- Frederick Russell Burnham
Infobox Military Person
name= Frederick Russell Burnham
lived= birth date|1861|5|11 – death date and age|1947|9|01|1861|5|11
placeofbirth= Tivoli, Minnesota (
SiouxIndian territory; near Mankato, MN)
Santa Barbara, California, buried at Three Rivers, California
nickname=The King of Scouts;cite book | last =Davis | first =Richard Harding | authorlink =Richard Harding Davis | coauthors = | title = | publisher =Charles Scribner's Sons | year =1906 | location =New York | pages = | isbn = 0873642392] He-who-sees-in-the-dark;cite book | last =West | first =James E. | authorlink =James E. West (Scouting)|James E. West | coauthors =Peter O. Lamb; illustrated by Lord Baden-Powell | title =He-who-sees-in-the-dark; the boys' story of Frederick Burnham, the American scout | publisher =Brewer, Warren and Putnam | year =1932] Fred
allegiance= Scout for the British Army in Southern Africa; U.S. citizen.
serviceyears= 1893–1897, 1900–1901
commands=Chief of Scouts under Lord Roberts
battles= flagicon|United States
First Matabele War:
Second Matabele War:
— Assassination of Mlimo
Second Boer War:
Battle of Paardeberg
— Driefontein (10 Mar 1900)
— Johannesburg (31 May 1900)
— March on Pretoria (2–5 Jun 1900)
Distinguished Service Order Queen's South Africa Medal British South Africa Company Medal Victoria Cross(declined)
Silver Buffalo Award Mount Burnham(California).
laterwork=messenger, Indian tracker, gold miner, wealthy oil man, American spy. Father of the international Scouting movement and a close friend of Robert Baden-Powell.
Frederick Russell Burnham, DSO (May 11, 1861 – September 1, 1947) was an American scout and world traveling adventurer known for his service to the
British Armyin colonial Africaand for teaching "woodcraft" to Robert Baden-Powell, thus becoming one of the inspirations for the founding of the international Scouting Movement.
Burnham had little formal education, attending high school but never graduating. He began his career at 14 in the
American Southwestas a scout and tracker. Burnham then went to Africa where this background proved useful. He soon became an officer in the British Army, serving in several battles there. During this time, Burnham became friends with Baden-Powell, and passed on to him both his outdoor skills and his spirit for what would later become known as Scouting.
Burnham eventually moved on to become involved in
espionage, oil, conservation, writing and business. His descendants are still active in Scouting.
Burnham was born to a
missionaryfamily on an Indian Reservation in Tivoli, Minnesota. As a toddler, he witnessed the burning of New Ulm, Minnesota, by Taoyateduta(Little Crow) and his Siouxwarriors in the Dakota War of 1862. During the uprising, his mother, Rebecca (Elizabeth) Russell Burnham, hid the not quite two-year-old boy in a basket of green corn husks and fled for her life. Once the Sioux had been driven away the mother returned to find the house burned down. Her young son was safe, fast asleep in the basket and protected only by the corn husks.cite book | last =Burnham | first =Frederick Russell | coauthors = | title =Scouting on Two Continents | publisher =Doubleday, Page & company | year =1926 | location = | pages = p.2; Chapters 3 & 4 | id = OCLC|407686 ]
The young Burnham attended schools in Iowa and there he met Blanche Blick, who would later become his wife. His family moved to
Los Angeles, California, in 1870. Two years later his father, the Rev. Edwin Otway Burnhamof Kentucky, himself a long time pioneer and missionary along the border of the Ho Chunk (Winnebago) Indian reservation in Minnesota, died when Burnham was only 11. While the rest of the family returned to Iowa, the young Burnham stayed in California to make his own way.
For the next three years, Burnham worked as a mounted messenger for the
Western Union Telegraph Companyin California and Arizona. On one occasion his horse was stolen from him by Tiburcio Vasquez, a famous Californiobandit.cite journal |last=Carr |first=Harry |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1931 |month=September 6 |title=They knew the old California bandits |journal= Los Angeles Times|volume= |issue= |pages=K10 |id= |url= |accessdate= |quote= ] At 14, he began his life as a scout and Indian tracker in the Apache Wars. He traveled in northern Mexicoand the American Southwest, including Texasand Oklahoma, earning a living as a buffalo hunter, cowboy, and prospector, and he continued working as a scout while tracking Indians in the Cheyenne War. The young Burnham eventually went on to attend high school in California but never graduated.cite book | title =Press Reference Library: Notables of the West | publisher =International News Service | year =1915 ]
In 1882, Burnham returned to Arizona and was appointed Deputy Sheriff of
Pinal County, but he soon went back to cattle and mining interests. He joined the losing side of the Tonto Basin Feud before mass killing started, and only narrowly escaped death in Arizona.cite journal| author =R. R. Money| year=1962| month=April | title=Tonto Basin Feud | journal= Blackwood's Magazine| volume=291| issue=| issn=0006-436X ] He returned to Prescott, Iowa, to visit his childhood sweetheart, Blanche, and the two were married on February 6, 1884.cite book | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =Press Reference Library: Notables of the West | publisher =International News Service | year =1915 | pages = 241 ] That same year, he and Blanche settled down to tend to an orange grove in Pasadena, California, but within a year he was back prospecting and scouting.
