- Rolls-Royce plc
company_name = Rolls-Royce Group plc
company_type = Public (lse|RR.)
foundation = 1906 (as
1987 (privatised as plc)
location = flagicon|UK
Derby, England, UK
Sir John Rose (CEO)
products = Civil & military aero engines
Marine propulsion systems
Power generation equipment
revenue = profit £7,435 million (2007)
operating_income = profit £514 million (2007)
net_income = profit £600 million (2007)
num_employees = 38,000 (2007)
homepage = [http://www.rolls-royce.com www.rolls-royce.com]
Rolls-Royce plc (lse|RR.) is a British
aircraft enginemaker, and the second-largest in the world, behind GE Aviation. The company has related businesses in the defence aerospace, marine and energy markets.
Rolls-Royce was nationalised in 1971, by which time aircraft engines had long been the most significant part of the business. The automobile company was separated in 1973 and the present Rolls-Royce plc was re-privatised in 1987. Rolls-Royce is, through its defence aerospace division, the world's 16th largest defence contractor. [ [http://www.defensenews.com/index.php?S=07top100 "Top 100 Defense Contractors 2007"] ] Defence aerospace sales accounted for 21% of group sales in 2005, civil aerospace 53%, marine 17% and energy 8%. [Rolls-Royce (2005) "Rolls-Royce Annual Report 2005"]
Rolls-Royce Limitedwas founded in 1906 by Henry Royceand C.S. Rolls, and produced its first aircraft engine in 1914.
Around half the aircraft engines used by the
Alliesin World War Iwere made by Rolls-Royce. By the late 1920s, aero engines made up most of Rolls-Royce's business. Henry Royce's last design was the Merlin aero engine, which came out in 1935 although he had died in 1933. This was a development subsequent to the R engine, which had powered a record-breaking SupermarineS6.B seaplaneto almost 400mph in the 1931 Schneider Trophy. The Merlin powered many World War II aircraft: the British Hawker Hurricane, Supermarine Spitfire, De Havilland Mosquito(twin-engined), Avro Lancaster(4-engine), Vickers Wellington(2-engine); it also transformed the American P-51 Mustanginto one of the best fighters of its time, its Merlin engine built by Packardunder licence. Over 160,000 Merlin engines were produced.
In the post-
World War IIperiod Rolls-Royce made significant advances in gas turbineengine design and manufacture. The Dart and Tyne turbopropengines were particularly important, enabling airlines to cut journey times within several continents, whilst jet airliners were introduced on longer services. The Dart engine was used in Argosy, Avro 748and its military variant the Andover, Friendship, Herald and Viscount aircraft, whilst the more powerful Tyne powered the Atlantic, Transall and the Vanguard. Many of these turboprops are still in service.
Rolls-Royce engines had traditionally borne numeric designations during development and then were assigned the name of a British river on delivery. The use of river names was introduced with the earliest Rolls jet engines to reflect their nature: a steady flow of power rather than the pulses of a piston engine. RB stands for "Rolls
Barnoldswick", the latter a major ex-Rover facility bought by Rolls-Royce when it traded production of engines (the Rolls Royce Meteor) for production of the first Whittle engines.
Amongst the jet engines of this period was the RB163 Spey which powers the Trident,
BAC 1-11, Grumman Gulfstream II and Fokker F28. Military versions of the Spey powered the Buccaneer S2 for the RAF, the Phantom F4K and F4M, and the Nimrod. The Spey was licence built by Allison Engine Companyas the TF41 for the A-7 Corsair II. Other types of military engines produced in the second half of the 20th Century include the Avon and Viper; these engines powered many of the British Aircraft of this period.
Also of this period was the Conway, a low (by today's standards) bypass ratio turbofan which was used on some
Boeing 707s and Douglas DC-8s, and all Vickers VC10s as well as on the MkII variant of the Handley Page Victorbomber for the RAF.
During the late 1950s and '60s there was a significant rationalisation of the British aero-engine manufacturers, culminating in the merger of Rolls-Royce and
Bristol Siddeleyin 1966. Bristol Siddeley, which had itself resulted from the merger of Armstrong Siddeleyand Bristol in 1959, and with its principal factory at Filton, near Bristol, had a strong base in military engines, including the Olympus, which was chosen for Concorde.
Nationalisation & separation
Having been selected as the sole engine supplier for the
Lockheed L-1011(TriStar), Rolls-Royce committed heavily to the RB211engine, but its development was hampered by considerable problems and on February 4 1971Rolls-Royce went into administrative receivership. To save the company, Edward Heath's government nationalised it. The automotive division was separated from the aircraft engine division in 1973 as Rolls-Royce Motorsand sold to Vickers. A side-effect of this affair was a change in accounting regulations to forbid the capitalisation of expenditure on research. This practise had resulted in Rolls Royce massively overstating its assets, thus disguising its financial difficulties until it was too late.
