BAE Hawk

BAE Hawk

Infobox Aircraft
name= Hawk


caption=RAF BAE Hawk T.1 trainer
type=Military trainer aircraft
manufacturers= Hawker Siddeley British Aerospace (1977-1999) BAE Systems (1999 onwards)
designer=
first flight=1974
introduced=
retired=
status=
primary user= Royal Air Force
more users= Royal Australian Air Force Canadian Forces Finnish Air Force
produced=
number built=
unit cost= £18 million (2003)
developed from =
variants with their own articles = T-45 Goshawk

The BAE Systems Hawk is a British advanced jet trainer which first flew in 1974 as the Hawker Siddeley Hawk. It is used by the Royal Air Force, and other air forces, as either a trainer or a low-cost combat aircraft. The Hawk is still in production with over 900 Hawks sold to 18 customers around the world.

Design and development

In 1964 the Royal Air Force specified a requirement for a new initial jet trainer to replace the Folland Gnat. The SEPECAT Jaguar was originally intended for this role, but it was soon realised that it would be too complex an aircraft for initial jet training. Accordingly, in 1968 Hawker Siddeley began the design of a much simpler strictly subsonic trainer, the HS.1182. It was to have tandem seating and would be capable of carrying armaments, which would enable it to be used as a weapons trainer and in light combat roles.

Renamed "Hawk" in 1973, the aircraft first flew on 21st August 1974. It entered RAF service in April 1976, replacing the Gnat and Hawker Hunter in the advanced training and weapons training roles respectively. The following year Hawker Siddeley merged with other British aircraft companies to form the nationalised British Aerospace (BAe), which subsequently became BAE Systems upon merger with Marconi Electronic Systems in 1999.

The most famous RAF operator of the Hawk is the Red Arrows aerobatic team, which adopted the plane in 1979. The Finnish Air Force aerobatics team, the Midnight Hawks, also uses the aircraft.

The Hawk has excellent maneuverability, and while it is not capable of supersonic speed in level flight, it can attain Mach 1.2 in a dive, allowing trainees to experience trans-sonic handling without the cost of a supersonic trainer.

The Hawk subsequently replaced the English Electric Canberra in the target towing role.

The Royal Navy acquired a dozen Hawk T.Mk 1/1As from the RAF, for use as aerial targets for the training of ships gunners and radar operators.

Cockpit

The cockpit in all Hawk aircraft includes a conventional centre stick arrangement.

Operational history

United Kingdom

The T.1 ("Trainer Mark 1") was the original version of the Hawk used by the RAF, deliveries commencing in November 1976. The UK ordered 176 T1s.

From 1983 to 1986, some Hawks were equipped as the short-range interceptor aircraft for point defence. 88 T.1s were modified to carry two AIM-9L Sidewinder air-to-air missiles in addition to the centerline gun pod carrying a single 30 mm ADEN cannon. These aircraft were designated T.1A. In the event of war, they would have worked in collaboration with Tornado F.3 aircraft, which would use their Foxhunter search radars to vector the radar-less Hawks against enemy targets. Such missions would have been flown by instructor pilots. Conversions were completed in 1986. With the fall of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, RAF Hawks are no longer tasked with this role.

Eighty Hawk TMk1/1A aircraft have been upgraded under the Fuselage Replacement Programme (FRP), which involves the replacement of the aft centre and rear fuselage sections, using new build sections derived from the Mk. 60.

Finland

The Finnish Air Force purchased fifty Hawk Mk.51s in 1980.

As a legacy of the WWII peace treaty conditions, the Finnish Air Force was not allowed to possess more than sixty first-line fighter aircraft. By acquiring Hawks, which did not count as such, but as trainers, the FAF could effectively improve its operational capacity without breaking the aforementioned conditions which were still in effect.Fact|date=May 2008