In the 1880s the American press had been popularizing the notion that the West had been won and there was nothing left to conquer in the United States. This idea changed Burnham's life. Ever the soldier of fortune, he began to look elsewhere for the next undeveloped frontier. When he heard of the work of
Cecil Rhodesand his pioneers in building the Cape to Cairo railwayin Africa, Burnham sold what little he owned and, in 1893, set sail to Cape Town, South Africa, with his wife and young son. He soon joined the British South Africa Companyas a scout and headed north. Burnham became well known in Africa for his ability to track, even at night, and the Africans dubbed him "He-who-sees-in-the-dark."cite book | last =West | first =James E. | authorlink =James E. West (Scouting)| coauthors =Peter O. Lamb; illustrated by Lord Baden-Powell | title =He-who-sees-in-the-dark; the boys' story of Frederick Burnham, the American scout | publisher =Brewer, Warren and Putnam | year =1932]
First Matabele War
Burnham’s first major test in Africa came in 1893 when the British South Africa Company went to war with the
MatabeleKing Lobengula. Leander Starr Jamesonhad hoped to defeat the Matabele quickly by capturing Lobengula at his royal city of Bulawayo. Burnham and a small group of scouts were sent ahead to report on the situation in Bulawayo. While on the outskirts of town they watched as the Matabele burned down and destroyed everything in sight. By the time the white troops had arrived in force, Lobengula and his warriors had fled and there was little left of old Bulawayo.cite book | last =Donovan | first =Charles Henry Wynne | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =With Wilson in Matabeleland, Or, Sport and War in Zambesia | publisher =Henry | year =1894 | location =London | pages = 271|]
After he found that Bulawayo had been abandoned, Jameson dispatched a column of soldiers to locate and capture Lobengula. The column, led by Maj. Patrick Forbes, camped on the south bank of the Shangani River about convert|25|mi|km|0 north-east of the village of Lupane on the evening of 3 December 1893. The next day, late in the afternoon, a dozen men under the command of Maj. Allan Wilson were sent across the river to patrol the area. The Wilson Patrol came across a group of Matabele women and children who claimed to know Lobengula’s whereabouts. Burnham, who served as the lead scout of the Wilson patrol, sensed a trap and advised Wilson to withdraw, but Wilson ordered his patrol to advance.cite book | last =Forbes | first =Archibald | authorlink = | coauthors =Arthur Griffiths, George Alfred Henty, and E. F. Knight| title =Battles of the Nineteenth Century | publisher =Castle| year =1896 | location =London, Paris, Melbourne | pages = 110-119]
Soon afterwards, the patrol found the king and Wilson sent a message back to the
laagerrequesting reinforcements. Forbes, however, was unwilling to set off across the river in the dark, so he sent only 20 more men, under the command of Henry Borrow, to reinforce Wilson’s patrol. Forbes intended to send the main body of troops and artillery across the river the following morning; however, the main column was ambushed by Matabele warriors and delayed. Wilson’s patrol too came under attack, but the Shangani River had swollen and there was now no possibility of retreat. In desperation, Wilson sent Burnham and two other scouts, Pearl “Pete” Ingram (a Montanacowboy) and George Gooding (an Australian), to cross the Shangani River, find Forbes, and bring reinforcements. In spite of a shower of bullets and spears, the three made it to Forbes, but the battle raging there was just as intense as the one they had left, and there was no hope of anyone reaching Wilson in time. As Burnham loaded his rifle to beat back the Matabele warriors, he quietly said to Forbes, "I think I may say that we are the sole survivors of that party." Wilson, Borrow, and their men were indeed surrounded by hundreds of Matabele warriors; escape was impossible, and all were killed.cite book | last =Forbes | first =Archibald | authorlink = | coauthors =Arthur Griffiths, George Alfred Henty, and E. F. Knight| title =Battles of the Nineteenth Century | publisher =Castle and Company Ltd| year =1896 | location =London, Paris, Melbourne | pages = 110-119] cite book | last =Hensman | first =Howard | title =A history of Rhodesia, compiled from official sources | publisher =W. Blackwood and sons| year =1900 | location =Edinburgh and London | url = http://www.rhodesia.nl/hensman.pdf] Rhodesiancolonial histories called this the Shangani Patrol, and hailed Wilson and Borrow as national heroes.cite book | last =Wills | first =W.A. | authorlink = | coauthors =L.T Collingridge (with contributions by Frederick C Selous and H. Rider Haggard) | title =The Downfall of Lobengula| publisher =The African Review | year =1894 | location = | pages = 153–172] For his service in the war, Burnham was presented the British South Africa Company Medal, a gold watch, and a share of a 300 acre (120 ha) tract of land in Matabeleland. It was here that Burnham uncovered many artifacts in the huge granite ruins of the ancient civilization of Great Zimbabwe.
econd Matabele War
In March 1896, the Matabele again revolted against the authority of the British South Africa Company in what is now celebrated in
Zimbabweas the First War of Independence. Mlimo, the Matabele spiritual leader, is credited with fomenting much of the anger that led to this confrontation. Matabeleland defenses were in disarray due to the ill-fated Jameson Raid, and the first few months of the war alone hundreds of white settlers were killed. With few troops to support them, the settlers quickly built a laager in the centre of Bulawayo on their own and mounted patrols under such figures as Burnham, Baden-Powell, and Selous. An estimated 50,000 Matabele retreated into their stronghold of the Matobo Hillsnear Bulawayo, a region that became the scene of the fiercest fighting against the white settler patrols.cite book | last =Selous | first =Frederick Courteney | authorlink =Frederick Selous | title =Sunshine and Storm in Rhodesia| publisher =R. Ward | year =1896 | location =London | pages = | url =http://books.google.com/books?id=GjNfildy5fsC&pg=PA1&dq=Sunshine+and+Storm+in+Rhodesia]
Assassination of Mlimo
The turning point in the war came when Burnham and a young scout named Bonar Armstrong found their way through Matobo Hills to the sacred cave where Mlimo had been hiding. Not far from the cave was a village of about 100 huts filled with many warriors. The two scouts tethered their horses to a thicket and crawled on their bellies, screening their slow, cautious movements by means of branches held before them. Once inside the cave, they waited until Mlimo entered.cite journal| author =| date=June 25, 1896| year=1896| month=June | title=Killed the Matabele God: Burnham, the American scout, may end uprising| journal=
New York Times| issn=0093-1179 |url=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9E06E7DF123BEE33A25756C2A9609C94679ED7CF |accessdate=2007-09-28 ] Mlimo was said to be about 60 years old, with very dark skin, sharp-featured; American news reports of the time described him as having a cruel, crafty look. Burnham and Armstrong waited until Mlimo entered the cave and started his dance of immunity, at which point Burnham shot Mlimo just below the heart.