Privatisation & expansion
Rolls-Royce plc was privatised in 1987 under the government of
Margaret Thatcher. The 1980s saw the introduction of a policy to offer an engine on every civil aircraft type, with the company's engines now powering 17 different airliners (and their variants) compared to General Electric's 14 and Pratt & Whitney's 10.
In 1988, Rolls-Royce acquired
Northern Engineering Industries(NEI), a group of heavy engineering companies mainly associated with electrical generation and power management, based in the North East of England. The group included Clarke Chapman(Cranes), Reyrolle (now part of Siemens) and Parsons (now part of Siemens Steam turbines). The company was renamed Rolls Royce Industrial Power Group. It was sold off piecemeal over the next decade as the company re-focused on its core aero-engine operations following the recession of the early 1990s.
BMWand Rolls-Royce established the BMW Rolls-Roycejoint venture to produce the BR700 range of engines for regional and corporate jets, the most recent of which is the newly announced BR725. BMWsubsequently withdrew from the company, and Rolls-Royce took full control of it in 2000, renaming it Rolls-Royce Deutschland.
In November 1994 Rolls-Royce announced its intention to acquire the
Allison Engine Company, an American manufacturer of gas turbines and components for aviation, industrial and marine engines. Rolls-Royce had previously tried to buy the company when General Motorssold it in 1993, but GM opted for a management buyout instead. Owing to Allison's involvement in classified and export restricted technology, the 1994 acquisition was subject to investigation to determine the national security implications. On 27 March 1995 the US Department of Defense announced that the "deal between Allison Engine Co. and Rolls-Royce does not endanger national security." [ [http://www.defenselink.mil/releases/1995/b032795_bt151-95.html DoD is satisfied that deal between Allison Engine Co. and Rolls Royce does not endanger national security] ] Rolls-Royce was, however, obliged to set up a proxy boardto manage Allison and had also to set up a separate company, Allison Advanced Development Company, Inc., to manage classified programmes "that involve leading-edge technologies"." In 2000 this restriction was replaced by a more flexible Special Security Arrangement.
The Allison acquisition brought four new engine types into the Rolls-Royce civil engine portfolio on seven platforms and several light aircraft applications. Allison is now known as
Rolls-Royce Corporation, part of Rolls-Royce North America.
In 1996 Rolls-Royce and
Airbussigned a Memorandum of Understandingspecifying the Trent 900 as the engine of choice for the then A3XX, now called the Airbus A380.
Rolls-Royce spent £1.063 billion on acquisitions in 1999. These were interests of
Cooper Energy Services(with the effect of making the Cooper Rollsjoint venture a wholly owned subsidiary of Rolls-Royce), Vickers, National Airmotive Corporation and BMW's share of BMW Rolls-Royce.
Vickers plcfor its marine businesses. Vickers had expanded this part of its business in the period leading up to the purchase, acquiring Kamewa, a manufacturer of waterjets, in 1996, and Ulstein, a major marine propulsion and engineering company, in 1998. Rolls-Royce sold Vickers Defence Systems (the other major Vickers area of business) to Alvis plcin 2002 which then became Alvis Vickers, then the largest armoured vehicle company in the UK.
Rolls-Royce has established a leading position in the corporate and
regional airlinesector through the development of the Tay engine, the Allison acquisition and the consolidation of the BMW Rolls-Royce joint venture. In 1999 BMW Rolls-Royce was renamed Rolls-Royce Deutschlandand became a 100% owned subsidiary of Rolls-Royce plc. Data Systems & Solutionswas founded in 1999 as a joint venture between Rolls-Royce plc and Science Applications International Corporation(SAIC). In early 2006, SAIC exited the joint venture agreement, making Rolls-Royce plc the sole owner.
April 6, 2004 Boeingannounced that it had selected both Rolls-Royce and General Electric to power its new 787. Rolls-Royce submitted the Trent 1000, a further development of that series. GE's offering is the GENX, a development of the GE90.
June 13Rolls Royce were awarded a £110m deal with the Ministry of Defence to supply engines for its C-130 Herculestransport aircraft for the next 5 years. [cite web|title=Penny Shares Online|url=http://www.pennysharesonline.com/News/Articles/724240.asp|author=|publisher=|date= 2006-07-10|accessdate=2006-07-13]
In July 2006, Rolls-Royce reached an agreement to supply a new version of the Trent for the revised
Airbus A350(XWB) jetliner. Although details have yet to be released, it is likely that the so-called Trent XWB will be significantly larger than the Trent 1700, basically a throttle-push of the Trent 1000 intended for the original A350 proposal.
In October 2006 Rolls-Royce suspended production of its
Trent 900engine because of delays by Airbuson the delivery of the A380 superjumbo. Rolls-Royce announced in October 2007 that production of the Trent 900 had been re-started after a twelve month suspension caused by delays to the A380. [ cite news | title = Rolls-Royce settles into a launch groove for A380 | publisher = Flight International| date = October 15, 2007| url = http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2007/10/15/218490/rolls-royce-settles-into-a-launch-groove-for-a380.html | accessdate = 2007-10-17 ] The plant in Derby, UKemploys 11,000 workers and will continue to produce engines for Bombardier, Boeing, including those for the new 787 series and other Airbus aircraft such as the A330 and A340.
