- Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell
Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell
Founder of Scouting
Nickname B-P Born 22 February 1857
Paddington, London, England
Died 8 January 1941 (aged 83)
Service/branch British Army Years of service 1876–1910 Rank Lieutenant-General Commands held Chief of Staff, Second Matabele War (1896–1897)
5th Dragoon Guards in India (1897)
Inspector General of Cavalry, England (1903)
Battles/wars Anglo-Ashanti Wars,
Second Matabele War,
Siege of Mafeking,
Second Boer War
Awards Ashanti Star (1895),
Matabele Campaign, British South Africa Company Medal (1896),
Queen's South Africa Medal (1899),
King's South Africa Medal ( 1902),
Boy Scouts Silver Wolf
Boy Scouts Silver Buffalo Award (1926),
World Scout Committee Bronze Wolf (1935),
Großes Dankabzeichen des ÖPB (1927)
Großes Ehrenzeichen der Republik am Bande (1931)
Goldene Gemse (1931)
Grand-Cross in the Order of Orange-Nassau (1932),
Order of Merit (1937),
Wateler Peace Prize (1937)
Order of St Michael and St George,
Royal Victorian Order,
Order of the Bath
Other work Founder of the international Scouting Movement; writer; artist Signature
Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, OM, GCMG, GCVO, KCB ( / /; 22 February 1857 – 8 January 1941), also known as B-P or Lord Baden-Powell, was a lieutenant-general in the British Army, writer, and founder of the Scout Movement.
After having been educated at Charterhouse School, Baden-Powell served in the British Army from 1876 until 1910 in India and Africa. In 1899, during the Second Boer War in South Africa, Baden-Powell successfully defended the town in the Siege of Mafeking. Several of his military books, written for military reconnaissance and scout training in his African years, were also read by boys. Based on those earlier books, he wrote Scouting for Boys, published in 1908 by Pearson, for youth readership. During writing, he tested his ideas through a camping trip on Brownsea Island with the local Boys' Brigade and sons of his friends that began on 1 August 1907, which is now seen as the beginning of Scouting.
After his marriage to Olave St Clair Soames, Baden-Powell, his sister Agnes Baden-Powell and notably his wife actively gave guidance to the Scouting Movement and the Girl Guides Movement. Baden-Powell lived his last years in Nyeri, Kenya, where he died and was buried in 1941.
Baden-Powell was born as Robert Stephenson Smyth Powell, or more familiarly as Stephe Powell, at 6 Stanhope Street (now 11 Stanhope Terrace), Paddington in London, on 22 February 1857. He was named for his godfather, Robert Stephenson, the railway and civil engineer; his third name was his mother's maiden name. His father Reverend Baden Powell, a Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford University, already had four teenage children from the second of his two previous marriages. On 10 March 1846 at St Luke's Church, Chelsea, Reverend Powell married Henrietta Grace Smyth (3 September 1824 – 13 October 1914), eldest daughter of Admiral William Henry Smyth and 28 years his junior. Quickly they had Warington (early 1847), George (late 1847), Augustus (1849) and Francis (1850). After three further children who died when very young, they had Stephe, Agnes (1858) and Baden (1860). The three youngest children and the often ill Augustus were close friends. Reverend Powell died when Stephe was three, and as tribute to his father and to set her own children apart from their half-siblings and cousins, the mother changed the family name to Baden-Powell. Subsequently, Stephe was raised by his mother, a strong woman who was determined that her children would succeed. Baden-Powell would say of her in 1933 "The whole secret of my getting on, lay with my mother."
After attending Rose Hill School, Tunbridge Wells, during which his favourite brother Augustus died, Stephe Baden-Powell was awarded a scholarship to Charterhouse, a prestigious public school. His first introduction to Scouting skills was through stalking and cooking game while avoiding teachers in the nearby woods, which were strictly out-of-bounds. He also played the piano and violin, was an ambidextrous artist, and enjoyed acting. Holidays were spent on yachting or canoeing expeditions with his brothers.
