McDonnell Douglas CF-18 Hornet

McDonnell Douglas CF-18 Hornet
CF-18 Hornet
CF-18 over CFB Bagotville
Role Multirole fighter
National origin United States
Manufacturer McDonnell Douglas / Boeing
First flight 18 November 1978
Introduction 7 January 1983
Primary user Royal Canadian Air Force
Number built 138
Unit cost US$35 million(1977)[1]
Developed from McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet

The McDonnell Douglas CF-18 Hornet (official military designation CF-188) is a Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) (formerly Canadian Forces Air Command) fighter aircraft, based on the American McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet fighter. In 1980, the F/A-18 was selected as the winner of the New Fighter Aircraft competition, and a production order was awarded. The Canadian Forces began receiving the CF-18 in 1982. CF-18s have supported NORAD air sovereignty patrols and participated in combat during the Gulf War in 1991, the Kosovo War in the late 1990s, and as part of the Canadian contribution to the international Libyan no-fly zone in 2011.



New Fighter Aircraft program

In 1977, the Canadian government identified the need to replace the NATO-assigned CF-104 Starfighter, the NORAD-assigned CF-101 Voodoo and the CF-116 Freedom Fighter (although the decision was later made to keep the CF-116). Subsequently, the government proceeded with the New Fighter Aircraft competition (NFA), with a purchase budget of around C$2.4 billion to purchase 130–150 of the winner of the competition. Candidates included the Grumman F-14 Tomcat, McDonnell-Douglas F-15 Eagle, Panavia Tornado, Dassault Mirage F1 (later replaced by the Mirage 2000), plus the products of the American Lightweight Fighter (LWF) competition, the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, the F/A-18 Hornet, and a de-navalized version of the Hornet, the F-18L.[N 1] The government stressed that the winner of the competition be a proven off-the-shelf design and provide substantial industrial benefits as part of the order.

By 1978, the New Fighter Aircraft competitors were short-listed to just three aircraft types: the F-16 and the two F-18 offerings. The F-14, F-15, and the Tornado were rejected due to their high purchase price, while Dassault dropped out of the competition. The F-18L combined the systems and twin-engine layout of the F-18 that Air Command favored with a lighter land-based equipment setup that significantly improved performance. Northrop, the primary contractor for the F-18L version, had not built the aircraft by the time of the NFA program, waiting on successful contracts before doing so. While Northrop offered the best industrial offset package, it would only "pay off" if other F-18L orders were forthcoming, something the Department of National Defence (DND) was not willing to bet on.[2]

A Canadian CF-18 flies off the coast of Hawaii

The F-14 almost entered Canadian service through the backdoor due to the Iranian Revolution. In the aftermath of the revolution, the United States cut off all military supplies to Iran, which meant that the Iranians' new fleet of F-14s would be potentially rendered unflyable due to a lack of spares. The Canadians offered to purchase them at a steeply discounted price. Negotiations ended before a deal was reached as it was revealed that Canadian involvement was crucial in the smuggling of American embassy personnel out of the new Islamic Republic.[3]

In 1980, the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet was declared the winner of the New Fighter Aircraft competition. The order included 98 single-seat variants and 40 dual-seat variants, for a total of 138 purchased, plus 20 options (which were not exercised). The F/A-18 Hornet was then dubbed the CF-188.[N 2] In every context except the most official of military documents, the aircraft are referred to as CF-18 Hornets.[5] Reasons for the selection listed by the Canadian Forces were many of its requested features were included for the U.S. Navy; two engines for reliability (considered essential for conducting Arctic sovereignty and over-the-water patrols), an excellent radar set, while being considerably more affordable than the F-14 and the F-15. The CF-18 was procured from 1982 to 1988.

CF-18 design changes

The most visible difference between a CF-18 and a US F-18 is the 0.6 Mcd night identification light. This spotlight is mounted in the gun loading door on the port side of the aircraft. Some CF-18s have the light temporarily removed, but the window is always in place. Also, the underside of the CF-18 features a painted "dummy canopy". This is intended to disorient and confuse an enemy in air-to-air combat. Subsequently, the U.S. Marine Corps Aviation and the Spanish Air Force F/A-18 also adopted this "dummy canopy."

