(craftsman) in the "Timaeus" and Aristotle's (384–322 BC) prime mover in his "Physics" are notable examples. The Greek philosopher Xenophanes(570–480 BC) said that "the greatest god" resembles man "neither in form nor in mind." ( Clement of Alexandria, "Miscellanies" V xiv 109.1-3). The similarity of these philosophers' concepts of god to the concepts found in the Biblefacilitated the incorporation of much pre-Christian Greek philosophy into the Medieval Christian world viewby the Scholastics, most notably Thomas Aquinas. Anthropomorphism of God is rejected by Islam, as God in Islam is beyond human limits of physical comprehension and is unlike the Creation. This conception is also championed by the doctrinal view of Nirguna Brahmanand by Judaism.
From the perspective of adherents of religions in which the deity or deities have human characteristics, it may be more accurate to describe the
phenomenonas theomorphism, or the giving of divine qualities to humans, rather than anthropomorphism, the giving of human qualities to the divine. According to their beliefs, the deity or deities usually existed before humans, therefore humans were created in the form of the divine. However, for those who do not believe in the doctrine of the religion, the phenomenon can be considered anthropomorphism. In his book "Faces in the Clouds: A New Theory of Religion" (1993), Stewart Elliott Guthrietheorizes that all religions are anthropomorphisms that originate due to the brain's tendency to detect the presence or vestiges of other humans in natural phenomena.
On rare occasions the literary use of anthropomorphism has been opposed on non-religious or political grounds. Lewis Carroll's novel "
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" was banned in China's Hunanprovince in 1931 because "animals should not use human language" and it "put animals and human beings on the same level." [Kenneth Specer Research Library, University of Kansas: http://spencer.lib.ku.edu/exhibits/bannedbooks/variouscountries.html] Later in the twentieth century George Orwell's novella " Animal Farm" used anthropomorphism to satirize Communism, as voiced by a pig in the famous passage "All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others".
Anthropomorphism is a well-established device in literature from early times. Aesop's Fables, a collection of short tales written or recorded by the ancient Greek citizen
Aesop, make extensive use of anthropomorphism, in which animals and weatherillustrate simple moral lessons. One poet who made high art of the literary device was the northern renaissancepoet Robert Henrysonin his " Morall Fabillis", where the blend of human and animal characteristics is especially subtle and ambiguous. The Indian books " Panchatantra" (The Five principles) and " The Jataka tales" employ anthropomorphized animals to illustrate various principles of life.
Other examples include:
Winnie-the-pooh, Beatrix Potter, Brian Jacques's Redwallseries, ...
Figure of speech
Origins of language
List of anthropomorphic personifications
List of anthropomorphic animal superheroes
The Twa Corbies
* Shipley, Orby. ed. "A glossary of ecclesiastical terms". 1872.
* [http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/A/anthropomorphism.html Anthropomorphism at The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology, Astronomy, and Spaceflight]
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