Seven additional Mk.51As were delivered in 1993-94 to make up for losses. In June 2007, Finland purchased 18 Hawk Mk.66s from the Swiss Air Force for 41 million euros to expand the lifespan of the Hawk fleet up until 2017-2019. They are to be delivered in 2009-2010. [ [http://www.defense-aerospace.com/cgi-bin/client/modele.pl?prod=84032&session=dae.27300646.1183263705.DNxp638AAAEAAHy0BI0AAAAL&modele=release Finland Purchases 18 Jet Trainers (Mk.66) from Switzerland] ] Finnish Hawks were sometimes seen armed with Russian Molniya R-60/AA-8. [ [http://www.sci.fi/~fta/lassi-hw.htm Missile armed Hawk BAe Hawk with R-60] ] [ [http://www.yle.fi/uutiset/kotimaa/vasen/id63652.html "Suomi hankkii lisää Hawk-hävittäjiä".] Finnish Broadcasting Agency (YLE), 2007-06-28. Retrieved on 2007-06-28. fi]

Variants

Hawk T.1/T.1A

The T.1 ("Trainer Mark 1") was the original version of the Hawk used by the RAF, deliveries commencing in November 1976. The UK ordered 176 T1s.

Hawk 50

The Hawk 50 was the original export trainer version, and offered a limited attack capability. Finland, Indonesia and Kenya ordered 89 of this variant.

*Hawk 51 - Export version for the Finnish Air Force.
*Hawk 51A - Seven Hawks were sold to Finland as part of a follow-on order.
*Hawk 52 - Export version for the Kenyan Air Force.
*Hawk 53 - Export version for the Indonesian Air Force.

Hawk 60

Another export version, replacing the Hawk 50, intended for conversion and weapons training. Weapons carriage is increased. It is a two-seater, has uprated Rolls-Royce Adour 861 engines, and is capable of a level speed at altitude of 555 knots (1028 km/h) or Mach 0.84. The T-45 Goshawk was derived from this version.Donald, David: "Warplanes of the Fleet", page 175. AIRtime Publishing Inc, 2004. ISBN 1-880588-81-1] Frawley, Gerard: "The International Directory of Military Aircraft", page 48. Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd, 2002. ISBN 1-875671-55-2]

*Hawk 60 - Export version for the Air Force of Zimbabwe. Eight Hawks were sold to Zimbabwe, they were delivered between July and October 1982.
*Hawk 60A -Five Hawks were sold to Zimbabwe as part of a follow-on order. The aircraft were delivered between June and September 1992.
*Hawk 61 - Export version for Dubai, United Arab Emirates Air Force
*Hawk 63 - Export version for Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Air Force.
*Hawk 63A - 15 Hawk 63s were upgraded to this standard.
*Hawk 63C - Four aircraft were sold to Adu Dhabi as part of a follow-on order.
*Hawk 64 - Export version for the Kuwait Air Force.
*Hawk 65 - Export version for the Royal Saudi Air Force.
*Hawk 65A - 20 were sold to Saudi Arabia as part of a follow-on order.
*Hawk 66 - Export version for the Swiss Air Force.
*Hawk 67 - Export version for the South Korean Air Force.

Hawk 100

A two-seat advanced weapons trainer with additional avionics, including forward looking infrared (optional, fitted to Malaysian aircraft), a redesigned wing and HOTAS.

*Hawk 102 - Export version for Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Air Force.
*Hawk 103 - Export version for the Royal Air Force Of Oman.
*Hawk 108 - Export version for the Royal Malaysian Air Force. (10)
*Hawk 109 - Export version for the Indonesian Air Force. (8)
*Hawk 115 - Export version for the Canadian Forces, designated 'CT-155 Hawk' in Canadian service.
*Hawk 129 - Export version for Bahrain. (6)

Hawk 120/LIFT

The Hawk Lead In Fighter Trainer (LIFT) is the version selected by the South African Air Force in December 1999. This variant is powered by the Adour 951. The LIFT benefits from development carried out for the Australian Mk.127.The next generation Hawks (120, 127 and 128) feature a new wing, forward and centre fuselage, fin and tailplane. The aircraft have only 10% commonality with the existing first generation aircraft. The new variants also have four times the fatigue life of the original aircraft. 24 aircraft will be delivered.

Hawk 127

Thirty three Hawk 127 Lead in Fighters (LIFs) were ordered by the Royal Australian Air Force in June 1997, twelve of which were produced in the UK and twenty one in Australia. This variant is also powered by the Adour 871. The Hawk 127 is operated by the RAAF's No. 76 Squadron and No. 79 Squadron which are based at RAAF Base Williamtown and RAAF Base Pearce respectively.

