In English, the term commando means a specific kind of individual soldier or military unit. In contemporary usage, commando usually means elite light infantry and/or special operations forces units, specializing in amphibious landings, parachuting, rappelling and similar techniques, to conduct and effect attacks. Originally "a commando" was a type of combat unit, as opposed to an individual in that unit. In other languages, commando and kommando denote a "command", including the sense of a military unit.
In the militaries of most countries, commandos are distinctive in that they specialize in assault on conventional military targets. This is in contrast to other special forces units, which specialize in counter-terrorism, reconnaissance, and sabotage. However, the term commando is sometimes used in relation to units carrying out the latter tasks (including some civilian police units).
In English, occasionally to distinguish between an individual commando and the unit Commando, the unit is capitalized.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 World War I and II
- 4 After 1945
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The word stems from the Afrikaans word Kommando which translates roughly to "mobile (originally by horse) infantry regiment" and is notably similar to the word command in English which is where the word commando derives from in those languages. The Dutch word has had the meaning of "a military order" since at least 1652 and likely came into the language through Portuguese influence. It is also possible the word was adopted into Afrikaans from interactions with Portuguese colonies. Less likely, it is a High German loan word, which was borrowed from Italian in the 17th century, from the sizable minority of German settlers in the initial European colonization of South Africa.
The officer commanding of an Afrikaans "kommando" is called a "kommandant", which is a regimental commander like a lieutenant-colonel or a colonel.
In Afrikaans and Dutch the word "kommando" can also mean a command given to a computer, e.g. "de MKDIR MSDOS-kommando". (= "create a directory")
After the Dutch Cape Colony was established in 1652, the word was used to describe bands of militia. The first "Commando Law" was instated by the original Dutch East India Company chartered settlements and similar laws were maintained through the independent Boer Orange Free State and South African Republic. The law compelled Burghers to equip themselves with a horse and a firearm when required in defense. The implementation of these laws was called the "Commando System". A group of mounted militiamen were organized in a unit known as a commando and headed by a Commandant, who was normally elected from inside the unit. Men called up to serve were said to be "on commando". British experience with this system lead to the widespread adoption of the word "commandeer" into English in the 1880s.
During the Great Trek, conflicts with Southern African peoples such as the Xhosa and the Zulu caused the Boers to retain the commando system despite being free of colonial laws. Also, the word became used to describe any armed raid. During this period, the Boers also developed guerrilla techniques for use against numerically superior but less mobile bands of natives such as the Zulu who fought in large complex formations.
In the First Boer War, Boer commandos were able to use superior marksmanship, fieldcraft, camouflage and mobility to expel an occupying British force (poorly trained in marksmanship, wearing red uniforms and unmounted) from the Transvaal. These tactics were continued throughout the Second Boer War. In the final phase of the war, 75,000 Boers carried out asymmetric warfare against the 450,000-strong British Imperial forces for two years after the British had captured the capital cities of the two Boer republics. During these conflicts the word entered English, retaining its general Afrikaans meaning of a "militia unit" or a "raid". Robert Baden-Powell recognised the importance of fieldcraft and was inspired to form the scouting movement.
In 1941, Lieutenant-Colonel D. W. Clarke of the British Imperial General Staff, suggested the name Commando for specialized raiding units of the British Army Special Service in evocation of the effectiveness and tactics of the Boer commandos. During World War II, American and British publications confused over the use of the plural "commandos" for that type of British military units gave rise to the modern common habit of using "a commando" to mean one member of such a unit, or one man engaged on a raiding-type operation.
World War I and II
In December 1939, following the success of German infiltration and sabotage operations in the Polish campaign, the German Office for Foreign and Counter-Intelligence (OKW Amt Ausland/Abwehr) formed the Brandenburger Regiment (known officially as the 800th Special Purpose Training and Construction Company). The Brandenburgers conducted a mixture of covert and conventional operations but became increasingly involved in ordinary infantry actions and were eventually converted to a Panzer-Grenadier Division, suffering heavy losses in Russia. Otto Skorzeny (most famed for his rescue of Benito Mussolini) conducted many special operations for Adolf Hitler. Skorzeny commanded Sonderlehrgang z.b.V. Oranienburg, Sonderverband z.b.V. Friedenthal, and SS-Jäger-Bataillon 502, all SS commando units.