Many features that made the F/A-18 suitable for naval carrier operations were also retained by the Canadian Forces, such as the robust landing gear, the arrestor hook, and wing folding mechanisms, which proved useful when operating the fighters from smaller airfields such as those found in the Arctic.


Lt. Col. Sean Penney exits his CF-18 in 2009

The need to upgrade the CF-18 was demonstrated during the Gulf War I deployment and during the 1998 Kosovo conflict as advances in technology had rendered some of the avionics on board the CF-18 obsolescent and incompatible with NATO allies. In 2000, CF-18 upgrades became possible when the government increased the defence budget.[6][7]

In 2001, the Incremental Modernization Project (IMP) was initiated. The project was broken into two phases over a period of eight years and was designed to improve air-to-air and air-to-ground combat capabilities, upgrade sensors and the defensive suite, and replace the datalinks and communications systems on board the CF-18 from the old F/A-18A and F/A-18B standard to the current F/A-18C and D standard. Boeing (merged with McDonnell Douglas) the primary contractor and L-3 Communications the primary subcontractor, was issued a contract for the modernization project starting in 2002. A total of 80 CF-18s, consisting of 62 single-seat and 18 dual-seat models were selected from the fleet for the upgrade program. The project is supposed to extend the life of the CF-18 until around 2017 to 2020.[8][9]

Incremental Modernization Project Phase I

Replacing the AN/APG-65 radar with the new AN/APG-73 radar, which has triple the processing speed and memory capacity, while also incorporating Terrain Following and Terrain Avoidance modes for low level ground attack missions. Furthermore, the new AN/APG-73 radar is also capable of guiding the modern AIM-120 AMRAAM medium range missile.

Addition of the AN/APX-111 Combined Interrogator and Transponder, otherwise known as an IFF (Identification Friend or Foe). The new IFF brings the CF-18 up to current NATO standards for combat identification.

Replacement of the radios with the new AN/ARC-210, RT-1556/ARC VHF/UHF Radio. This radio, capable of line-of-sight communications on VHF/UHF frequencies as well as HAVE QUICK, HAVE QUICK II, and SINCGARS waveforms resolved the issues of compatibility with allied forces, and are more resistant to jamming.

Replacement of the mission computers with the General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems AN/AYK-14 XN-8 mission computer with increased memory and processing capabilities.

Replacement of the Stores Management System with the Smiths Aerospace AN/AYQ-9 Stores Management System. This makes the CF-18 more compatible with the latest of precision guided munitions (PGMs) and furthermore adds the MIL-STD-1760 interface for use of the AIM-120 AMRAAM missile and the JDAM family of GPS-guided bombs.

Furthermore, a Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) capability was installed on the CF-18, which enhances its navigational capabilities.

Within the same time frame, other non-IMP upgrades include:

  • A new infrared sensor pod was installed on the aircraft.
  • The old cathode ray tube cockpit instrument panels were replaced with new flat paneled, full colour LCD displays from Litton Systems Canada (now Northrop Grumman Canada).[10]
  • A new night vision imaging system was added to the aircraft.
  • Purchase of the AIM-120 AMRAAM medium-range missiles and other advanced air to air and air to ground munitions.
  • A landing gear “get well” program to reduce corrosion and improve gear retraction.
  • An Advanced Distributed Combat Training System.

The first completed "Phase I" CF-18 was delivered to the Canadian Forces on time in May 2003.[11] Final delivery of all "Phase I" CF-18s was done at a ceremony on 31 August 2006 at L-3 Communications in Mirabel, Quebec.[12]

Incremental Modernization Project Phase II
A 425 Squadron CF-188 Hornet which after undergoing IMP Phase II, distinguishable because of the IFF antenna on its nose.

Phase II of the CF-18 Incremental Modernization Project was awarded to Boeing on 22 February 2005. It consists of the following upgrades:

  • The addition of a Link 16 data net system to the aircraft, enhancing interoperability with major NATO allies.
  • The integration of the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System from Boeing, BAE Systems, DRDC and L-3 Communications MAS.[13][14][15]
  • A crash survivable flight data recorder.
  • An upgraded electronic warfare suite.