In 1876, R.S.S. Baden-Powell, as he styled himself then, joined the 13th Hussars in India with the rank of lieutenant. He enhanced and honed his military scouting skills amidst the Zulu in the early 1880s in the Natal province of South Africa, where his regiment had been posted, and where he was Mentioned in Despatches. During one of his travels, he came across a large string of wooden beads, worn by the Zulu king Dinizulu, which was later incorporated into the Wood Badge training programme he started after he founded the Scouting Movement. Baden-Powell's skills impressed his superiors and he was Brevetted Major as Military Secretary and senior Aide-de-camp of the Commander-in-Chief and Governor of Malta, his uncle General Sir Henry Augustus Smyth. He was posted in Malta for three years, also working as intelligence officer for the Mediterranean for the Director of Military Intelligence. He frequently travelled disguised as a butterfly collector, incorporating plans of military installations into his drawings of butterfly wings.
Baden-Powell returned to Africa in 1896 to aid the British South Africa Company colonials under siege in Bulawayo during the Second Matabele War. This was a formative experience for him not only because he had the time of his life commanding reconnaissance missions into enemy territory in Matobo Hills, but because many of his later Boy Scout ideas took hold here. It was during this campaign that he first met and befriended the American scout Frederick Russell Burnham, who introduced Baden-Powell to the American Old West and woodcraft (i.e., scoutcraft), and here that he wore his signature Stetson campaign hat and kerchief for the first time. After Rhodesia, Baden-Powell took part in a successful British invasion of Ashanti, West Africa in the Fourth Ashanti War, and at the age of 40 was promoted to lead the 5th Dragoon Guards in 1897 in India. A few years later he wrote a small manual, entitled Aids to Scouting, a summary of lectures he had given on the subject of military scouting, to help train recruits. Using this and other methods he was able to train them to think independently, use their initiative, and survive in the wilderness.
Baden-Powell was accused of illegally executing a prisoner of war, Matabele chief Uwini, in 1896, who had been promised his life would be spared if he surrendered. Uwini was shot by firing squad under Baden-Powell's instructions. Baden-Powell was cleared by an inquiry, and later claimed he was "released without a stain on my character".
Baden-Powell returned to South Africa prior to the Second Boer War and was engaged in further military actions against the Zulus. By this time, he had been promoted to be the youngest colonel in the British Army. He was responsible for the organisation of a force of Legion of Frontiersmen to assist the regular army. While arranging this, he was trapped in the Siege of Mafeking, and surrounded by a Boer army, at times in excess of 8,000 men. Although wholly outnumbered, the garrison withstood the siege for 217 days. Much of this is attributable to cunning military deceptions instituted at Baden-Powell's behest as commander of the garrison. Fake minefields were planted and his soldiers were ordered to simulate avoiding non-existent barbed wire while moving between trenches. Baden-Powell did most of the reconnaissance work himself. In one instance noting that the Boers had not removed the rail line, Baden-Powell loaded an armoured locomotive with sharpshooters and successfully sent it down the rails into the heart of the Boer encampment and back again in a strategic attempt to decapitate the Boer leadership.
Contrary views of Baden-Powell's actions during the Siege of Mafeking pointed out that his success in resisting the Boers was secured at the expense of the lives of the native African soldiers and civilians, including members of his own African garrison. Pakenham stated that Baden-Powell drastically reduced the rations to the natives' garrison. However, in 2001, after subsequent research, Pakenham decidedly retreated from this position.
During the siege, a cadet corps, consisting of white boys below fighting age, was used to stand guard, carry messages, assist in hospitals and so on, freeing the men for military service. Although Baden-Powell did not form this cadet corps himself, and there is no evidence that he took much notice of them during the Siege, he was sufficiently impressed with both their courage and the equanimity with which they performed their tasks to use them later as an object lesson in the first chapter of Scouting for Boys. The siege was lifted in the Relief of Mafeking on 16 May 1900. Promoted to major-general, Baden-Powell became a national hero. After organising the South African Constabulary, the national police force, he returned to England to take up a post as Inspector General of Cavalry in 1903. In 1907 he was appointed to command a division in the newly-formed Territorial Force.
On the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Baden-Powell put himself at the disposal of the War Office. No command was given him, for, as Lord Kitchener said: "he could lay his hand on several competent divisional generals but could find no one who could carry on the invaluable work of the Boy Scouts." It was widely rumoured that Baden-Powell was engaged in spying, and intelligence officers took great care to inculcate the myth.