The two scouts then leapt over the dead Mlimo and ran down a trail toward their horses. Hundreds of warriors, encamped nearby, picked up their arms and searched for the attackers. To distract the Matabele, Burnham set fire to the village. The two white men got on their horses and rode back to Bulawayo. Shortly after learning of the assassination of Mlimo, Cecil Rhodes boldly walked unarmed into the Ndebele stronghold in Matobo Hills and persuaded the
impito lay down their arms, thus ending the Second Matabele War.cite book | last =Farwell | first =Byron | authorlink = Byron Farwell | coauthors = | title =The Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Land Warfare: An Illustrated World View | publisher =W. W. Norton | year =2001 | location = | pages = 539 | id = ISBN 0393047709 ] cite book | last =Leebaert | first =Derek | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =To Dare and to Conquer: Special Operations and the Destiny of Nations | publisher =Little, Brown| year =2006 | location = | pages = 379| url = | i = | id = ISBN 0316143847]
Klondike Gold Rush
With the Matabele war over, Burnham decided it was time to leave Africa and move on to other adventures. The family returned to California where Burnham left his wife and young son Bruce with his mother. Soon after, he and his eldest son Roderick, then 12 years old, traveled to
Alaskaand the Yukonto prospect in the Klondike Gold Rush. Upon hearing of the Spanish-American War, Burnham rushed home to volunteer his services, but before he could get to the fighting the war was already over. Burnham then returned to the Klondike. Colonel Theodore Rooseveltregretted this as much as Burnham and paid him a great tribute in his book.
econd Boer War
In January 1900, while prospecting in
Skagway, Alaska, Burnham received the following telegram: "Lord Roberts appoints you on his personal staff as Chief of Scouts. If you accept, come at once the quickest way possible." Although Cape Town is at the opposite end of the globe from the Klondike, he left within the hour.cite journal| author=Byron Farwell| authorlink= Byron Farwell | year=1976| month= March| title= Taking Sides in the Boer War| journal=American Heritage Magazine| volume =20| issue=3|issn=0002-8738 |url=http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1976/3/1976_3_20.shtml |accessdate=2007-03-07] He would arrive at the front just before the Battle of Paardeberg. During the war, Burnham spent much time behind the Boer lines gathering information and blowing up railway bridges and tracks. He was twice captured and twice escaped, but he was also disabled for a time by his near-fatal wounds.
In a step that was unusual for a foreigner, Burnham was given a commission by Lord Roberts and the rank of captain. Burnham was first captured while trying to warn a British column approaching Thaba' Nchu.cite journal| date=April 8, 1900| year=1900| month=April | title=American scout escapes| journal=
Atlanta Constitutionissn=0093-1179] cite book | author=Frederic William Unger| title=With "Bobs" and Krüger: Experiences and Observations of an American War Correspondent in the Field with both Armies | publisher =H.T. Coates and company| year=1901 | pages=Chapter XXV| id=] He came upon a group of Boers hiding on the banks of the river, toward which the British were even then advancing. Cut off from his own side, Burnham chose to signal the approaching soldiers even though it would expose him to capture. With a red kerchief, Burnham signaled the soldiers to turn back, but the column paid no attention and plodded steadily on into the ambush, while Burnham was at once taken prisoner. In the fight that followed, Burnham pretended to receive a wound in the knee. Limping heavily and groaning with pain, he was placed in a wagon with the officers who really were wounded, and who, in consequence, were not closely guarded. Later that evening, Burnham slipped over the driver's seat, dropped between the two wheels of the wagon, lowered himself and fell between the legs of the oxen on his back in the road. In an instant the wagon had passed over him safely, and while the dust still hung above the trail he rolled rapidly over into the ditch at the side of the road and lay motionless. It was four days before he was able to re-enter the British lines, during which time he had been lying in the open veldt. He had subsisted on one biscuit and two handfuls of "mealies" (i.e., maize).cite journal| author =| date=May 5| year=1901| month=May | title=England's American Scout| journal= New York Times| volume=| issue=| issn=0362-4331| url= http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9A01E0DD1139E733A25756C0A9639C946097D6CF | accessdate=2007-09-28]
On June 2, 1900, while trying by night to blow up the bridge on the Pretoria-
Delagoa Bayrailway line at Bronkhorstspruit, convert|20|mi|km|0 east of Pretoriaand a vital link to the sea, Burnham was surrounded by a party of Boers and could save himself only by instant flight. He had all but gotten away when a bullet caught his horse; it crashed to the ground dead, crushing Burnham beneath it and knocking him senseless. He continued in a dazed state for nearly a day and when he came to he found that both friends and foes had departed. Although still suffering the most acute agony, Burnham heroically crept back to the railroad, placed his charges, and blew up the line in two places. Knowing the explosion would soon bring the Boers, he crept on his hands and knees to an empty kraaland lay there for two days and nights insensible. Upon hearing the sound of distant firing, Burnham crawled toward the fighting. By then he was indifferent as to whether the gunshots were coming from the enemy or from his own people, but, as it chanced, he was picked up by a friendly patrol and carried to Pretoria. The surgeons discovered that in his fall Burnham had torn apart the muscles of the stomach and burst a blood-vessel. His survival, the doctors assured him, was due only to the fact that he had been without food for three days.
Burnham's injuries were so serious that he was ordered to England by Lord Roberts. Two days before leaving for London, he was promoted to the rank of major.cite journal| author =| date=August 4, 1900| year=1900| month=August | title=Southern California by Towns and Counties: Fred Burnham now a Major in British Army; Recovering from His Injuries| journal=
Los Angeles Times| issn=0458-3035] cite journal| author =| date=March 2, 1902| year=1902| month=March | title=Burnham's services brought to the attention of Parliament: He maintains his well-known modesty. His injuries received in Africa. Now living in a London suburb.| journal= Los Angeles Times| issn=0458-3035] On his arrival in England, Burnham was commanded to dine with Queen Victoriaand to spend the night at Osborne House.cite journal| author = Lee Shippey| date=February 2, 1930| year=1930| month=February | title=Lee Side o' L.A.: Personal Glimpses of Famous Southlanders| journal= Los Angeles Times| issn=0458-3035 ] A few months later, after the Queen's death, King Edward VIIpersonally presented Burnham with the Queen's South Africa Medalwith four bars for the battles at Driefontein (Mar 10, 1900), Johannesburg (May 31, 1900), Paardeberg (February 17–26, 1900), and Cape Colony (October 11, 1899 – May 31, 1902), in addition to the cross of the Distinguished Service Order,cite journal| date=March 2, 1902| year=1902| month=March | title=Burnham's services brought to the attention of Parliament: He maintains his well-known modesty. His injuries received in Africa. Now living in a London suburb.| journal= Los Angeles Times| issn=0458-3035] cite journal | date=September 28, 1901| title=More South African Honors: Lady Sarah Wilson and Major Burnham, the American Scout, among those decorated | journal= New York Times| year=1901 |month =Sep| issn=0362-4331 |url=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9E06E2DB1130E132A2575BC2A96F9C946097D6CF] the second highest decoration in the British Army, for his heroism during the "victorious" March to Pretoria (2-5 June 1900). Burnham had been selected for the Victoria Cross, Britain’s highest military award, but he declined rather than forfeit his American citizenship – a requirement at the time. Nevertheless, Burnham received the highest awards of any American who served in the Second Boer War.cite journal| author =Byron Farwell| year=1976| month=March | title= Taking Sides in the Boer War| journal=American Heritage Magazine| volume=20| issue=3| issn=0002-8738| url=http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1976/3/1976_3_20.shtml| accessdate=2007-03-07]