Within the same time frame, other non-IMP upgrades include:

  • A fuselage Centre Barrel Replacement Project (for 40 of the upgraded aircraft).
  • An Air Combat Manoeuvring Instrumentation System.
  • An Integrated Electronic Warfare Support Station.
  • An Electronic Warfare Test Equipment Project.

The first completed "Phase II" CF-18 was delivered to the Canadian Forces on 20 August 2007, at a ceremony in Montreal.[16][17] The total cost of the entire CF-18 Incremental Modernization Project and concurrent Hornet upgrades was expected to be around C$2.6 billion.[18][19] The final upgraded aircraft was delivered in March 2010.[20]

The total program cost for the CF-188 purchase and upgrade programs is approximately $20.21 billion including upgrades, in 2011 dollars.[21] Additionally, the cost of maintenance for any 20-year period has been approximately $5 billion, or $250 million per year.[22]

Operational history

Introduction into Canadian service

A Soviet Tu-95 Bear-H bomber being escorted by a CF-188 Hornet in 1985.

The first two CF-18s were formally handed over to 410 (Operational Training Unit) Squadron at CFB Cold Lake, Alberta on 25 October 1982.[23] Further deliveries equipped 409, 439, and 421 Squadrons at Baden-Soellingen in then West Germany, the 410 Operation Training Unit, 416, and 441 Squadrons at Cold Lake, and 425 Squadron at CFB Bagotville, Quebec. Introduction into Canadian service was initially problematic due to early issues with structural fatigue which delayed initial deployment. As the initial bugs were worked out, the CF-18 started filling the NORAD interception and NATO roles as intended.


A Canadian CF-18A from the 409th Squadron at Cold Lake releases a laser-guided bomb at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, USA, in December 2006.

In 1991, Canada committed 26 CF-18s to the Gulf War on Operation Friction. [N 3] The CF-18s were based in Doha, Qatar. During the Gulf War, Canadian pilots flew more than 5,700 hours, including 2,700 combat air patrol missions. These aircraft were taken from Canada's airbase in Germany, CFB Baden-Soellingen. In the beginning the CF-18s began sweep-and-escort combat missions to support ground-attack strikes by Allied air forces. During the 100-hour Allied ground invasion in late February, CF-18s also flew 56 bombing sorties, mainly dropping 500 lb (230 kg) conventional ("dumb") bombs on Iraqi artillery positions, supply dumps, and marshaling areas behind the lines. At the time the Canadian Hornets were unable to deploy precision guided munitions. This was the first time since the Korean War that the Canadian military had participated in combat operations.[24]

Canadian CF-18s depart Aviano Air Base, Italy, after contributing 2,600 combat flying hours in support of NATO Operation Allied Force.

Continuing violence in the former Yugoslavia brought CF-18s into theatre twice: first for a deployment (Operation Mirador) during August–November 1997 for air patrols supporting NATO peacekeepers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and again from late June 1998 until late December 2000 (Operation Echo).

In June 1999, with 18 CF-18s already deployed to Aviano, Italy, Canada participated in both the air-to-ground and air-to-air roles. Canadian aircraft conducted 10 percent of the NATO strike sorties despite deploying a much smaller percentage of the overall forces. Canadian pilots flew 678 combat sorties: 120 defensive counter-air escorts for Allied strike packages and 558 bombing strikes during 2,577 combat flying hours. CF-18s dropped a total of 397 PGMs and 171 free-fall iron bombs on a wide variety of targets including surface-to-air missile sites, airfields, bridges and fuel storage areas.[25][26]

A CF-18 Hornet , fires an AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missile at a MQM-107E Streaker aerial target drone during a "Combat Archer" mission.