On his return from Africa in 1903, Baden-Powell found that his military training manual, Aids to Scouting, had become a best-seller, and was being used by teachers and youth organisations. Following his involvement in the Boys' Brigade as Brigade Secretary and Officer in charge of its scouting section, with encouragement from his friend, William Alexander Smith, Baden-Powell decided to re-write Aids to Scouting to suit a youth readership. In August 1907 he held a camp on Brownsea Island for twenty-two boys from local Boys Brigade companies and sons of friends of Baden-Powell's from public schools Eton and Harrow to test out the applicability of his ideas. Baden-Powell was also influenced by Ernest Thompson Seton, who founded the Woodcraft Indians. Seton gave Baden-Powell a copy of his book The Birch Bark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians and they met in 1906. The first book on the Scout Movement, Baden-Powell's Scouting for Boys was published in six instalments in 1908, and has sold approximately 150 million copies as the fourth best-selling book of the 20th century.
Boys and girls spontaneously formed Scout troops and the Scouting Movement had inadvertently started, first as a national, and soon an international obsession. The Scouting Movement was to grow up in friendly parallel relations with the Boys' Brigade. A rally for all Scouts was held at Crystal Palace in London in 1909, at which Baden-Powell discovered the first Girl Scouts. The Girl Guide Movement was subsequently founded in 1910 under the auspices of Baden-Powell's sister, Agnes Baden-Powell. Baden-Powell's friend, Juliette Gordon Low, was encouraged by him to bring the Movement to America, where she founded the Girl Scouts of the USA.
In 1920, the 1st World Scout Jamboree took place in Olympia, and Baden-Powell was acclaimed Chief Scout of the World. Baden-Powell was created a Baronet in the 1921 New Year Honours and Baron Baden-Powell, of Gilwell, in the County of Essex, on 17 September 1929, Gilwell Park being the International Scout Leader training centre. After receiving this honour, Baden-Powell mostly styled himself "Baden-Powell of Gilwell".
In 1929, during the 3rd World Scout Jamboree, he received as a present a new 20 horse power Rolls-Royce car (chassis number GVO-40, registration OU 2938) and an Eccles Caravan. This combination well served the Baden-Powells in their further travels around Europe. The caravan was nicknamed Eccles and is now on display at Gilwell Park. The car, nicknamed Jam Roll, was sold after his death by Olave Baden-Powell in 1945. Jam Roll and Eccles were reunited at Gilwell for the 21st World Scout Jamboree in 2007. Recently it has been purchased on behalf of Scouting and is owned by a charity, B-P Jam Roll Ltd. Funds are being raised to repay the loan that was used to purchase the car. Baden-Powell also had a positive impact on improvements in youth education. Under his dedicated command the world Scouting Movement grew. By 1922 there were more than a million Scouts in 32 countries; by 1939 the number of Scouts was in excess of 3.3 million.
At the 5th World Scout Jamboree in 1937, Baden-Powell gave his farewell to Scouting, and retired from public Scouting life. 22 February, the joint birthday of Robert and Olave Baden-Powell, continues to be marked as Founder's Day by Scouts and Thinking Day by Guides to remember and celebrate the work of the Chief Scout and Chief Guide of the World.
In his final letter to the Scouts, Baden-Powell wrote:
...I have had a most happy life and I want each one of you to have a happy life too. I believe that God put us in this jolly world to be happy and enjoy life. Happiness does not come from being rich, nor merely being successful in your career, nor by self-indulgence. One step towards happiness is to make yourself healthy and strong while you are a boy, so that you can be useful and so you can enjoy life when you are a man. Nature study will show you how full of beautiful and wonderful things God has made the world for you to enjoy. Be contented with what you have got and make the best of it. Look on the bright side of things instead of the gloomy one. But the real way to get happiness is by giving out happiness to other people. Try and leave this world a little better than you found it and when your turn comes to die, you can die happy in feeling that at any rate you have not wasted your time but have done your best. 'Be Prepared' in this way, to live happy and to die happy — stick to your Scout Promise always — even after you have ceased to be a boy — and God help you to do it.
In January 1912, Baden-Powell met Olave St Clair Soames, on the ocean liner, Arcadian, heading for New York to start one of his Scouting World Tours. She was 23, while he was 55; they shared the same birthday, 22 February. They became engaged in September of the same year, causing a media sensation due to Baden-Powell's fame. To avoid press intrusion, they married in secret on 31 October 1912, at St Peter's Church in Parkstone. The Scouts of England each donated a penny to buy Baden-Powell a wedding gift, a car (note that this is not the Rolls-Royce they were presented with in 1929). There is a monument to their marriage inside St Mary's Church, Brownsea Island.