Hawk 128

The Hawk 128 is the new Advanced Jet Trainer (AJT) for the RAF and Royal Navy. The Mk.128 includes modern LCD displays instead of conventional instrumentation, and allows preparation for flying modern fighter aircraft, particularly the all "glass" Typhoon. It has Rolls-Royce Adour 951 engines. The UK Ministry of Defence awarded a Design and Development Contract to BAE Systems on 22 Dec 2004, [cite news |title = Hawk Advanced Jet Trainer |url = http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200405/cmhansrd/vo050126/text/50126w01.htm |publisher = Hansard Column 333W |date = 2005-01-26] building on the design of the Australian Mk.127 and the South African Mk.120s. A £450 million contract was signed in October 2006 for the production of 28 Hawk 128s. [cite news |title = BAE lands £450m Hawks contract |url = http://www.blackpoolonline.co.uk/ViewArticle2.aspx?SectionID=63&ArticleID=1834497 |publisher = Blackpool Today |date = 2006-10-20 |accessdate = 2006-10-20] The MoD had originally announced its intention to order 20 aircraft with options for 24 more. The aircraft's maiden flight occurred on 27 July 2005 from BAE Systems' Warton airfield and lasted for 1 hour 18 minutes. ['Hawk Mk 128 Makes Maiden Flight' "Air Forces Monthly" September 2005 p.6 Retrieved on 2008-05-31]

Hawk 129

The Hawk 129 is a variant for the Royal Bahraini Air Force (RBAF). Six aircraft were ordered in 2002 for delivery in 2006.

Hawk 132

The Hawk Mk. 132 is the latest export variant of the Hawk and was previously known as the Mk.115Y. The Mk.132 formally entered service with the Indian Air Force (IAF) on 23 February 2008 [ cite web|url = http://www.hindustantimes.com/storypage/storypage.aspx?id=1331a638-a926-4978-b1eb-82461af7a173&MatchID1=4665&TeamID1=10&TeamID2=3&MatchType1=1&SeriesID1=1174&MatchID2=4661&TeamID3=5&TeamID4=2&MatchType2=2&SeriesID2=1172&PrimaryID=4665&Headline=AJT+Hawk+inducted+into+IAF|title = AJT Hawk inducted into IAF|accessdate = 2008-02-23|last = Kulkarni|first = Sagar |authorlink = |year = 2008|month = February] after one of the most protracted procurement processes in India's history, with two decades having elapsed between the initial interest and the contract signing on 26 March 2004. The IAF will receive 24 aircraft directly from BAE Systems, with deliveries beginning in November 2007, and the remaining 42 to be assembled by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited between 2008 and 2011.cite web|url = http://www.hindu.com/2008/01/11/stories/2008011160161400.htm |title = The IAF is set to get 40 more Hawk AJTs|accessdate = 2008-01-12|last = Sharma|first = Ravi|authorlink = |year = 2008|month = January] HAL handed over the first locally-built Hawk 132 to the IAF on 14 August 2008 [ [http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/001200808141969.htm First HAL-built Hawk-MK132 aircraft handed over to IAF] ] . These aircraft will be powered by Rolls Royce Mk 871 turbo fan engine. [ [http://www.india-defence.com/reports-3957 HAL to Hand Over first Hawk Jet Trainer to Indian Air Force Thursday] ] In February 2008, India was planning to order 57 more Hawks, with 40 going to the Indian Air Force and the remaining 17 to the Indian Navy. [ Govindasamy, Siva. [http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2008/02/11/221371/india-seeks-extra-hawks.html "India seeks extra Hawks"] , Flight International, 11 February 2008.] [Luthra, Gulshan and Goel, Ashok. [http://www.indiastrategic.in/topstories81.html "IAF to buy 40 more Hawk Advanced Jet Trainers, Navy to follow with 17"] , India Strategic, February 2008.]