Burnham's most accomplished soldiers during the Second Boer War were
Lovat Scouts, a Scottish Highland regiment, whom he described as "half wolf and half jackrabbit."cite book | author= John Plaster| title= The Ultimate Sniper: An Advanced Training Manual For Military And Police Snipers | publisher =Paladin Press| year=2006 | pages= 5| id=ISBN 0-87364-704-1] These scouts were well practiced in the arts of marksmanship, field craft, and tactics. After the war, this regiment went on to become the British army's first sniperunit.cite book | author=John Plaster | title= The Ultimate Sniper: An Advanced Training Manual For Military And Police Snipers | publisher =Paladin Press| year=2006 | pages= 5| id=ISBN 0-87364-704-1]
"Father of Scouting"
Burnham was already a celebrated scout when he first befriended Baden-Powell during the Second Matabele War. Himself a brilliant outdoorsman, Baden-Powell was a distinguished cavalry officer, and reportedly the finest pig sticker in India — meaning he was adept at killing a sprinting wild boar with one lance thrust from the back of a galloping horse. During the siege of Bulawayo, the two men rode many times into the Matobo Hills on patrol, and it was in these African hills that Burnham first introduced Baden-Powell to the ways and methods of the
indigenous peoples of the Americas, and taught him "woodcraft" (better known today as scoutcraft).cite book | last =Baden-Powell | first =Robert | authorlink =Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell | coauthors = | title =Scouting for Boys: A Handbook for Instruction in Good Citizenship | publisher =H. Cox | year =1908 | location =London | pages = xxiv| id = ISBN 0-486457-19-2] So impressed was Baden-Powell by Burnham's Scouting spirit that he fondly told people he "sucked him dry" of all he could possibly tell.cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | year = 200| url =http://goldiproductions.com/BoerWar_Museum/Boer90i_pastdis_burnham.html | title =Great Canadian Heritage Discoveries | work =Biographical sketch | publisher =The Canadian Anglo-Boer War Museum | accessdate=2007-03-31] It was here that Baden-Powell began to wear his signature Stetson campaign hatand kerchief for the first time.cite book | first = Tim | last = Jeal | authorlink = Tim Jeal | title = Baden-Powell | publisher = Hutchinson | location = London| year = 1989 | id = ISBN 0-09-170670-X ] Both men recognized that wars were changing markedly and the British Army needed to adapt; so during their joint scouting missions, Baden-Powell and Burnham discussed the concept of a broad training program in woodcraft for young men, rich in exploration, tracking, field craft, and self-reliance. In Africa, no scout embodied these traits more than Burnham.cite book | last =Prichard | first =Hesketh Vernon Hesketh | title =Sniping in France, 1914-18 : with notes on the scientific training of scouts, observers, and snipers | publisher =Helion| year =2004 | location =Solihull, West Midlands, England| id = ISBN 1874622477] While Baden-Powell went on to refine the concept of Scouting and become the founder of the international Scouting movement, Burnham has been called the movement's father.cite web | last =Forster | first = Reverend Dr. Michael | url = http://www.netpages.free-online.co.uk/sha/scouthistory.doc | title =The Origins of the Scouting Movement| publisher =Netpages | accessdate=2007-10-02|format=DOC] Quote box2 |width= 29em |border= 1px |align= left |bgcolor= #c6dbf7 |halign= left |quote= "Frederick Russell Burnham: Explorer, discoverer, cowboy, and Scout. Native American, he served as chief of scouts in the Boer War, an intimate friend of Lord Baden-Powell. It was on some of his exploits demanding great courage, alertness, skill in surmounting the perils of the out-of-doors, that the founder of Scouting based some of the activities of the Boy Scout program. As an honorary Scout of the Boy Scouts of America, he has served as an inspiration to the youth of the Nation and is the embodiment of the qualities of the ideal Scout."
source= — 27th Annual Report of the
Boy Scouts of America(1936).cite book | last =West| first =James E | authorlink =James E. West (Scouting)| coauthors = | title =10108 H.doc.18 | publisher =U.S. Congress, House Committee on Education. | year =1937 | location = | pages = 472| id = ] Burnham later became close friends with others involved in the Scouting movement in the United States, such as Theodore Roosevelt, the Chief Scout Citizen, and Gifford Pinchot, the Chief Scout Forester. [cite book | title =The Official Handbook for Boys | edition =First Edition | year =1911 | publisher =Boy Scouts of America] The Boy Scouts of America(BSA) made Burnham an Honorary Scout in 1927, [cite book | title =Handbook for Boys | year =1933 | edition = Third Edition | publisher =Boy Scouts of America | pages =611] and for his noteworthy and extraordinary service to the Scouting movement, Burnham was bestowed the highest commendation given by the Boy Scouts of America, the Silver Buffalo Award, in 1936.cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | year = 1936| url =http://www.bsa14.org/FactSheetSupport/02-532.html| title =Fact Sheet: The Silver Buffalo Award | work =Fact sheet | publisher =Boy Scouts of America Troop 14| accessdate=2006-11-28] Throughout his life he remained active in Scouting at both the regional and the national level in the United States and he corresponded regularly with Baden-Powell on Scouting topics.
The low-key Burnham and Baden-Powell remained close friends for their long lives. Much of their correspondence was burned by the jealous
Olave Baden-Powellin 1958, but the seal on the Burnham - Baden-Powell letters at Yaleand Stanford expired in 2000 and the true depth of their friendship and love of Scouting has again been revealed.cite web | last = van Wyk | first =Peter | | year = 2000| url =http://www.burnhamkingofscouts.com/| title =Burnham: King of Scouts | publisher =Trafford Publishing | ISBN=1-412200-28-8 | accessdate=2007-03-30] In 1931, Burnham read the speech dedicating Mount Baden-Powell in California,cite web|url=Gnis3|255344|work=USGS|title=GNIS: Mount Baden-Powell|accessdate=April 17|accessyear=2006] cite book | last =Burnham | first =Frederick Russell | coauthors = | title =Taking Chances | publisher =Haynes Corp | year =1944 | location = | pages = xxv-xxix | id = ISBN 1-879356-32-5 ] to his old Scouting friend.cite web|url=http://www.pinetreeweb.com/dedication.htm |work=The Pine Tree Web|title=Dedication of Mount Baden-Powell|accessdate=April 23|accessyear=2006] Their friendship, and equal status in the world of Scouting and conservation, is honored with the dedication of the adjoining peak, Mount Burnham,cite journal | first = Mary Nixon | last = Everett | journal = The The Masterkey | title = Dedication of Mount Burnham | publisher = Southwest Museum| date = July-August 1952 | volume = 26 | issue = 4 | pages = 117–119] cite web|url=Gnis3|255383|work=USGS|title=GNIS: Mount Burnham|accessdate=April 17|accessyear=2006] in his honor.