Baden-Powell and Olave lived in Pax Hill near Bentley, Hampshire from about 1919 until 1939. The Bentley house was a gift of her father. Directly after he had married, Baden-Powell began to suffer persistent headaches, which were considered by his doctor to be of psychosomatic origin and treated with dream analysis. The headaches disappeared upon his moving into a makeshift bedroom set up on his balcony.
The Baden-Powells had three children, one son and two daughters, who all acquired the courtesy title of "The Honourable" in 1929 as children of a baron. The son succeeded his father in 1941 to the Baden-Powell barony and the title of Baron Baden-Powell.
- Arthur Robert Peter (Peter), later 2nd Baron Baden-Powell (1913–1962). He married Carine Crause-Boardman in 1936, and had three children: Robert Crause, later 3rd Baron Baden-Powell; David Michael (Michael), current heir to the titles, and Wendy.
- Heather (1915–1986), who married John King and had two children: Michael, who died in the sinking of SS Heraklion, and Timothy;
- Betty (1917–2004), who married Gervas Charles Robert Clay in 1936 and had a daughter: Gillian, and three sons: Robin, Nigel and Crispin.
In addition, when Olave's sister Auriol Davidson née Soames died in 1919, Olave and Robert took her three nieces, Christian (1912–1975), Clare (1913–1980), and Yvonne, (1918–1995?), into their family and brought them up as their own children.
In 1939, he and his wife moved to a cottage he had commissioned in Nyeri, Kenya, near Mount Kenya, where he had previously been to recuperate. The small one-room house, which he named Paxtu, was located on the grounds of the Outspan Hotel, owned by Eric Sherbrooke Walker, Baden-Powell's first private secretary and one of the first Scout inspectors. Walker also owned the Treetops Hotel, approx 17 km out in the Aberdare Mountains, often visited by Baden-Powell and people of the Happy Valley set. The Paxtu cottage is integrated into the Outspan Hotel buildings and serves as a small Scouting museum.
Baden-Powell died on 8 January 1941 and is buried in Nyeri, in St. Peter's Cemetery His gravestone bears a circle with a dot in the centre, which is the trail sign for "Going home", or "I have gone home": When his wife Olave died, her ashes were sent to Kenya and interred beside her husband. Kenya has declared Baden-Powell's grave a national monument.
Tim Jeal, who wrote the biography Baden-Powell, argues that Baden-Powell's distrust of communism led to his implicit support, through naïveté, of fascism. In 1939 Baden-Powell noted in his diary: "Lay up all day. Read Mein Kampf. A wonderful book, with good ideas on education, health, propaganda, organisation etc. – and ideals which Hitler does not practise himself.":550 Baden-Powell admired Benito Mussolini early in the Italian fascist leader's career.
Some very early Scouting "Thanks" badges had a swastika symbol on them. According to biographer Michael Rosenthal, Baden-Powell used the swastika because he was a Nazi sympathiser. Jeal, however, argues that Baden-Powell was naïve of the symbol's growing association with fascism and maintained that his use of the symbol related to its earlier, original meaning of "good luck" in Sanskrit, for which purpose the symbol had been used for centuries prior to the rise of fascism. In conflict with the idea that Powell was a Nazi supporter is the fact that Baden-Powell was a target of the Nazi regime in the Black Book, which listed individuals who were to be arrested during and after an invasion of Great Britain as part of Operation Sea Lion. Scouting was regarded as a dangerous spy organisation by the Nazis. Baden-Powell used the swastika as a "Thanks" badge for the Scout Movement well before Hitler used it, and when Hitler did start to use it, Baden-Powell ceased to use it. Previously, the swastika had been used by Rudyard Kipling as a logo on his books.
Artist and writer
Baden-Powell made paintings and drawings almost every day of his life. Most have a humorous or informative character. He published books and other texts during his years of military service both to finance his life and to educate his men.