In 1944-45, Japanese Teishin Shudan ("Raiding Group") and Giretsu ("heroic") detachments made airborne assaults on Allied airfields in the Philippines, Marianas and Okinawa. The attacking forces varied in size from a few paratroopers to operations involving several companies. Due to the balance of forces concerned, these raids achieved little in the way of damage or casualties, and resulted in the destruction of the Japanese units concerned. Considering that there were no plans to extract these forces, and the reluctance to surrender by Japanese personnel during that era, they are often seen in the same light as kamikaze pilots of 1944-45.
The navy had commando units "S-toku" (Submarine special attack units, see ja:呉鎮守府第101特別陸戦隊 (in Japanese)) for infiltrating enemy areas by submarine. It was called the Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces of Kure 101st, Sasebo 101st and 102nd.
These teams were called "Arditi" (meaning "daring, brave ones"); they were almost always men under 25 in top physical condition and, possibly at first, bachelors (due to the fear of very high casualty rates). Actually the Arditi (who were led to the lines just a few hours prior to the assault, having been familiarised with the terrain via photo-reconnaissance and trained on trench systems re-created ad hoc for them) suffered"fewer casualties than regular line infantry and were highly successful in their tasks. Many of them volunteered for extreme right formations in the turbulent years after the war (the Fascist Party took pride in this and adopted the style and the mannerism of Arditi), but some of different political persuasions created the "Arditi del Popolo" (People's Arditi) and for some years held the fascist raids in check, defending Socialist and Communist Party sections, buildings, rallies and meeting points.
During the Liberation of Rome in 1944, US troops broke into the Italian Ministry of Defence building in Rome and seized all World War I materials and documents pertaining to Arditi units in the archives.
Italy's most renowned commando unit of World War II was Decima Flottiglia MAS ("10th Assault Vehicle Flotilla") which, from mid-1940, was responsible for the sinking and damage of a considerable tonnage of Allied ships in the Mediterranean.
After Italy surrendered in 1943, some of the Decima Flottiglia MAS were on the Allied side of the battle line and fought with the Allies, renaming themselves the Mariassalto. The others fought on the German side and kept their original name but did not operate at sea after 1943, being mostly employed against Italian partisans; some of its men were involved in atrocities against civilians.
In post-war years the Italian marine commandos were re-organised as the "Comsubin" (an abbreviation of 'Comando Subacqueo Incursori', or Underwater Raiders Command).
In 1940, the British Army also formed "independent companies", later reformed as battalion sized "commandos", thereby reviving the word. It was intended that the British Army Commandos would be small, highly mobile surprise raiding and reconnaissance forces. They were not intended to remain in field operations for more than 36 hours and carried all they needed. Army Commandos were all volunteers selected from existing soldiers still in Britain.
During the war the British Army Commandos spawned several other famous British units such as the Special Air Service, the Special Boat Service and the Parachute Regiment. The British Army Commandos themselves were never regimented and were disbanded at the end of the war.
The British Special Operations Executive (SOE) also formed commando units from British and displaced European personnel (e.g. Cichociemni) for the purpose of conducting raiding operations in occupied Europe. They also did small teams such as the SAS which was composed of 10 or fewer "Commandos" because it was better to do Special Operations. One example is Norwegian Independent Company 1, which was responsible for the destruction of heavy water facilities in Norway during 1941.
The Royal Navy also controlled Royal Navy Beach Parties, based on teams formed to control the evacuation of Dunkirk in 1940. These were later known simply as RN Commandos, and they did not see action until they successfully fought for control of the landing beaches (as in the disastrous Dieppe Raid of 19 August 1942). The RN Commandos, including Commando "W" from the Royal Canadian Navy, saw action on D-Day.
In 1942, the Royal Navy's nine Royal Marines infantry battalions were reorganized as Commandos, numbered from 40 to 48, joining the British Army Commandos in combined Commando Brigades. After the war the Army Commandos were disbanded. The Royal Marines form an enduring Brigade-strength capability as 3 Commando Brigade.