Burnham's descendants followed in his footsteps and are active in Scouting and in the military. His son Roderick enlisted in the U.S. Army and fought in
World War I France. His grandson, Frederick Russell Burnham II, was a leader in the BSA and a Vietnam warveteran. His great-grandson, Russell Adam Burnhamis an Eagle Scout and was United States Army's Soldier of the Year in 2003.cite web | last = | first = | year = | url =http://www.whiteeagledistrict.org/Burnham.html#Frederick%20Russell%20Burnham| title =Frederick Russell Burnham | work = | publisher =White Eagle District| accessdate=2007-08-19] cite web | last =Preston| first =Kenneth O.| authorlink = | coauthors = | year =2003| url=http://www.army.mil/leaders/SMA/NCOandSOY/default.htm| title =Sgt Major, US Army | work = | publisher =U.S. Army| accessdate =2006-04-22]
Later in life
After recovering from his wounds, Burnham served as the London office manager for the Wa Syndicate. In 1901, while still employed by the Wa Syndicate, he left London to lead an expedition through
Ghanaand Upper Volta to look for minerals and ways to improve river navigation in the region.cite journal | author= | date=August 12, 1901| title=A New Eldorado: Discoveries in West Africa by Major Burnham, England's American Scout | journal= New York Times(London Mail) | year=1901 |month =Aug| issn=0362-4331 |url=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9C04E2D61139E733A25751C1A96E9C946097D6CF | accessdate=2007-09-28] From 1902–1904, Burnham was employed by the East Africa Syndicate. He led a mineral prospecting expedition which traveled extensively in the area around lake Rudolph (now Lake Turkana), and he discovered a lake of carbonate of soda in Tanzania.cite journal| author = Lee Shippey| date=February 2, 1930| year=1930| month=February | title=Lee Side o' L.A.: Personal Glimpses of Famous Southlanders| journal= Los Angeles Times| volume=| issue=| issn=0458-3035] cite journal | author=Alistair Tough | title=Papers of Frederick R. Burnham (1861–1947) in the Hoover InstitutionArchives | journal=History in Africa | publisher =African Studies Association | year=1985 | volume=12 | issue= | pages= 385–387| id=ISSN 03615413 | doi=10.2307/3171734]
Burnham returned to North America and for the next few years became associated with the Yaqui River irrigation project in Mexico. While investigating the Yaqui valley for mineral and agricultural resources, Burnham reasoned that a dam could provide year-round water to rich
alluvial soilin the valley; turning the region into one of the garden spots of the world and generate much needed electricity. He purchased water rights and some convert|300|acre|km2 of land in this region and contacted an old friend from Africa, John Hays Hammond, who conducted his own studies and then purchased an additional convert|900000|acre|km2 of this land -- an area the size of Rhode Island. Burnham, in 1908, made important archeological discoveries of Mayan civilization in this region, including the Esperanza Stone.cite journal | author=Charles Holder | title=The Esperanza Stone | journal= Scientific American| publisher =Scientific American, Inc | year=1910 | volume= | issue= | pages= 196 | id=ISSN 0036-8733] cite book | last =Fort | first =Charles | authorlink =Charles Fort | coauthors =Horace Liveright | title = The Book of the Damned| publisher =Horace Liveright| year =1919 | location = | pages = chapter XI | url =http://www.sacred-texts.com/fort/damned/damn11.htm | id = ] He became a close business associate of Hammond and led a team of 500 men in guarding mining properties owned by Hammond, J.P. Morgan, and the Guggenheims in the Mexican stateof Sonora.cite journal | author= | date=April 23, 1912| title=Guarding Morgan Mines: Burnham's Force also at Guggenheim Properties is report | journal= New York Times| year=1912 |month =Aug| issn=0362-4331 |url= http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=940CE3D81231E233A25750C2A9629C946396D6CF | accessdate=2007-09-28] Just as the irrigation and mining projects were nearing completion in 1912, a long series of Mexican revolutions began. The final blow to these efforts came in 1917 when Mexico passed laws prohibiting the sale of land to foreigners. Burnham and Hammond carried their properties until 1930 and then sold them to the Mexican government.cite book | author= John Hays Hammond| title=The Autobiography of John Hays Hammond | publisher =Farrar & Rinehart| year=1935 | pages=565 | id=ISBN 0-40505-913-2]
Quote box2 |width= 30em |border= 1px |align= right |bgcolor= #c6dbf7 |halign= left |quote= "To my friendly enemy, Major Frederick Russell Burnham, the greatest scout of the world, whose eyes were that of an Empire. I once craved the honour of killing him, but failing that, I extend my heartiest admiration."
source= — "
Fritz Joubert Duquesne, 1933, One warrior to another."cite book | last =Burnham | first =Frederick Russell | authorlink =Frederick Russell Burnham | coauthors = | title =Taking Chances | publisher =Haynes | year =1944 | location = | pages = 11–23 | id = ISBN 1-879356-32-5 ] During World War I, Burnham was living in California and was active in counterespionagefor Britain.cite journal |last = Lott |first = J. "Jack" P. |authorlink = | year = 1977 | month = March | title = Major F. R. Burnham, D.S.O. | journal=Rhodesiana Magazine |volume=36 | issn=0556-9605] Much of it involved a famous Boer spy, Capt. Fritz Joubert Duquesne, who became a German spy in both World Wars and claimed to have killed Field Marshal Kitchener while en route to meet with the Russians.cite book | last=Wood | first=Clement | authorlink =| coauthors = | title =The man who killed Kitchener: The life of Fritz Joubert Duquesne| publisher =W. Faro| year =1932 | location =New York | | id =OCLC 1071583 ] During the Second Boer War, Burnham and Duquesne were each under orders to assassinate the other, but it was not until 1910 that the two men first met while both were in Washington, D.C., separately lobbying Congress to pass a bill in favor of the importation of African game animals into the United States (H.R. 23621).cite book | last =Burnham | first =Frederick Russell | authorlink =Frederick Russell Burnham | coauthors = | title =Taking Chances | publisher =Haynes Corp | year =1944 | location = | pages = 11–23 | id = ISBN 1-879356-32-5 ] Duquesne was twice arrested by the FBIand in 1942 he, along with the 32 other Nazi agents who made up the " Duquesne Spy Ring", was sent to prison for espionage in the largest spy ring conviction in U.S. history.cite web |url=http://www.fbi.gov/libref/historic/famcases/spyring/spyring.htm |title=FBI History: Famous Cases |accessdate=2007-05-05 | work=Federal Bureau of Investigation] Quote box2 |width= 30em |border= 1px |align= left |bgcolor= #c6dbf7 |halign= left |quote= "I know Burnham. He is a scout and a hunter of courage and ability, a man totally without fear, a sure shot, and a fighter. He is the ideal scout, and when enlisted in the military service of any country he is bound to be of the greatest benefit."