Baden-Powell was regarded as an excellent storyteller. During his whole life he told 'ripping yarns' to audiences. After having published Scouting for Boys, Baden-Powell kept on writing more handbooks and educative materials for all Scouts, as well as directives for Scout Leaders. In his later years, he also wrote about the Scout Movement and his ideas for its future. He spent the last decade of his life in Africa, and many of his later books had African themes. Currently, many pages of his field diary, complete with drawings, are on display at the National Scouting Museum in Irving, Texas.
Early discussion of Baden-Powell's sexuality focused on his relationship with his close friend Kenneth McLaren.:217–218:48 Tim Jeal's later biography discusses the relationship and concludes that there is no conclusive evidence that this friendship was physical:82. Jeal then examines Baden-Powell's views on women, his appreciation of the male form, his military relationships and his marriage, indicating that Baden-Powell could be a repressed homosexual.:103 Jeal's conclusion is shared by some biographers and disputed by others, but not yet examined in any detail by scholars.:6
- Military books
- 1884: Reconnaissance and Scouting
- 1885: Cavalry Instruction
- 1889: Pigsticking or Hoghunting
- 1896: The Downfall of Prempeh
- 1897: The Matabele Campaign
- 1899: Aids to Scouting for N.-C.Os and Men
- 1900: Sport in War
- 1901: Notes and Instructions for the South African Constabulary
- 1914: Quick Training for War
- Scouting books
- 1908: Scouting for Boys
- 1909: Yarns for Boy Scouts
- 1912: The Handbook for the Girl Guides or How Girls Can Help to Build Up the Empire (co-authored with Agnes Baden-Powell)
- 1913: Boy Scouts Beyond The Sea: My World Tour
- 1916: The Wolf Cub's handbook
- 1918: Girl Guiding
- 1919: Aids To Scoutmastership
- 1921: What Scouts Can Do: More Yarns
- 1922: Rovering to Success
- 1929: Scouting and Youth Movements
- est 1929: Last Message to Scouts
- 1935: Scouting Round the World
- Other books
- 1905: Ambidexterity (co-authored with John Jackson)
- 1915: Indian Memories
- 1915: My Adventures as a Spy
- 1916: Young Knights of the Empire: Their Code, and Further Scout Yarns
- 1921: An Old Wolf's Favourites
- 1927: Life's Snags and How to Meet Them
- 1933: Lessons From the Varsity of Life
- 1934: Adventures and Accidents
- 1936: Adventuring to Manhood
- 1937: African Adventures
- 1938: Birds and beasts of Africa
- 1939: Paddle Your Own Canoe
- 1940: More Sketches Of Kenya
- 1905 John Smith
In 1937 Baden-Powell was appointed to the Order of Merit, one of the most exclusive awards in the British honours system, and he was also awarded 28 decorations by foreign states, including the Grand Officer of the Portuguese Order of Christ, the Grand Commander of the Greek Order of the Redeemer (1920), the Commander of the French Légion d'honneur (1925), the First Class of the Hungarian Order of Merit (1929), the Grand Cross of the Order of the Dannebrog of Denmark, the Grand Cross of the Order of the White Lion, the Grand Cross of the Order of the Phoenix, and the Order of Polonia Restituta.
The Bronze Wolf Award, the only distinction of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, awarded by the World Scout Committee for exceptional services to world Scouting, was first awarded to Baden-Powell by a unanimous decision of the then International Committee on the day of the institution of the Bronze Wolf in Stockholm in 1935. He was also the first recipient of the Silver Buffalo Award in 1926, the highest award conferred by the Boy Scouts of America.
In 1931 Baden-Powell received the highest award of the First Austrian Republic (Großes Ehrenzeichen der Republik am Bande) out of the hands of President Wilhelm Miklas.:101 Baden-Powell was also one of the first and few recipients of the Goldene Gemse, the highest award conferred by the Österreichischer Pfadfinderbund.
In 1931, Major Frederick Russell Burnham dedicated Mount Baden-Powell in California to his old Scouting friend from forty years before. Today their friendship is honoured in perpetuity with the dedication of the adjoining peak, Mount Burnham.
- The family name legally changed from Powell to Baden-Powell by Royal Licence on 30 April 1902.
