- Inspector General
In a civilian or military administration, an Inspector General is a high ranking official charged with the mission to inspect and report on some bodies in their field of competency.
French Civil Service, an inspector general ("inspecteur général") is a member of a body of civil servants known as "inspection générale", generally of a high level, charged with a nationwide mission to inspect some specific services and provide government officials with advice regarding that service. For example:
* "inspection générale des Finances" (Ministry of Finances)
* "inspection générale de l'Éducation Nationale" (Ministry of National Education: teaching issues)
* "inspection générale de l'administration de l'Éducation Nationale" (Ministries of National Education and Research: administrative issues)
French National Police"internal affairs"
** "inspection générale de la Police Nationale" (except
Parisand close suburbs)
** "inspection générale des services" of the
Prefecture of Police( Parisand surroundings).
The "inspection générale des Finances" is particularly prestigious as a job appointment after studies at the "
École Nationale d'Administration". In recent decades, many of its members have occupied various high positions in lieu of their traditional mission of inspection. The corps has come under increased criticism for this.
The office (
General Inspector of the Armed Forces) also existed in the Second Polish Republicand was held, among others, by Józef Piłsudski.
Romania, Inspector General is the title given to the head of the Romanian Police, Romanian Border Policeand the Romanian Gendarmerie (whose central commands are called "General Inspectorates").
In the British tradition, an Inspector-General is usually a senior military officer responsible for the inspection of
military units to ensure that they meet appropriate standards of training and efficiency. Unlike American inspectors general, they do not usually have an investigative or law enforcement function.
For many years the
Royal Air Forcemaintained a post of Inspector-General.
commanding officers of the Royal Irish Constabulary(and later of the Royal Ulster Constabularyuntil replaced by Chief Constable) and many colonial policeforces also bore the title of Inspector-General and it is still used in Indiaand some other former British territories.
Inspector General of Police is the title of the head of the
Ghana Police Service
The Inspector General is also the name given to the
Chief Executive Officerof the Insolvency Service. Inspectorand variants of it are rank titles of officers in the police of Britain and most Commonwealth countries.
United States, an Inspector General (IG) is a type of investigatorcharged with examining the actions of a government agency, militaryorganization, or military contractor as a general auditorof their operations to ensure they are operating in compliance with general established policies of the government, to audit the effectiveness of security procedures, or to discover the possibility of misconduct, waste, fraud, theft, or certain types of criminal activity by individuals or groups related to the agency's operation, usually involving some misuse of the organization's funds or credit.
In the United States, there exist numerous Offices of Inspector General (OIGs) at the federal, state, and local levels. Federally, there exist [http://www.ignet.gov/igs/homepage1.html 57 different and autonomous OIGs] , a significant increase since the statutory creation of the initial 12 OIGs by the [http://www.access.gpo.gov/uscode/title5a/5a_2_.html IG Act of 1978] . The federal OIGs collectively employ criminal investigators (also known as "
special agents") and auditors. In addition, federal OIGs employ forensic auditors, or "Audigators," evaluators, inspectors, administrative investigators, and a variety of other specialists. Their activities include the detection and prevention of fraud, waste, abuse, and mismanagement of the government programs and operations within their parent organizations. OIG Investigations may be internal, targeting government employees, or external, targeting grant recipients, contractors, or recipients of the various loans and subsidies offered through the thousands of [http://220.127.116.11/cfda/cfda.html federal domestic and foreign assistance programs] .
While all of the federal OIGs operate separate of one another, they share information and some coordination through the President's Council on Integrity and Efficiency ( [http://www.ignet.gov/pcieecie1.html PCIE] ) and the Executive Council on Integrity and Efficiency ( [http://www.ignet.gov/pcieecie1.html ECIE] ), as created or amended in 1992 by [http://www.ignet.gov/pande/exorder.html Executive Order 12805] . As of 2005, the [http://www.ignet.gov/pande/pmembers1.html PCIE] comprises 29 OIGs, whose Inspectors General (IG's), the heads of the OIGs, are [http://www.ignet.gov/igs/ighistory.pdf Presidentially-appointed and confirmed by the Senate] . For example, the [http://www.hud.gov/offices/oig/ Inspector General] of the
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Developmentis a PCIE OIG. The [http://www.ignet.gov/pande/emembers1.html ECIE] comprises the remaining OIGs, whose IG's are appointed by their respective agency heads. For example, the [http://www.uspsoig.gov/ U.S. Postal Service, Office of Inspector General] is an ECIE OIG. PCIE IGs can only be removed, or terminated, from their positions by the President of the United States, whereas ECIE IGs can be terminated by the agency head. [http://www.ignet.gov/pande/exorder.html] However, in both cases the Congress must be notified of the termination/removal/reassignment.