source= — "President
Theodore Roosevelt, 1901. "During this period, Burnham was one of the eighteen officers selected by former U.S. president Theodore Rooseveltto raise a volunteer infantry division for service in Francein 1917 shortly after the United States entered the war.cite web |url=http://angloboerwar.com/DSO/b/burnham_fr.htm |title=Burnham, FR |accessdate=2007-08-13 |work=Anglo Boer War] A plan to raise volunteer soldiers from the Western U.S. came out of a meeting of the New York based Rocky Mountain Cluband Burnham was put in charge of both the general organization and recruitment from the Southwest.cite journal |last = |first = |authorlink = | date = March 13, 1917 | year = 1917 | month = March | title = Enroll Westerners for Service in War; Movement to Register Men of That Region Begun at the Rocky Mountain Club. Headed by Major Burnham. John Hays Hammond and Others of Prominence Reported to be Supporting Plan | journal=New York Times|volume= | url=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9D05E1DA123BEE3ABC4B52DFB566838C609EDE&oref=slogin | issn=0362-4331] Congress gave Roosevelt the authority to raise up to four divisions similar to the Rough Ridersof 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry Regiment and to the British Army 25th (Frontiersmen) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers; however, as Commander-in-chief, President Woodrow Wilsonrefused to make use of Roosevelt's volunteers and the unit disbanded.cite book | last =Roosevelt | first =Theodore | authorlink =Theodore Roosevelt | coauthors = | title =The Foes of Our Own Household | publisher =George H. Doran| year =1917 | location =New York| pages = 347 | id =LCCN 17025965] cite journal |last = |first = |authorlink = | date = May 20, 1917 | year = 1917 | month = May| title = Roosevelt's Army has not lost hope; Colonel's Aids from all over the country meet and leave the future in his hands. | journal=New York Times|volume= | url=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9F02E3DA123AE433A25753C2A9639C946696D6CF | issn=0362-4331]
Although Burnham had lived all over the world, he never had a great deal of wealth to show for his efforts. Ironically, it was not until he returned to California, the place of his youth, that he struck it rich. In 1923, Burnham struck oil at Dominguez Hill, California. In the first 10 years of operation, the Burnham Exploration Company paid out $10.2 million in dividends.cite book | author=
John Hays Hammond| title=The Autobiography of John Hays Hammond | publisher =Farrar & Rinehart| year=1935 | pages=754 | id=ISBN 0-40505-913-2]
conservationistand hunter, Burnham supported the early conservation programs of his friends Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot. He and his associate John Hayes Hammond led novel game expeditions to Africa with the goal of finding large animals such as Giant Eland, hippopotamus, zebra, and various bird species that might be bred in the United States and become game for future American sportsmen. Burnham, Hammond, and Duquesne appeared several times before the Committee on Agriculture to ask for help in importing large African animals.cite journal | author= | date=April 17, 1910| title=May import African animals to solve meat problem | journal= New York Times| year=1910 |month =May| issn=0362-4331 |url=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9B02E6D71539E433A25754C1A9629C946196D6CF | accessdate=2007-09-28] cite journal | author= | date=March 3, 1911| title=Animals from Africa: Maj Burnham will import wild beasts for Western plains | journal= Washington Post(reprint from New York Herald) | year=1911 |month =Mar| issn=0148-2076] In 1914, he helped establish the Wild Life Protective League of American, Department of Southern California, and served as its first Secretary.cite journal | author=Bryant, H. C. | title=Organizations Defending Wild Life | journal= California Fish and Game| year=1915 |month=April| issn=0008-1078 |url= | accessdate= |pages= 123]
In his later years, Burnham filled various public offices and also served as a member of the
Boone and Crockett Clubof New York,cite journal | author= | date=March 21, 1930| title=The Fauna of the British Empire | journal= Science (journal)| year=1930 |month =March 21 |vol=71 |num=1838 |issn=0036-8075 |pages=308] cite journal | author= | date=May 14, 1929| title=Maj. Burnham and family depart for Africa: Angelenos to tour world | journal= Los Angeles Times| year=1929 |month =May| issn=0458-3035] and as a founding member of the American Committee for International Wildlife Protection (now a committee of the World Conservation Union).cite journal | author= | date=May 23, 1930| title=Scientific Notes and News | journal= Science (journal)| year=1930 |month =May 23|vol=71 |num=1847 |issn=0036-8075 |pages=536] He was a founding member of the Save-the-Redwoods League, he helped lobby for and create the Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refugeand the Kofa National Wildlife Refugefor Desert Bighorn Sheepin Arizona, and he campaigned for state parks in California.cite journal | author=Arizona Department of Transportation | title=Arizona National Wildlife Refuges | journal= Arizona Highways (magazine)| year=1941 |month =|vol=17 |num= |issn= 0004-1521|pages= ] cite book |last=Coates |first=Peter A. |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=American Perceptions of Immigrant and Invasive Species: Strangers on the Land |year=2007 |publisher=University of California Press |location=Berkeley |isbn=0520249305 ] He was one of the original members of the first California State Parks Commission, serving from 1927 to 1934,cite journal |last=Colby |first=William E. |authorlink=William Edward Colby |coauthors= Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr|year=1933 |month=April |title=Borrego Desert Park |journal=Sierra Club Bulletin |volume=XVIII |issue= |pages=144 |id= |url=http://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/73fall/anza.htm |accessdate= 2007-07-29 |quote= ] and late in his life he was president of the Southwest Museumof Los Angeles from 1938 until 1940.cite book | author=Dan L. Thrapp | title=Encyclopedia of frontier biography | publisher =University of Nebraska Press| year=1991 | pages=195 | id=ISBN 0-80329-418-2]
At 5 ft 4 in (1.62 m), Burnham was slight, but he was also muscular and bronzed, with a finely formed square jaw. He had a boyish appearance which he used to his advantage on numerous occasions. His most noticeable feature was his steady, grey-blue eyes. Contemporary reports had it that Burnham's gaze appeared to never leave those of the person he was looking at, and yet somehow could simultaneously monitor all the details of the physical surroundings. It was also said that Burnham's eyes possessed a far-away look such as those acquired by people whose occupation has caused them to watch continually at sea or on great plains.cite book |last=Haggard |first=H. Rider |authorlink=H. Rider Haggard | title=The Days of My Life Volume II |origyear=1926 | url=http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks03/0300141.txt| accessdate=2006-12-17 ]
Burnham would not smoke and seldom drank alcohol, fearing these habits would injure the acuteness of his sense of smell. He found ways to train himself in mental patience, took
power napsinstead of indulging in periods of long sleep, and drank very little liquid. He trained himself to accept these abstinences in order to endure the most appalling fatigues, hunger, thirst, and wounds, so that when scouting or traveling where there was no water, he might still be able to exist. On more than one occasion he survived in environments where others would have died, or were in fact dying, of exhaustion. To him scouting was as exact a study as is the piano, and it was said that he could read the face of nature as easily as most could read their morning newspaper. He was quiet-mannered and courteous, according to contemporaries. Their reports describe a man who was neither shy nor self-conscious, who was extremely modest, and who seldom spoke of his many adventures.