The Royal Air Force also formed 15 commando units in 1942, each of which was 150 strong. These units consisted of trained technicians, armourers and maintainers who had volunteered to undertake the commando course. These RAF commandos accompanied the Allied invasion forces in all theatres; their main role was to allow the forward operation of friendly fighters by servicing and arming them from captured air fields. However due to the forward position of these airfields, the Royal Air Force Commandos were also trained to secure and make safe these airfields and to help defend them from enemy counter attack.
Following the British example, the Australian Army formed commando units, known as Australian independent companies in the early stages of World War II. They first saw action in early 1942 during the Japanese assault on New Ireland, and in the Battle of Timor. Part of the 2/1st Independent Company was wiped out on New Ireland, but on Timor, the 2/2nd Independent Company formed the heart of an Allied force which engaged Japanese forces in a guerrilla campaign. The Japanese commander on the island drew parallels with the Boer War, and decided that it would take a numerical advantage of 10:1 in order to defeat the Allies. The campaign occupied the attention of an entire Japanese division for almost a year. The independent companies were later renamed commando squadrons, and they saw widespread action in the South West Pacific Area, especially in New Guinea and Borneo. In 1943, all the commando squadrons except the 2/2nd and 2/8th were grouped into the 2/6th, 2/7th and 2/9th Cavalry Commando Regiments.
Later in the war the Royal Australian Navy also formed commando units along the lines of the Royal Naval Commandos to go ashore with the first waves of major amphibious assaults, to signpost the beaches and carry out other naval tasks. These were known as RAN Commandos. Four were formed—lettered A, B, C and D like their British counterparts—and they took part in the Borneo campaign.
Z Force, an Australian-British-New Zealand military intelligence commando unit, formed by the Australian Services Reconnaissance Department, also carried out many raiding and reconnaissance operations in the South West Pacific theatre, most notably Operation Jaywick, in which they destroyed tonnes of Japanese shipping at Singapore Harbour. An attempt to replicate this success, with Operation Rimau, resulted in the death of almost all those involved. However, Z Force and other SRD units continued operations until the war's end.
New Zealand formed the Southern Independent Commando in Fiji 1942. Its primary function was to wage a guerrilla war on any Japanese forces should they attempt to capture the strategically important Fiji islands. 200 native Fijians were recruited and organised by 44 New Zealanders. Training focused intensely on jungle warfare, and many successful 'mock' raids were made on American garrisons who awoke to find dummy time bombs placed on their ammunition dumps, or chalk crosses drawn on the equipment of their guards.
When it became apparent that a Japanese invasion of Fiji was no longer likely, the commando was deployed to undertake scouting tasks for US forces around Guadalcanal and New Georgia. Recruiting was further expanded to include men from other pacific islands such as the Solomons and Tonga, and occasionally British or American personal would take part in training or accompany the Commandos on missions. After many successful operations and engagements, the harsh conditions of extended jungle living took their toll, and many men began to suffer from ill-health. As a result, the commando was reduced in strength until it was declared unfit for further service, and was disbanded in May 1944.
The commando's contribution to the Solomon Island campaign was significant, with senior American officers referring to the unit as "most capable", "invaluable" and "unquestionably ... of great aid in the campaign".
See nzetc.org for more information.
New Zealanders were also a notable component of the Long Range Desert Group. The LRDG undertook reconnaissance and occasional strike missions deep behind enemy lines in North Africa.
A joint Canadian-American Commando unit, the 1st Special Service Force, nicknamed the Devil's Brigade, was formed in 1942 under the command of Colonel Robert Frederick. The unit initially saw service in the Pacific, in August 1943 at Kiska in the Aleutians campaign. However most of its operations occurred during the Italian campaign and in southern France. Its most famous raid, which was documented in the film Devil's Brigade, was the battle of Monte la Difensa. In 1945, the unit was disbanded; the Canadian members were sent to the 1st Canadian Parachute Battalion as replacements, and the American members were sent to either the 101st Airborne Division or the 82nd Airborne Division as replacements.
The Sacred band (Greek: Ιερός Λόχος) was a Greek special forces unit formed in 1942 in the Middle East, composed entirely of Greek officers and officer cadets under the command of Col. Christodoulos Tsigantes. It fought alongside the SAS in the Libyan Desert and with the SBS in the Aegean, as well as with General Leclerc's Free French Forces in Tunisia. It was disbanded in August 1945.