Hawk 200

The Hawk 200 is a single seat, lightweight multirole combat fighter with emphasis on air defence, air superiority, anti-shipping, air-denial, long range interdiction, short range close air support and ground attack. The aircraft is fitted with the AN/APG-66H, an advanced version of the F-16A APG-66 radar with multimode systems. The aircraft is able to be equipped with the AIM-9 Sidewinder and AGM-65 Maverick. The Malaysian aircraft has the most extensive modification to the aircraft with illumination "slime" lights, wingtip AAMs and inflight refuelling. Its aircraft have been involved in major long-range deployments to areas such as Sabah and the Spratly Islands. Indonesia, Malaysia and Oman have ordered 62 aircraft.
*Hawk 203 - Export version for the Royal Air Force Of Oman.
*Hawk 205 - Proposed export version for the Royal Saudi Air Force.
*Hawk 208 - Export version for the Royal Malaysian Air Force. (18)
*Hawk 209 - Export version for the Indonesian Air Force. (32)

T-45 Goshawk

The T-45 Goshawk is a fully carrier-capable aircraft developed from the Hawk 60 for the United States Navy for use in carrier training.

Operators

Current operators

;AUS
*Royal Australian Air Force
**No. 76 Squadron/No. 78 Wing at RAAF Base Williamtown
**No. 79 Squadron/No. 78 Wing at RAAF Base Pearce

;BHR
*Royal Bahraini Air Force - 6 Hawks
** No. 5 Squadron at Shaikh Isa

;CAN
*Canadian Forces cite web|url = http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/site/equip/ct155/default_e.asp|title = CT-155 Hawk|accessdate = 2008-06-25|last = Department of National Defence Public Affairs|authorlink = |year = 2007|month = March]
**2 Canadian Forces Flying Training School/15 Wing at CFB Moose Jaw
**419 Tactical Fighter Training Squadron/4 Wing at CFB Cold Lake

;FIN
* Finnish Air Force
** Fighter Squadron 41 (HävLLv 41) at Kauhava
** Finnish Air Force Display Team "Midnight Hawks"
**50 Hawk Mk.51s were purchased in 1980, 7 additional Mk.51As were delivered in 1993-94 to make up for losses. 18 Mk.66s are to be delivered in 2009 to expand the lifespan of the Hawk fleet up until 2017-2019. [ [http://www.defense-aerospace.com/cgi-bin/client/modele.pl?prod=84032&session=dae.27300646.1183263705.DNxp638AAAEAAHy0BI0AAAAL&modele=release Finland Purchases 18 Jet Trainers (Mk.66) from Switzerland] ] Finnish Hawks were sometimes seen armed with Russian Molniya R-60/AA-8. [ [http://www.sci.fi/~fta/lassi-hw.htm Missile armed Hawk BAe Hawk with R-60] ]

;IND
* Indian Air Force
* Indian Navy - Reports surfaced in early 2008 that the Indian government has approved a follow-on order of 57 more BAE Systems Hawk Mk132s, with 17 going to the Indian Navy and the remaining 40 slated for the Indian Air Force.

;IDN
* Indonesian Air Force
** Skadron Udara 1 at Supadio
** Skadron Udara 12 at Pekanbaru/Sultan Syarif Qasim II International
** Skadron Udara 15/Wing 3 at Iswahjudi

;KEN
*Kenya Air Force

;KWT
*Kuwait Air Force
** No. 12 (Training) Squadron at Ali al Salem (Flight Training Centre)

;MYS
*Royal Malaysian Air Force
** Skuadron 6 "Cakra" at RMAF Kuantan/Sultan Ahmed Shah
** Skuadron 9 at RMAF Labuan (disbanded)
** Skuadron 15 "Panther" at RMAF Butterworth

;OMN
*Royal Air Force of Oman
** No. 6 Squadron at RAFO Masirah

;SAU
*Royal Saudi Air Force
** No. 21 Squadron/No. 7 Wing at Tabuk/King Faisal
** No. 79 Squadron/No. 7 Wing at Tabuk/King Faisal
** No. 88 Squadron/No. 7 Wing at Tabuk/King Faisal

;RSA
*South African Air Force
**85 Combat Flying School at AFB Makhado

;KOR
*Republic of Korea Air Force
** 216th Flight Training Squadron/16th Fighter Wing at Yecheon

;UK
* Royal Air Force
** No. 19 (R) Squadron/No. 4 Flying Training School at RAF Valley
** No. 100 Squadron at RAF Leeming
** No. 208 (R) Squadron)/No. 4 Flying Training School at RAF Valley
** Joint Forward Air Control Training and Standards Unit (JFACTSU) at RAF Leeming
** RAF Aerobatic Team "Red Arrows" at RAF Scampton
* Royal Navy
** Fleet Requirements Air Direction Unit (FRADU) at RNAS Culdrose