Burnham's wife of 55 years, Blanche Blick Burnham (February 25, 1862 - December 22, 1939) of
Nevada, Iowa, accompanied him in very primitive conditions through many travels in both the Southwest United States and Southern Africa. They had three children together, but only one survived into adulthood. In the early years, she watched over the children and the pack animals, always careful to keep a rifle within arms length. In the dark of night, she used her rifle many times against lionsand hyenaand, during the Siege of Bulawayo, against Ndebele warriors. Several members of the Blick family joined the Burnhams in Rhodesia, moved with them to England, and returned to the United States with the Burnhams to live near Three Rivers, California. When Burnham Exploration Company struck it rich in 1923, the Burnhams moved to a mansion in a new housing development then known as Hollywoodland (a name later shortened to "Hollywood") and took many trips around the world in high style. In 1939, Blanche suffered a stroke. She died a month later and was buried in the Three Rivers Cemetery.cite book | last =Bradford | first =Mary E | authorlink = | coauthors =Richard H Bradford | title =An American family on the African frontier: the Burnham family letters, 1893–1896 | publisher =Roberts Rinehart| year =1993 | location =Niwot, Colorado| pages = | id =ISBN 1879373661]
Burnham's first son, Roderick (August 21, 1886 – July 2, 1976), was born in Pasadena, California, but accompanied the family to Africa and learned the
Northern Ndebele language.cite journal| author =| date=June 6, 1896| year=1896| month=June | title=A Young South African| journal= Los Angeles Times| volume=| issue=| issn=0458-3035] He went to Skagway, Alaska with his father, and then to a military schoolin France in 1900. In 1904, he attended the University of California, Berkeley, joined the football team, but left Berkley after a dispute with his coach. From 1905-08, he went to the University of Arizona, joined the Delta Kappa Epsilonfraternity, played the position of running back, and became the captain of the football team. He attended the Michigan School of Mines (now Michigan Technological University) in 1910, became a geologist, and worked for Union Oilas Manager of Lands and Foreign Exploration helping to develop the first wells in Mexico and Venezuela.cite journal| author =| date=June 19, 1927| year=1927| month=June | title=Californians Develop Venezuela Oil Fields| journal= Los Angeles Times| volume=| issue=| issn=0458-3035] He took time off from his job to serve in the U.S. Army in World War I and fought in France.cite book | last =van Wyke | first =Peter | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =Burnham: Chief of Scouts | publisher =Trafford Publishing| year =2003 | location =Victoria, Canada| id =ISBN 1879373661] He and his father became minority owners of the Burnham Exploration Company, incorporated in 1919 by Harris Hays Hammond (the son of John Hays Hammond, Sr). In 1930, he and Paramount Picturesfounder W. W. Hodkinsonstarted the Central American Aviation Corporation, the first airline in Guatemala.cite journal| author =| date=January 17, 1932| year=1932| month=June | title=Plane line saves weeks: American Air Service in Guatemala carries odd passenger list over hard country| journal= New York Times| volume=| issue=| issn=0362-4331] cite web | last =Cubé| first =Caroline | authorlink = | year = |url =http://content.cdlib.org/view?docId=kt429020hc&doc.view=entire_text&brand=oac| title =Finding Aid for the W.W. Hodkinson Papers, 1881-1971 | work =Manuscript guide| publisher =University of California Los Angeles, Special Collections, Young Research Library | accessdate=2007-10-15] Quote box2 |width= 29em |border= 1px |align= right |bgcolor= #c6dbf7 |halign= left | title="Dedication"|quote="To the Memory of the Child: Nada Burnham, who "bound all to her" and, while her father cut his way through the hordes of the Ingobo Regiment, perished of the hardships of war at Buluwayo on 19 May, 1896, I dedicate these tales—and more particularly the last, that of a Faith which triumphed over savagery and death."