Since 2001, CF-18s have responded to nearly 3,000 possibles threats to Canada and United States.[27] A task group of CF-18s and CH-146 Griffons were deployed during "Operation Grizzly" to Kananaskis, Alberta in June 2002 where they were deployed to secure the airspace during the 28th G8 summit.[28] In 2007, an unknown number of CF-18s were deployed to Alaska. They were deployed during two weeks to defend United States airspace.[29] They were also deployed during "Operation Podium" to secure the 2010 Winter Olympics and 2010 Winter Paralympics games.[30]

After a United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 was adopted to enforce a Libyan no-fly zone, the Government of Canada on 18 March 2011, authorized the deployment of six CF-188 Hornets with one Hornet in reserve as part of Operation MOBILE.[31][32] The Hornets were based at Trapani-Birgi Italian Air Force base in western Sicily. CF-18s were first put into combat on 23 March 2011 when four aircraft bombed Libyan government targets. The seven Hornets returned to CFB Bagotville, Canada, on 4 November 2011 after the end of the UN-approved NATO mission. In total, the Hornets conducted 946 sorties, making up 10% of NATO strike sorties. Over the course of their sorties, 696 bombs were dropped including Laser Guided Bombs and Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM).[33].[34]


A number of different fighter aircraft have been considered by the Canadian Forces as replacements for the CF-18 with the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II, Eurofighter Typhoon, SAAB JAS 39 Gripen, and the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet all having been promoted as contenders by their respective manufacturers.[35] According to Le Devoir, project costs without considering maintenance, training and spare parts, are estimated at $4 to $8 billion.[36] Boeing has indicated the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, a derivative of the F/A-18 Hornet, is a less expensive alternative at an estimated total cost of $4 billion.[37] One of the manufacturers in contention: Boeing, BAE Systems and Saab Aerospace, had promised to assemble the entire aircraft in Canada although the name was not publicly disclosed.[37]

In July 2010, the Canadian government announced the replacement for the CF-18 will be the F-35 Lightning II. Canada has been a partner in the Joint Strike Fighter Program from 1997 and a Tier 3 partner for the F-35 Lightning II since 2002.[38][39][40] The Canadian Forces plan to buy 65 F-35s with deliveries starting in 2016. The contract is estimated to be worth C$9 billion, including aircraft and associated weapons, infrastructure, initial spares, training simulators, contingency funds and project operating costs.[40]


  • CF-18A: Single-seat fighter and ground attack aircraft. Canadian Forces designation is CF-188A.
  • CF-18B: Two-seat training version. Canadian Forces designation is CF-188B.


Two CF-18Bs flying over Utah test range (USA) for planned engagements during the "Tiger Meet of the Americas" on 9 August 2001
A CF-18 Hornet in the 2009 Century of Canadian Flight colour scheme in Bagotville, Quebec
The Royal Canadian Air Force had 72 CF-18As and 31 CF-18Bs in inventory as of November 2008.[41] 80 in operational use.

Rotations from Cold Lake occur from 4 Wing to CFB Comox, British Columbia and from 3 Wing Bagotville to CFB Goose Bay and CFB Gander, Newfoundland and Labrador, CFB Greenwood, Nova Scotia, and various forward operating bases in the Canadian Arctic. There are normally a few aircraft at CFB Trenton, Ontario as well, though not a permanent squadron.[42]

Accidents and incidents

As of 17 November 2010, Canada has lost 18 CF-18s, incurring nine pilot deaths.[43]

Notable losses

  • 14 August 1996: Aircraft crashes on takeoff from Iqaluit, Northwest Territories. Pilot safely ejects.[44]
  • 26 May 2003: CF-18 crashes on the Cold Lake Air Weapons Range during the annual international training exercise MAPLE FLAG; pilot (Captain Kevin Naismith) killed.[45][46]
  • 19 June 2004: Aircraft from CFB Cold Lake lost when it was unable to stop while at Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. Aircraft was salvaged and is back in service. Pilot ejected but was injured.[47]
  • 16 August 2005: Aircraft crashes during a training exercise near CFB Bagotville. Pilot safely ejects.[48]
  • 23 July 2010: A CF-18 (#188738) crashed while practicing an airshow routine at the Lethbridge County Airport. The pilot, Captain Brian Bews safely ejected.[49][50]
  • 17 November 2010: Captain Darren Blakie ejected from his CF-18 on approach to CFB Cold Lake. The aircraft crashed 13 kilometres from the base.[51]

Specifications (CF-18)

Orthographic projection of the F/A-18 Hornet

Data from CF-18 Specifications[52]