;ARE
* United Arab Emirates Air Force
** No. 63 (Advanced Training) Squadron at Al Ain International (Flying Training School - Khalif bin Zayed Air College)
** No. 102 Squadron at Minhad

;ZIM
* Air Force of Zimbabwe
** No. 2 Squadron "Cobra" at Gweru-Thornhill

Former operators

;SUI
* Swiss Air Force: 20 Hawk Mk.66s were bought in 1992 but were sold to Finland June 2007.

pecifications (Hawk 128)

aircraft specifications/switch

plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=jet
ref=Royal Air Force,cite web | url=http://www.raf.mod.uk/equipment/hawk128.html | author=Royal Air Force | title=Hawk 128 | work=Aircraft of the RAF | accessdate=2006-04-12 | year=2005-04-29 ] BAE Systems,cite web | url=http://www.baesystems.com/facts/programmes/airsystems/hawk.htm | author=BAE Systems | title=Hawk | work=BAE Systems - Air Systems | accessdate=2006-04-12 ] "and" Air Vectorscite web | url=http://www.vectorsite.net/avhawk.html | author=Goebel, Greg | title=The BAE Hawk | work=Air Vectors | accessdate=2006-04-12 | year=2006-03-01 ]

crew=2: student, instructor
length main=40 ft 9 in
length alt=12.43 m
span main=32 ft 7 in
span alt=9.94 m
height main=13 ft 1 in
height alt=3.98 m
area main=179.64 ft²
area alt=16.70 m²
empty weight main=9,880 lb
empty weight alt=4,480 kg
loaded weight main=
loaded weight alt=
useful load main=6,600 lb
useful load alt=3,000 kg
max takeoff weight main=20,000 lb
max takeoff weight alt=9,100 kg
engine (jet)=Rolls-Royce Adour Mk.951
type of jet=turbofan with FADEC
number of jets=1
thrust main=6,500 lbf
thrust alt=29 kN
max speed main=1,028 km/h, 638 mph
max speed alt=.84 Mach
max speed more=at altitude
never exceed speed main=1.2 Mach
range main=1,360 NM, 1,565 mi
range alt=2,520 km
ceiling main=44,500 ft
ceiling alt=13,565 m
climb rate main=9,300 ft/min
climb rate alt=47 m/s
loading main=
loading alt=
thrust/weight=0.65
armament=:"Note: all armament is optional."
* 1× 30 mm ADEN cannon, in centreline pod
* Up to 6,800 lb (3,085 kg) of weapons on five hardpoints, including:
** 4× AIM-9 Sidewinder or ASRAAM on wing pylons and wingtip rails
* 1,500 lb (680 kg), limited to one centreline and two wing pylons (Hawk T.1)

ee also

aircontent
related=
* T-45 Goshawk
similar aircraft=
* Aermacchi MB-339
* Aero L-39 Albatros / Aero L-159 ALCA
* CASA C-101 Aviojet
* Dassault/Dornier Alpha Jet
* G-4 Super Galeb
* HAL HJT-36
* Hongdu JL-8
* PZL I-22 Iryda
sequence=
* Harrier - P.1154 - Nimrod - Hawk"' - HS125
* CF:
** - CT-155 - CT-156 Harvard II -
lists=
* List of active Canadian military aircraft
* List of active United Kingdom military aircraft
see also=
* SEPECAT Jaguar
*

References

External links

* [http://abclive.in/abclive_national/ajt_hawk_indian-air_force.html Indian Air Force Gets Advanced Jet Trainer]
* [http://www.raf.mod.uk/equipment/hawk.cfm RAF Hawk T1/1A trainer page]
* [http://www.raaf.gov.au/aircraft/hawk.htm RAAF Hawk 127 trainer page]
* [http://www.baesystems.com/ProductsServices/bae_prod_air_hawk.html BAE Systems Hawk fact sheet]
* [http://www.vectorsite.net/avhawk.html BAE Hawk at Greg Goebel's AIR VECTORS]
* http://www.aeroflight.co.uk/types/uk/bae_systems/hawk/hawk1.htm
* [http://www.raf.mod.uk/reds/ The Red Arrows]
* [http://www.britishaircraft.co.uk/aircraftpage.php?ID=667 British Aircraft Directory]


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