During 1941, the United States Marine Corps formed commando battalions. The USMC commandos were known collectively as Marine Raiders. On orders from President Franklin D. Roosevelt through a proposal from OSS Director Colonel William J. Donovan and the former Commander of the United States Marine Detachment Major Evans F Carlson, directed the formation of what would become The Marine Raiders. Initially this unit was to be called Marine Commandos and they were to be the counterpart to the British Commandos. The name Marine Commandos met with much controversy within the Marine Corps leading Commandant Thomas J. Holcomb to state, "the term 'Marine' is sufficient to indicate a man ready for duty at any time, and the injection of a special name, such as 'Commando', would be undesirable and superfluous". President Roosevelt's son James Roosevelt served with The Marine Raiders. The Raiders initially saw action at the Battle of Tulagi and the Battle of Makin, as well as the Battle of Guadalcanal, the Battle of Empress Augusta Bay, and other parts of the Pacific Ocean Areas. In February 1944 the four Raider battalions were converted to regular marine units.
In mid-1942, the United States Army formed its Army Rangers in Northern Ireland under William O. (Bill) Darby. The Rangers were designed along the similar lines to Roger's Rangers of the French-Indian Wars. The first sizable Ranger action took place in August 1942 at the Dieppe Raid, where 50 Rangers were dispersed among the British Commandos. The first full Ranger action took place during the invasion of Northwest Africa in (Operation Torch) in November 1942.
After World War II there was much publicity about the deeds of "the commandos"; many civilians reading these accounts, guessing a meaning from the context, thought in error that the singular "a commando" meant one man, and that usage became general.
1st Commando Regiment (1 Cdo Regt), a regimental structure for the reserve commando companies—and 126 Signal Squadron (Special Forces)—was formed during the 1980s. It adopted the green berets worn by its World War II predecessors.
In 1997, the Australian government ordered the conversion of 4th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (4RAR) into a permanent, non-reserve commando battalion, with instructors from 1st Commando Regiment and Australian Special Air Service Regiment (SASR). 126 Signal Squadron was reassigned to 4RAR and 301 Signal Squadron re-raised to join 1 Cdo Regt. In 2009, 4RAR was renamed 2nd Commando Regiment (2 Cdo Regt).
1 Cdo and 2 Cdo utilise identical selection and training courses. One company of 2 Cdo is responsible for counter-terrorism operations and response in eastern Australia and is officially known as Tactical Assault Group-East (TAG-E). This company mirrors its sister unit (the original Tactical Assault Group) in the West (TAG-W), which is part of the SASR.
During the Rhodesian Bush War of 1965-1980, the Rhodesian military increased its usage of commando type of operations in fighting against insurgents until the formation of Zimbabwe. In the Rhodesian Light Infantry a Commando was also the name given to its company sized units.
3 Commando Brigade, Royal Marines is under the command of the Royal Navy's Commander-in-Chief Fleet. All Royal Marines (other than the Royal Marines Band Service) are commando trained on entry to the Corps, with supporting units and individuals from the other services undertaking the All Arms Commando Course as required.
The Brigade is made up of 30 (IX) Commando , 40 Commando (home base: Taunton), 42 Commando (Bickleigh, South Hams, Plymouth) and 45 Commando (Arbroath, Scotland), the Commando Logistic Regiment, 539 Assault Squadron Royal Marines, 29 Commando Regiment Royal Artillery, 24 Commando Regiment Royal Engineers and 1st battalion, The Rifles. The Royal Marines are the largest force of its type in Europe and the Second largest in NATO.
Canadian commando forces were disbanded and recreated at various times in the post-war years, and in 1968 the Canadian Airborne Regiment was formed. It was divided into three Airborne Commandos each of company strength. This resulted in a ceiling of about 750 members in all ranks, organized into three smaller company-sized commandos. The three airborne commandos took shape around the three regimental affiliations: 1 Commando with the Royal 22e Régiment, 2 Commando with Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, and 3 Commando with The Royal Canadian Regiment. The Canadian Airborne Regiment was disbanded after the torture and murder of Shidane Arone, a Somalia civilian, in 1993, and other allegations of wrongdoing within the Regiment. Later, parliamentary investigations would question why such an elite commando unit was sent on a peacekeeping mission. The Canadian Special Operations Regiment (CSOR) is known as a commando unit and Canadian Joint Task Force Two, or JTF2, is also sometimes referred to as a "commando" unit, but it is technically a specialist counter-terrorism unit.)