General characteristics



  • Nine Weapon/ Store Stations (5 pylons: 1 Under Fuselage and 4 Wing Stations) (2 LAU 116 located on sides of fuselage: deploys AIM 7 Sparrow and AMRAAM Missiles)(2 LAU 7 located on the wing tips: Deploys AIM 9 Sidewinder Missile), carrying up to 13700 lb (6215 kg) of missiles, rockets, bombs, fuel tanks, and pods
  • 1 × 20 mm M61A1 Vulcan internal gatling gun with 578 rounds, with a firing rate of 4000 or 6000 shots per minute
  • Missiles:


Notable appearances in media

The documentary television show, Jetstream which aired on Discovery Channel Canada, followed eight pilots training with the Canadian air force to fly the CF-18 at CFB Cold Lake. They trained in 410 Tactical Fighter Training Squadron.[53][54]

The CF-18 is used as a primary element of the new logo for the Winnipeg Jets NHL hockey team, as an homage to the city's connection to the RCAF/CF as well as an earlier Olympic gold winning team, the Ottawa RCAF Flyers. [55]The official unveiling described the origin of the design involving the cooperation of the Department of National Defence and was inspired by the logo of the Royal Canadian Air Force. Team spokesman Dorian Morphy, Senior Director, Marketing & Brand Management of True North Sports & Entertainment indicated, “We are thrilled to be able to continue this relationship in a significant way. The design cues for the plane were inspired by the military jets flown by the Air Force over the years."[56]