- 1857–1860: Robert Stephenson Smyth Powell
- 1860–1876: Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell
- 1876: Sub-Lieutenant Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell
- 1876–1884: Lieutenant Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell
- 1884–1892: Captain Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell
- 1892–1896: Major Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell
- 1896-25 April 1897: Major (Bvt. Lieutenant-Colonel) Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell
- 25 April – 7 May 1897: Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell
- 7 May 1897–1901: Lieutenant-Colonel (Bvt. Colonel) Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell
- 1901–1902: Major-General Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell
- 1902–1907: Major-General Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, CB
- 1907–12 October 1909: Lieutenant-General Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, CB
- 12 October – 9 November 1909: Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, KCVO, CB
- 9 November 1909–1912: Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, KCB, KCVO
- 1912–1923: Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, KCB, KCVO, KStJ
- 1923–1927: Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, Bt, GCVO, KCB, KStJ
- 1927–1929: Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, Bt, GCMG, GCVO, KCB, KStJ
- 1929–1937: Lieutenant-General The Right Honourable The Lord Baden-Powell, Bt, GCMG, GCVO, KCB, KStJ
- 1937–1941: Lieutenant-General The Right Honourable The Lord Baden-Powell, Bt, OM, GCMG, GCVO, KCB, KStJ
- ^ "Ashanti Campaign, 1895". The Pine Tree Web. http://pinetreeweb.com/bp-ashanti.htm. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- ^ "Matabele Campaign". The Pine Tree Web. http://pinetreeweb.com/bp-matabele.htm. Retrieved 2 December 2006.
- ^ "Queen's South Africa Medal". The Pine Tree Web. http://pinetreeweb.com/bp-qsam.htm. Retrieved 2 December 2006.
- ^ "Kings's South Africa Medal". The Pine Tree Web. http://pinetreeweb.com/bp-ksam.htm. Retrieved 2 December 2006.
- ^ "Fact Sheet: The Silver Buffalo Award". Fact sheet. Boy Scouts of America, Troop 14. 1926. Archived from the original on 29 April 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060429084702/http://www.bsa14.org/FactSheetSupport/02-532.html. Retrieved 2 December 2006.
- ^ "The Library Headlines". ScoutBase UK. http://www.scoutbase.org.uk/library/hqdocs/headline/981113aa.htm. Retrieved 2 December 2006.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Jeal, Tim (1989). Baden-Powell. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-170670-X.
- ^ "The life of Robert Stephenson — A Timeline". Robert Stephenson Trust. http://www.robertstephensontrust.com/page24.html. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
- ^ Palstra, Theo P.M. (April 1967). Baden-Powel, zijn leven en werk. Den Haag: De Nationale Padvindersraad.
- ^ Drewery, Mary (1975). Baden-Powell: The Man Who Lived Twice. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-18102-8.
- ^ Baden-Powell, Sir Robert (1915). "My Adventures As A Spy". Pine Tree Web. http://pinetreeweb.com/bp-adventure02.htm. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- ^ Baden-Powell, Robert (1897). The Matabele Campaign, 1896. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-8371-3566-4.
- ^ Proctor, Tammy M. (July 2000). "A Separate Path: Scouting and Guiding in Interwar South Africa". Comparative Studies in Society and History 42 (3). ISSN 3548-1356.
- ^ Barrett, C.R.B. (1911). History of The XIII. Hussars. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons. http://www.pinetreeweb.com/bp-hussars.htm. Retrieved 2 January 2007.
- ^ Latimer, Jon (2001). Deception in War. London: John Murray. pp. 32–5.
- ^ Conan-Doyle, Sir Arthur (1901). "The Siege of Mafeking". Pine Tree Web. http://www.pinetreeweb.com/conan-doyle-mafeking.htm. Retrieved 17 November 2006.
- ^ Pakenham, Thomas (1979). The Boer War. New York: Avon Books. ISBN 0-380-72001-9.
- ^ Pakenham, Thomas (2001). The Siege of Mafeking.
- ^ "Robert Baden-Powell: Defender of Mafeking and Founder of the Boy Scouts and the Girl Guides". Past Exhibition Archive. National Portrait Gallery. http://www.npg.org.uk/whatson/display/2004/robert-baden-powell.php. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
- ^ Reported as "a Yorkshire division" in The Times, 29 October 1907, p.6; the Dictionary of National Biography lists it as the Northumbrian Division, which encompassed units from the North and East Ridings of Yorkshire as well as Northumbria proper.