In addition to their IG members, both the PCIE and ECIE include non-IG posts, representatives from the federal executive branch, such as executives from the Office of Management and Budget, the
Office of Personnel Management, the Office of Government Ethics, the Office of Special Counsel, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation(FBI).
While the IG Act of 1978 requires that IGs be selected based upon their qualifications and not political affiliation, PCIE IGs are considered political appointees and are often selected, if only in part and in addition to their qualifications, because of their political relationships and party affiliation. An example of the role political affiliation plays in the selection of an IG, and the resulting pitfalls, can be seen in the 2001 Republican appointment (and resignation under fire) of
Janet Rehnquist[http://www.phillyburbs.com/pb-dyn/news/53169.html] (daughter of conservative U.S. Supreme CourtChief Justice, William Rehnquist) to the post of [http://oig.hhs.gov/ Inspector General for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services] .
Evidence of the coordination between federal OIGs can be seen by the public through the OIGs' shared website, [http://www.ignet.gov www.ignet.gov] , and the use of shared training facilities, such as the [http://www.igcia.gov/ IG Criminal Investigator Academy (IGCIA)] and the [http://www.igati.org IG Audit Training Institute (IGATI)] . Evidence of the OIGs' return on investment to taxpayers can be seen through their Semi-annual Reports to Congress (SARC), most of which are available on [http://www.ignet.gov/igs/homepage1.html each OIG's website] .
Since the post-9/11 enactment of the [http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/terrorism/hsa2002.pdf#search='homeland%20security%20act%20of%202002' Homeland Security Act of 2002] , resulting in the amendment of the IG Act of 1978, Section 6e, most PCIE OIG special agents have had full law enforcement authority to carry firearms, make arrests, and execute
search warrants. Prior to this time, most PCIE and some ECIE IG special agents had the equivalent law enforcement authorities as a result of other statutes or annually-required deputation by the U.S. Marshals Service. The 2002 amendment to the Act of 1978 made most deputation of PCIE IG special agents no longer necessary. Some ECIE IG special agents still have full law enforcement authority today by virtue of this continued deputation. Some OIGs employ no criminal investigators and rely solely on administrative investigators, auditors, and inspectors.
United States Armed Forces, the position of Inspector General is normally part of the personal staff serving a general or flag officer in a command position. The Inspector General's office functions in two ways. To a certain degree they are ombudsmenfor their branch of service. However, their primary function is to insure the combat readiness of subordinate units in their command. A visit by an Inspector General (who usually is a field grade officer assisted by experienced company grade and warrant officers, senior noncommissioned officers and experienced civilian employees) will often cause anxiety among the leaders and members of the unit being visited, no matter how ready their unit is for the IG visit.
An armed services inspector general may also investigate noncriminal allegations, to include determining if the matter should be referred for criminal investigation by the service's criminal investigative agency.
World War II, Colonel General Heinz Guderianwas appointed Inspector-General of Armoured Troops on 1 March 1943, reporting directly to Adolf Hitler.
Since the reestablishment of the German armed forces after World War II, the Inspector-General of the Federal Armed Forces ("Generalinspekteur der Bundeswehr") is the highest-ranking soldier, responsible for the overall military planning and the principal military advisor of the Federal Minister of Defense and the Federal Government. Head of the Command Staff of the Armed Forces ("Führungsstab der Streitkräfte"), his position is broadly equivalent to that of the American
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
In the German federal police ("Bundespolizei"), the highest-ranking police officer is called inspector of the federal police as well, although this position is a more coordinating than commanding one. For all state alert police services there also exists an inspector ("Inspekteur der Bereitschaftspolizeien der Länder").
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