See also

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists


  1. ^ The F-18L, like the entire F-18 series, was derived from the Northrop YF-17 Cobra, the Hornet's predecessor.
  2. ^ Initially, the name "Hornet" was not used because the translation in French is Frelon, already used by a French military helicopter. The official designation is now the CF-188 Hornet.[4]
  3. ^ The US portion of the Gulf War was called Desert Shield/Desert Storm.
  1. ^ Gunston 1985, p. 96.
  2. ^ "F/A-18 Aircraft Sales to Canada, Australia, and Spain: A Case Study of Offsets." The Office of Management and Budget via, 16 April 1990. Retrieved: 8 June 2010.
  3. ^ "The CF18 Hornet fighter aircraft – In Detail (Part 3)." Retrieved: 14 March 2010.
  4. ^ "CF-188 Hornet." Canadaa's Air Force, 26 March 2007. Retrieved: 19 March 2011.
  5. ^ Baugher, Joe. "CF-18 For Canada.", 21 June 2005. Retrieved: 8 June 2010.
  6. ^ "The CF18 Incremental Modernization Program – In Detail (part 1)." CASR, December 2003. Retrieved: 14 March 2010.
  7. ^ "Canadian military to get more." Flight International, 7 March 2000.
  8. ^ "Auditing the Upgrades to the CF-18 Fighter Aircraft (Part 1).", December 2004. Retrieved: 8 June 2010.
  9. ^ Ng, Allen. "The CF18 Incremental Modernization Program – In Detail 'Not Your Father’s Hornet — the CF18 Incremental Modernization Program'.", december 2003. Retrieved: 8 June 2010.
  10. ^ Cook, Kathleen. "Boeing Awarded Contract with Canada to Update Displays on F/A-18s.", 26 July 2002. Retrieved: 5 June 2010.
  11. ^ Collier-Jennings, Faith et al. "Boeing Delivers First CF-18 Aircraft from Modernization Project.", 14 May 2003. Retrieved: 5 June 2010.
  12. ^ Frost, Patricia and Dianna Ramirez. "Boeing Completes First Phase of CF-18 Aircraft Modernization Project." Boeing, 31 August 2006. Retrieved: 14 March 2010.
  13. ^ "CF-18 Aircraft Crewstation Demonstrator System Upgrade." DRDC, 6 January 2003. Retrieved: 14 March 2010.
  14. ^ "Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS)." Boeing. Retrieved: 14 March 2010.
  15. ^ Deaton, Tim and Pat Frost. "Backgrounder: Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS)." Boeing, August 2008. Retrieved: 8 June 2010.
  16. ^ "Air Force receives first Phase II modernized CF-18 fighter jet". Canada's Air Force, 11 September 2007. Retrieved: 14 March 2010.
  17. ^ Little, Steve and Brad Mudd. "Boeing Delivers First Upgraded Phase II CF-18 Hornet to Canadian Defence Forces." Boeing, 22 August 2007. Retrieved: 14 March 2010.
  18. ^ "Canada's Air Force, Aircraft: CF-18 Hornet: Future Plans."[dead link] Retrieved: 14 March 2010.
  19. ^ "CASR - The CF18 Incremental Modernization Program – In Detail." Retrieved: 14 March 2010.
  20. ^ "Boeing Leads Phase 2 Upgrade of 79 CF-18 Fighters." Defense Industry Daily, 29 March 2010, Retrieved: 26 July 2010.
  21. ^ Wolfram Alpha calculation - $35M (AD 1977 $USD)*138 + 2.6BN Upgrade Project
  22. ^ COST OF MAINTENANCE FOR CANADA'S F-35 SAME AS CF-18 SAYS DND - BUT IS THAT TRUE? - David Pugliese’s Defence Watch
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  27. ^ Mitchell, Mike. "CF-18 Hornet To Patrol Skies Over Vancouver's Olympics Games." 6 February 2010. Retrieved: 8 June 2010.
  28. ^ Barr, Colonel David."The Kananaskis G8 Summit: A Case Study in Interagency Cooperation.", 14 July 2008. Retrieved: 5 June 2010.
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  30. ^ "Final Phase II Modernized CF-18 Hornet Delivered.", 26 March 2010. Retrieved: 5 June 2010.
  31. ^ "Operation MOBILE.", 18 March 2011. Retrieved: 20 March 2011.
  32. ^ Chase, Stephen. "Canada commits six fighter jets to help enforce Libyan no-fly zone." Globe and Mail, 17 March 2011. Retrieved: 18 March 2011.
  33. ^ Strelieff, Captain Jill. "CF-188 Hornets on Op MOBILE drop first JDAM bombs.", 27 October 2011. Retrieved: 8 November 2011.
  34. ^ "Canada's CF-18s in Libya mission return home." CBC, 4 November 2011. Retrieved: 8 November 2011.
  35. ^ Pugliese, David. "Canadian Air Force Needs Competition on Next Generation Fighter Next Year at the Latest." Ottawa Citizen, 4 November 2009. Retrieved: 4 November 2009.
  36. ^ Castonguay, Alec. "Le Canada veut remplacer ses CF-18: une facture de quatre milliards au bas mot. (Canada wants to replace its CF-18: A bill of four billion at least.)" (French) Le Devoir, 11 November 2009. Retrieved: 11 November 2009. (English translation).
  37. ^ a b "Avions de chasse: l'armée a fait son choix (Fighter plans: The Forces have made their choice.) (French)." Le Devoir, 7 June 2010. Retrieved: 8 June 2010.
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  39. ^ "Report: Ottawa set to spend $9B on new U.S. fighter jets from single source." The Guardian, 8 June 2010. Retrieved: 3 July 2010.
  40. ^ a b "Government Of Canada Strengthens Sovereignty While Generating Significant Economic Benefits." Canada Department of National Defence, 16 July 2010, Retrieved: 26 July 2010.
  41. ^ "Directory: World Air Forces". Flight International, 11–17 November 2008.
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  43. ^ "Ejection history.", 27 March 2010. Retrieved: 5 June 2010.
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  45. ^ "Investigators search cause of CF-18 crash." CBC, 27 May 2003. Retrieved: 6 June 2010.
  46. ^ "Summary report on CF-18 crash at CFB Cold Lake." DND/CF, 3 September 2003. Retrieved: 14 March 2010.
  47. ^ "Second Canadian Forces jet accident in Yellowknife." CBC Canada, 20 June 2004. Retrieved: 14 March 2010.
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  51. ^ Ibrahim, Mariam. "Canadian fighter jet crashes, pilot ejects."[dead link] Edmonton Journal, 18 November 2010. Retrieved: 18 November 2010.
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  55. ^ "Reborn Winnipeg Jets Unveil New Logo: Logo Features CF-18 Hornet, Canadian Maple Leaf.", 22 July 2011. Retrieved: 23 July 2011.
  56. ^ "True North Unveils Jets Logos." Winnipeg Jets, 22 July 2011. Retrieved: 23 July 2011.
  • Drendel, Lou. F/A-18 Hornet in action (Aircraft Number 136). Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1993. ISBN 0-89747-300-0.
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