- ^ Baden-Powell, Robert; Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell Baden-Powell of Gilwell, Robert; Boehmer, Elleke (2005). Scouting for Boys: A Handbook for Instruction in Good Citizenship. Oxford University Press. p. lv. ISBN 978-0-19-280246-0. http://books.google.com/?id=ej0P_lyMEFkC&pg=PR55.
- ^ "Lord Robert Baden-Powell "B-P" – Chief Scout of the World". The Wivenhoe Encyclopedia. http://www.wivenhoe.gov.uk/Orgs/WSGA/about_badenpowell.htm. Retrieved 17 November 2006.
- ^ Saint George Saunders, Hilary (1948). "Chapter II, ENTERPRISE, Lord Baden-Powell". The Left Handshake. http://pinetreeweb.com/bp-memorial.htm. Retrieved 2 January 2007.
- ^ Baden-Powell, Sir Robert (1915). "My Adventures as a Spy". PineTree.web. http://www.pinetreeweb.com/bp-adventure01.htm. Retrieved 17 November 2006.
- ^ Peterson, Robert (2003). "Marching to a Different Drummer". Scouting. Boy Scouts of America. http://www.scoutingmagazine.org/issues/0310/d-wwas.html. Retrieved 2 January 2007.
- ^ "Ernest Thompson Seton and Woodcraft". InFed. 2002. http://www.infed.org/thinkers/seton.htm. Retrieved 7 December 2006.
- ^ "Robert Baden-Powell as and Educational Innovator". InFed. 2002. http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-bp.htm. Retrieved 7 December 2006.
- ^ Extrapolation for global range of other language publications, and related to the number of Scouts, make a realistic estimate of 100 to 150 million books. Details from Jeal, Tim. Baden-Powell. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-170670-X.
- ^ a b c "Family history, Person Page 876". The Peerage. http://www.thepeerage.com/p876.htm#i8753. Retrieved 1 January 2007.
- ^ a b "What ever happened to Baden-Powell's Rolls Royce?". http://www.jamroll.org/. Retrieved 8 November 2008.
- ^ ""Johnny" Walker's Scouting Milestones". http://www.scouting.milestones.btinternet.co.uk/jamroll.htm. Retrieved 3 September 2008.
- ^ "Baden-Powell as an Educational Innovator". Infed Thinkers. http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-bp.htm. Retrieved 4 February 2006.
- ^ Nagy, László (1985). 250 million Scouts. Geneva: World Scout Foundation.
- ^ Baden-Powell, Sir Robert. "B-P's final letter to the Scouts". Girl Guiding UK. http://guidinguk.freeservers.com/B-P.html. Retrieved 4 August 2007.
- ^ Baden-Powell, Olave. "Window on My Heart". The Autobiography of Olave, Lady Baden-Powell, G.B.E.as told to Mary Drewery. Hodder and Stoughton. http://www.pinetreeweb.com/bp-olave-00.htm. Retrieved 16 November 2006.
- ^ "Fact Sheet: The Three Baden-Powell's: Robert, Agnes, and Olave" (PDF). Girl Guides of Canada. Archived from the original on 9 March 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080309134457/http://www.girlguides.ca/media/pdfs/14-3/18.104.22.168.pdf. Retrieved 2 January 2007.
- ^ "Olave St Clair Baden-Powell (née Soames), Baroness Baden-Powell; Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell". National Portrait Gallery. http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait.php?mkey=mw83490. Retrieved 16 November 2006.
- ^ "Wey people, the big names of the valley". Wey River freelance community. http://www.weyriver.co.uk/theriver/people_3_names.htm. Retrieved 29 April 2007.
- ^ Wade, Eileen K.. "Pax Hill". PineTree Web. http://www.pinetreeweb.com/bp-pax-hill.htm. Retrieved 16 November 2006.
- ^ A tribute to Betty St. Clair Clay née Baden-Powell
- ^ ""B-P" – Chief scout of the world". Baden-Powell. World Organization of the Scout Movement. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070930183638/http://www.euro.scout.org/wsrc/fs/bp_e.shtml. Retrieved 16 November 2006.
- ^ Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell at Find a Grave
- ^ Olave St. Clair Baden-Powell at Find a Grave
- ^ "Boy Scout medal with fleur-de-lis and swastika, 1930s". The Learning Federation. http://elearning.scgs.qld.edu.au/learningfederation/drs/R2944/description.html. Retrieved 3 September 2008.