Brazil created its special operations forces in the 1950s. There are commando units in the Brazilian Army and in the navy. In Brazilian Army the main unit is the Brazilian Special Operations Brigade. Brazilian Navy have the COMANF Amphibious Commandos of Brazilian Marine Corps
Army Special Forces, Navy and Air Force use black beret and Chile are characterized by using a special type of knife called a Corvo. The Chilean commandos are known for their military bearing and discipline, met with through preparation and a historic tradition. The Army motto recited: "ever victorious never defeated. "
The KSK is stationed in Calw, in the Black Forest area in southern Germany. It consists of about 1,100 soldiers, but only a nucleus of these are in fighting units. Exact numbers are not available, as this information is considered to be secret. The KSK is a part of the Special Operations Division (Div. Spezielle Operationen or DSO).
The fighting units are divided into four commando companies of about 100 men each and the special commando company with veteran members, taking supporting tasks. Each of the four commando companies has five specialised platoons:
- 1st platoon: land insertions
- 2nd platoon: airborne operations
- 3rd platoon: amphibious operations
- 4th platoon: operations in special geographic or meteorologic surroundings (e.g. mountains or polar-regions)
- 5th platoon: reconnaissance, sniper and counter-sniper operations
- Command Platoon
There are four commando squads in every platoon. Each of these groups consists of about four equally skilled soldiers. One of each group is specially trained as weapons expert, medic, combat engineer or communications expert respectively. Additionally a group can contain other specialists, e.g. heavy weapons or language experts.
In India, the term commando is used liberally for almost any unit that has more training than their peers. This is especially true in the police forces. However, there are certain units that are trained to internationally acceptable standards.
The Para Commandos are a special forces unit of the Indian Army. Formed in 1966, the Para Commandos are the largest and most important part of the Special Forces of India. They are highly-trained units of the Indian Army, meant to operate behind enemy lines.
The Garud Commando Force is the Special Forces unit of the Indian Air Force. The unit derives its name from Garuda, a divine bird-like creature of Hindu mythology, but more commonly the word for eagle in Sanskrit. Garud is tasked with acting as quick response teams during attacks on critical Air Force bases and installations, search and rescue of downed pilots, forward air control and carrying out strikes against enemy air defences and radar installations.
National Security Guards (NSG) personnel are popularly known as Black Cat Commandos. Their task is twofold. The Special Protection Group provides protection to the political elite of the nation. The NSG carries out hostage rescue and anti-terrorist operations.
Ghatak Force is a battalion-level special unit in the Indian Army, with one in each battalion. They are used as elite infantry to spearhead attacks, carry out reconnaissance and further the objectives on the battalion in the battlefield.
The Force One is an elite commando force, which is a specialised counter terrorism unit to guard the Mumbai metropolitan area, one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world, formed by Government of Maharashtra on the lines of National Security Guards (NSG).
Kopassus (a portmanteau of "Komando Pasukan Khusus" or "Special Force Command") is an Indonesian Army special forces group that conducts special operations missions for the Indonesian government, such as direct action, unconventional warfare, sabotage, counter-insurgency, counter-terrorism, and intelligence gathering.
Kopassus was founded on April 16, 1952.
The Special Forces quickly made their mark by spearheading some of the government's military campaigns: putting down regional rebellions in the late 1950s, the Western New Guinea campaign in 1960, the confrontation with Malaysia from 1962–1966, the massacres of alleged communists in 1965, the East Timor invasion in 1975, and the subsequent campaigns against separatists throughout Indonesia.
Kopassus is alleged by external media and human rights-affiliated NGOs to have committed violations of human rights in East Timor, Aceh, Papua and the capital Jakarta. Notably in the Western press, published articles even in mainstream media may include epithets such as "the notorious Kopassus" .