On the military side, Rolls-Royce has been (in cooperation with other European manufacturers) a major contractor for the RB199 which in several variants powers the
Panavia Tornado, and also for the EJ200 engine for the Eurofighter Typhoon. Two modified RB199 engines also powered the EAP demonstrator which evolved into the Typhoon.
At the 2005
Paris Air ShowRolls Royce secured in excess of $1 billion worth of orders. The firm received $800m worth of orders from Air Chinato supply its 20 AirbusA330 jets [cite web|title=Air China at Paris Air Show|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/4087624.stm|author=BBC|publisher=|date= 2005-076-20|accessdate=2006-07-13] .
18 June 2007, Rolls-Royce announced at the 2007 Paris Air Show that it had signed its biggest ever contract with Qatar Airwaysfor the Trent XWB to power 80 A350 XWBs on order from Airbus worth $5.6 billion at list prices. [ cite news | title = Rolls-Royce inks biggest-ever sale | publisher = Flight International| date = June 19, 2007| url = http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2007/06/19/214880/rolls-royce-inks-biggest-ever-sale.html | accessdate = 2007-06-20 ] On 11 November 2007, another large contract was announced at the Dubai Airshowfrom Emirates Airlinefor Trent XWBs to power 50 A350-900 and 20 A350-1000 aircraft with 50 option rights. Due to be delivered from 2014, the order is potentially worth up to 8.4 billion US Dollars at list prices, including options. [ cite web | title = Emirates places $8.4bn order for Rolls-Royce Trent XWB | url = http://www.rolls-royce.com/media/showPR.jsp?PR_ID=40569 | accessdate = 2007-11-14 ] .
Rolls-Royce's aerospace business makes commercial and military
gas turbineengines for military, civil, and corporate aircraft customers worldwide. In the U.S., the company makes engines for regional and corporate jets, helicopters, and turbopropaircraft. Rolls-Royce also constructs and installs power generation systems. Its core gas turbine technology has created one of the broadest product ranges of aero-engines in the world, with 50,000 engines in service with 500 airlines, 2,400 corporate and utility operators and more than 100 armed forces, powering both fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft. Rolls-Royce Marine Power Operations Ltd(a subsidiary company) manufactures and tests nuclear reactors for Royal Naval submarines.
*RB211 - Boeing 747, 757 (most popular engine) and 767, Lockheed L1011, Tupolev Tu-204
*Trent series (47% (largest) market share of engines for new generation widebodied aircraft, launch engine for all 3 787 variants, leading engine for 777, A330, A340-500, A380, A340-600 and all versions of the
A350 XWB. ) [ cite web
title = Biggest Market share for new generation of widebodied aircraft
url = http://www.rolls-royce.com/civil_aerospace/overview/default.jsp
accessdate = 2006-12-17 ] [ cite web
title = Launch Engine for 787
url = http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rolls-Royce_Trent
accessdate = 2006-12-17 ] [ cite web
title = Biggest Market share for Boeing 777
url = http://www.rolls-royce.com/civil_aerospace/products/airlines/trent800/default.jsp
accessdate = 2006-12-17 ] [ cite web
title = Biggest Market share for Airbus A330
url = http://www.rolls-royce.com/civil_aerospace/products/airlines/trent700/default.jsp
accessdate = 2006-12-17 ] [ cite web
title = Sole Engine for Airbus A340-500/600
url = http://www.rolls-royce.com/civil_aerospace/products/airlines/trent500/default.jsp
accessdate = 2006-12-17 ]
*V2500 (as part of
International Aero Engines) - Airbus A320 series
*Conway - Vickers VC10, Boeing 707-420 and Douglas DC-8-40
*Avon - de Havilland Comet 4
Snecma) - Aerospatiale/BAC Concorde
Rolls-Royce Spey- HS.121 Trident and BAC 1-11
Rolls-Royce RB162- booster engine and APU on Trident 3B
*Model 250 turboprop
Unmanned aerial vehicle market
Nato Submarine Rescue System
Energy - oil & gas
*Pipeline centrifugal compressor
Energy - power generation
*Bergen B series
*Bergen K series
Distributed generation systems
Field Electrical Power Source (FEPS)
* APU 2000 vehicle power unit
* Marine generator sets
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
*Peter Pugh, (2000), Icon Books, "The Magic of a Name: The Rolls-Royce Story The First 40 Years". ISBN 1 84046 151 9
*Peter Pugh, (2001), Icon Books, "The Magic of a Name: The Rolls-Royce Story Part 2 The Power Behind the Jets". ISBN 1 84046 284 1
*Peter Pugh, (2002), Icon Books, "The Magic of a Name: The Rolls-Royce Story Part 3 A Family of Engines". ISBN 1 84046 405 4
* [http://www.rolls-royce.com Rolls-Royce]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.