- ^ Schellenberg, Walter (2000). Invasion, 1940: The Nazi Invasion Plan for Britain. London: St Ermin's Press.
- ^ Brendon, Piers (1979). Eminent Edwardians. Martin Secker & Warburg. ISBN 0-436-06810-9.
- ^ Rosenthal, Michael (1986). The Character Factory: Baden-Powell and the Origins of the Boy Scout Movement. Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-394-51169-7.
- ^ Block, Nelson R.; Proctor, Tammy M., eds (2009). Scouting Frontiers: Youth and the Scout Movement’s First Century. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 1-4438-0450-9.
- ^ Lord Baden-Powell of Gilwell (1921). What Scouts Can Do: More Yarns. http://www.pinetreeweb.com/bp-can1.htm. Retrieved 1 August 2007.
- ^ http://scout.org/en/about_scouting/facts_figures/history/b_p_s_last_message
- ^ "John Smith". The Library of Virginia. http://www.lva.virginia.gov/exhibits/treasures/arts/art-p1.htm. Retrieved 29 July 2007.
- ^ "Supplement to the London Gazette". London Gazette. 1 June 1920. http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/31928/supplements/6176. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- ^ "Decoration Conferred by His Majesty the King of the Hellenes". The London Gazette. 22 October 1920. http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/32095/pages/10197/page.pdf. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- ^ a b Pribich, Kurt (2004) (in German). Logbuch der Pfadfinderverbände in Österreich. Vienna: Pfadfinder-Gilde-Österreichs.
- ^ Wilceczek, Hans Gregor (1931) (in German). Georgsbrief des Bundesfeldmeisters für das Jahr 1931 an die Wölflinge, Pfadfinder, Rover und Führer im Ö.P.B.. Vienna: Österreichischer Pfadfinderbund. p. 4.
- ^ "Mount Baden-Powell". USGS. http://geonames.usgs.gov/pls/gnispublic/f?p=gnispq:3:::NO::P3_FID:255344. Retrieved 17 April 2006.
- ^ "Dedication of Mount Baden-Powell". The Pine Tree Web. http://www.pinetreeweb.com/dedication.htm. Retrieved 23 April 2006.
- ^ Burnham, Frederick Russell (1944). Taking Chances. Haynes. xxv–xxix. ISBN 1-879356-32-5.
- ^ "Mapping Service". Mount Burnham. http://geonames.usgs.gov/pls/gnispublic/f?p=gnispq:3:::NO::P3_FID:255383. Retrieved 17 April 2006.
- ^ "Nomination Database: Baden-Powell". The Nomination Database for the Nobel Peace Prize, 1901–1956. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/nomination/nomination.php?action=show&showid=1589. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
Related readings: biographies
- Begbie, Harold (1900). * The story of Baden-Powell: The Wolf that never Sleeps at Project Gutenberg. London: Grant Richards.
- Kiernan, R.H. (1939). Baden-Powell. London: Harrap.
- Saunders, Hilary St George (1948). The Left Handshake.
- Palstra, Theo P.M. (April 1967). Baden-Powel, zijn leven en werk. Den Haag: De Nationale Padvindersraad.
- Drewery, Mary (1975). Baden-Powell: the man who lived twice. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-18102-8.
- Brendon, Piers (1980). Eminent Edwardians. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-395-29195-X.
- Jeal, Tim (1989). Baden-Powell. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-170670-X.
- Hillcourt, William; Olave, Lady Baden-Powell (1992). Baden-Powell: The Two Lives Of A Hero. New York: Gilwellian Press d/b/a Scouter's Journal Magazine. ISBN 0-8395-3594-5.
- "Robert Baden-Powell, Founder of the World Scout Movement, Chief Scout of the World". Pine Tree Web. http://www.pinetreeweb.com/B-P.htm. Retrieved 29 July 2007.
Peerage of the United Kingdom New title Baron Baden-Powell
1929 – 1941
Baronetage of the United Kingdom New title Baronet
1922 – 1941
Scouting New title Chief Scout of the British Empire
1908 – 1941
New title Chief Scout of the World
1920 – 1941
never assigned again Scouting and Guiding topics The Scouting Movement Sections Founders, pioneers, and notable leaders Prominent places International Scouting Other
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