The impetus for building this special force was provided from an experience of frustration when fighting against the troops of the RMS (Republik Maluku Selatan or Republic of the South Moluccas) forces, who were supported by two companies of Dutch Korps Speciale Troepen (KST). The Indonesians were amazed and hampered by KST's sniper ability and skills- which the Indonesian armed forces at the time did not possess. They were then inspired to build a similar force for Indonesia. However, at that time, there were no Indonesian commanders with necessary experience nor skills in special operations. However, Lieutenant Colonel Slamet Riyadi would not see his dream realized due to his death in a battle against the troops of the separatist RMS.
Not long after, Colonel Kawilarang with the use of military intelligence located and met with Major Rokus Bernardus Visser - a former member of the Dutch Special Forces who had remained a peaceful and law-abiding citizen in newly independent Indonesia, settled in West Java, married an Indonesian woman, and was known locally as Mohamad Idjon Djanbi. He was the first recruit for the Indonesian special forces, as well as its first commander. Due to him, the unit later to become Kopassus adopted the distinctive Red Beret similar to that of the Dutch Special Forces.
At that time, Indonesia's special force name was Third Territorial Command: Komando Teritorium Tiga (KTT). Kopassus was the final result of five name changes: KTT, KKAD, RPKAD, and Kopasandha. The first generation of Indonesian Forces was only around a hundred soldiers or one company, headquartered in Bandung.
Kopassus has been accused by numerous NGO's and Western politicians of human rights violations. Amnesty International and KOMNASHAM (Indonesian human rights groups) have cited alleged abuses by purported members of Kopassus.
Four members of Kopassus were convicted of the strangulation killing of Theys Eluay, the former chairman of the Papuan Presidium Council. After admitting the killing after ambushing him and his driver, two received prison sentences of 31/2 years and two others received three years.
As TNI members, the Kopassus are/were legally exempt from civil law jurisdiction trial and a military inquiry found them innocent of all charges. The principal members of the alleged "murder" were all of Group V (Jakarta) and not based in Jayapura nor West Papua, and the "supposed ring-leader Let-Col Hatono got three and a half years jail and two other officers were not even discharged. The ruling Jakarta perspective on the "murder" was affirmed by army Chief Ryamizard Ryacudu: "accepted the men had to face sentence because Indonesia is a State based on law. However he said the men are heroes to [sic: if they did] kill a rebel leader. Defense lawyers who [sic: are] appealing the verdicts, have also described the alleged "killers" as heroes"
Special Service Group (SSG) is an independent commando division of the Pakistan Army. It is an elite special operations force. Official numbers are put at 2,100 men, in 3 Battalions; however the actual strength is classified. Based out of Cherat and Attock, the SSG was created in 1956 with active support from U.S. Special Operations Forces. That year the 19th Battalion of the Baloch Regiment (19 Baloch) was selected for conversion to a Special Operation Force.
The SSG also has a unit in the Pakistan Navy known as Special Service Group Navy (SSGN). The SSGN currently maintains headquarters in Karachi headed by Pakistan Navy Commander. The SSG in 2001 created a special forces unit for the Pakistan Air Force called the Special Service Wing (SSW). This new component to the Special Forces of Pakistan is still being trained and built up. In 2006 SSGN created two new groups, the Pak Seals and VBSS. The Pak Seals will operate at sea, air, and land.
The Portuguese Army created the Comandos, during the Portuguese Colonial War to conduct special actions in Portuguese territory or abroad, to fight as assault infantry / shock troops and to provide the high political and military commands with a force able to conduct irregular operations. The first units were created in Northern Angola in 1962.
Beyond the Comandos, the Portuguese Armed and Security Forces used several other commando type forces in the Colonial War in Angola, Mozambique and Guinea, like the Caçadores Especiais (Special Hunters) of the Portuguese Army, the Caçadores Paraquedistas (Parachute Hunters) of the Portuguese Air Force, the Fuzileiros Especiais (Special Marines) of the Portuguese Navy, the Flechas (Arrows) of the International and State Defense Police and the Grupos Especiais (Special Groups) of the Government of Mozambique.
Presently, the Portuguese Armed Forces have the following commando type forces: the Special Operation Troops, the Comando Troops, the Parachute Troops, the Marines Special Actions Detachment and the Force Protection Unit of the Air Force.
The North Vietnamese produced some of the most effective commando units of the post World War II era. Called sappers, these units represented a force economy measure for the NVA (North Vietnamese Army) and the Viet Cong. With large scale conventional attacks increasingly untenable, small commando operations came into their own, particularly after the Tet Offensive, and at times inflicted severe damage to US and ARVN troops and bases.
Sappers were originally supporting adjuncts to regular formations prior to 1967, but in time, independent formations were created throughout the Vietnam arena. Sappers could operate in support of a larger regular infantry formation, or as the main spearhead themselves, with regulars as backup. In the spearhead mode, they represented their most potent threat. A typical raiding operation was divided into 4 elements: Assault, Fire-Support, Security and Reserves. Assault teams were generally broken down into three-five man cells. Fire-support was critical, as it forced defenders to keep their heads down, while infiltrating assault elements made their final penetrations. One of the most devastating attacks was against the US Firebase, FSB Mary Ann in 1971. See chart for detailed breakdown of a typical sapper raiding party.
While small in terms of total men deployed throughout the Vietnam theater, sapper attacks had a significant impact for the NLF/PAVN effort. As one US Army history puts it:From the beginning of 1968 until mid-1969, sappers were essential to the North Vietnam war effort. Although they participated in only 4 percent of all assaults, these made up 12 percent of all significant assaults—those which inflicted serious damage. In 1969, the average raid inflicted more than $1,000,000 damage and accounted for more allied casualties.
- List of commando forces
- Commando Order
- Commando Ridge
- Fairbairn-Sykes Fighting Knife
- Philippe Kieffer
- Power Geyser
- ^ a b c d e f g "The Word 'Commando'",Dobbie, Elliott V. K., American Speech,19 2 Apr. 1944,81-90,http://www.jstor.org/stable/487007
- ^ Encyclopedia Britannica (14th ed.), Vol. 6, p. 106
- ^ "On Commando", Dietlof Van Warmelo, Methuen, 1902
- ^ http://mw4.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/commandeer
- ^ Commando Country, Stuart Allan, National Museums Scotland 2007, ISBN 9781905267149
- ^ Raids in the Late War and their Lessons, R. Laycock, Journal of the Royal United Service Institution November 1947 pp 534-535
- ^ TheHistoryNet | World War II | Royal Naval Commandos in World War II
- ^ "Beach Organisation for the Invasion of Normandy, 1944". http://www.rafbeachunits.info/html/beach_organisation.html. "The Royal Navy Beach Commandos controlled the arrival and departure of vessels that were landing their cargoes on the beaches. In each RN Beach Commando was a Principal Beachmaster (PBM), an Assistant Principal Beachmaster and two or three beach parties each consisting of a Beachmaster, two Assistant Beachmasters and about 20 seamen."
- ^ Neillands, Robin. The Raiders — the Army Commandos 1940-46. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0297794264.
- ^ http://www.raf.mod.uk/dday/scus.html
- ^ 
- ^ "Constitution of Commando Force" (Press release). Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 18 December 2003. http://pib.nic.in/release/release.asp?relid=262. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
- ^ "Eagles have landed". MiD DAY. 2009-11-09. http://www.mid-day.com/news/2009/nov/091109-anti-terror-commando-26-11-mumbai-terror-attack-Taj-Trident.htm.
- ^ Sydney Morning Herald, November 15, 2002 ; Transcript from an Australian Broadcasting Corporation brodacast, 12/08/2003 
- ^ The Age
- ^ Damien Kingsbury Power Politics and the Indonesian military, Routledge: 2003, ISBN 041529729X, 280 pages Google books reference: 
- ^ http://www.tim-richardson.net/Jakarta/jakarta_riots.html
- ^ United States Army Center of Military History, Vietnam Studies, "FIELD ARTILLERY, 1954-1973", by Major General David Ewing Ott, (DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY: WASHINGTON, D.C., 1975) p. 1-13
- ^ US Army, 'FIELD ARTILLERY" op. cit
- ^ Keith William Nolan, Sappers In the Wire: The Life and Death of Firebase Mary Ann, (Texas A&M University Press: 1995) pp. 23-119, 200-245
- ^ United States Army Center of Military History, Vietnam Studies, "FIELD ARTILLERY, 1954-1973", op. cit
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