source= — "
H. Rider Haggard", from his book: "The Wizard" (1896)cite book | last =Haggard | first =H. Rider | authorlink =H. Rider Haggard | coauthors = | title =The Wizard | publisher =Longmans, Green | year =1896 | location =New York, London | id = ] Nada (May 1894 - May 19, 1896), Burnham’s daughter who was the first white childborn in Bulawayo, died of fever and starvation during the Siege of Bulawayo. She was buried three days later in the Pioneer Cemetery, plot #144, in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Nada is the Zulu word for lily and she was named after the heroine in Sir H. Rider Haggard’s Zulu tale, "Nada the Lily (1892)". Three of Haggard's books are dedicated to Burnham's daughter, Nada: "The Wizard" (1896), "Elissa: The Doom of Zimbabwe" (1899), and "Black Heart and White Heart: A Zulu Idyll" (1900).cite journal| author =| date=November 21, 1896| year=1896| month=November | title=Rider Haggard's Tribute| journal= Atlanta Constitution| volume=| issue=| issn=0093-1179] cite book |last=Haggard |first=H. Rider |authorlink=H. Rider Haggard | title=The Days of My Life Volume II |origyear=1926 | url=http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks03/0300141.txt | accessdate=2006-12-17 ]
Burnham’s youngest son, Bruce B. Burnham (1897-1902), was staying with family in
Londonwhen he accidentally drowned in the river Thames.cite book |last=Montgomery |first=Ruth |authorlink=Ruth Montgomery | title=A Search for the Truth | publisher =Fawcett Crest | year =1967 | location =New York | id =ISBN 0449210855]
In 1943, at 83 years of age, Burnham married his young typist, Ilo K. Willetts Burnham (1914-1958). The couple sold their mansion and moved to Santa Barbara in 1946.cite web | last =Weideman | first =Christine | authorlink = | year = |url =http://mssa.library.yale.edu/findaids/stream.php?xmlfile=mssa.ms.0115.xml| title =Guide to the Frederick Russell Burnham Papers | work =Manuscript guide| publisher =Yale University Library | accessdate=2007-09-11] cite book | last =van Wyke | first =Peter | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =Burnham: Chief of Scouts | publisher =Trafford Publishing| year =2003 | location =Victoria, Canada| | id =ISBN 1879373661]
Burnham was a descendant of
Thomas Burnham(1617-1688) of Hartford, Connecticut, the first American ancestor of a large number of Burnhams.cite book | last =Bradford | first =Mary E | authorlink = | coauthors =Richard H Bradford | title =An American family on the African frontier: the Burnham family letters, 1893–1896 | publisher =Roberts Rinehart Publishers| year =1993 | location =Niwot, Colorado| id =ISBN 1879373661] The descendants of Thomas Burnham have been noted in every American war, including the French and Indian war.cite book | title =Press Reference Library: Notables of the West | publisher =International News Service |location=New York| year =1915 |oclc=5532411]
Burnham died at 86 on September 1, 1947 of heart failure at his home in
Santa Barbara, California. At a private ceremony he was buried at Three Rivers, California, near his old cattle ranch, La Cuesta. His memorial stone was designed by his only surviving child, Roderick. Also buried at Three Rivers cemetery is his first wife, Blanche Blick Burnham, several members of the Blick family who had also pioneered in 19th century Rhodesia with Burnham for a time, his son Roderick, his granddaughter Martha Burnham Burleigh, and the Montana cowboy “Pete” Ingram who survived the Shangani Patrol massacre along with Burnham.cite web | last =Elliott | first =John | authorlink = | year = 2004
url =http://www.kaweahcommonwealth.com/8-27-04features.htm| title =King of Scouts honored at gravesite | publisher =The Kaweah Commonwealth Online | accessdate=2004-08-27]
Ernest Hemingwayacquired the rights to produce a film version of "Scouting on Two Continents" in late 1958. CBSimmediately contracted Hemingway to produce the film for television, with Gary Cooperexpressing an interest in playing the part of Burnham. Hemingway was already behind schedule in his other commitments and never started on the film when he committed suicide in July 1961.cite book | last =Hemingway | first =Ernest | authorlink =Ernest Hemingway | coauthors = A. E. Hotchner| title =Dear Papa, Dear Hotch: The Correspondence of Ernest Hemingway And A. E. Hotchner | publisher = University of Missouri Press| year =2005 | location =Columbia, Missouri | id = ISBN 0826216056]
Burnham was portrayed by
Will Hutchinsin "Shangani Patrol" (1970), a feature film by David Millin. [imdb title|0367031|Shangani Patrol] Filmed on location in Bulawayo, Rhodesiaby RPM Film Studios, 35 mm copies of the film are now preserved by the National Film, Video and Sound Archives, Pretoria, South Africa.
In 1933, the newly discovered "Serbelodon burnhami" (now "Amebelodon burnhami"), an extinct
gomphothere(Shovel-Tusker elephant) from North America, was officially named after Burnham.cite journal |last=Osborn |first=Henry Fairfield |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1933 |month=June 29 |title=Serbelodon Burnhami, a new Shovel-Tusker from California |journal=American Museum Novitates |volume= |issue=639 |pages=1–5 |id= |url=http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/dspace/bitstream/2246/2061/1/N0639.pdf |accessdate= 2007-11-01 |quote= |format=PDF]
*cite book | last =Burnham | first =Frederick Russell | coauthors = | title =Scouting on Two Continents | publisher =Doubleday, Page | year =1926 | id = ISBN 1879356317
*cite book | last =Burnham | first =Frederick Russell | coauthors = | title =Taking Chances | publisher =Haynes | year =1944 | id = ISBN 1-879356-32-5
*cite book | last =Bradford | first =Mary E | authorlink = | coauthors =Richard H Bradford | title =An American family on the African frontier: the Burnham family letters, 1893–1896 | publisher =Roberts Rinehart| year =1993 | location =Niwot, Colorado| id =ISBN 1879373661
*cite journal | last =Burnham | first =Frederick R. | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =The remarks of Major Frederick R. Burnham | journal =Historical Society of Southern California | volume=13 | issue =4 | pages =334–352 | year =1927
* [http://mssa.library.yale.edu/findaids/stream.php?xmlfile=mssa.ms.0115.xml Frederick Russell Burnham Papers. Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University.] A large collection of Burnham's documents: Correspondence, 1864–1947. Subject Files, 1890–1947. Writings, 1893–1946. Personal and Family Papers, 1879–1951. Photographs, ca. 1893–1924.
* [http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/tf6n39n86s Frederick Russell Burnham Papers, 1879–1979, Hoover Institution Library and Archives, Stanford University.] Another large collection of Burnham's documents: Correspondence, speeches and writings, clippings, other printed matter, photographs, and memorabilia, relating to the Matabele Wars of 1893 and 1896 in Rhodesia, the Second Boer War, exploration expeditions in Africa, and gold mining in Alaska during the Klondike gold rush.
*" [http://www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/guide/hsfa_africa.htm Burnham Footage of Southern and Eastern Africa] ", 35 min. silent b&w video. Footage shot in South Africa, Rhodesia, Zimbabwe, Zambia and eastern Africa during a family trip.
Smithsonian Institutionarchives. call# 85.4.1; AF-85.4.1 (1929)
*cite book | last =Davis | first =Richard Harding | authorlink =Richard Harding Davis | coauthors = | title = |publisher =Charles Scribner's Sons | year =1906 | location =New York | pages = | id = ISBN 0873642392; gutenberg|no=3029|name=Real Soldiers of Fortune
*cite book | last =West | first =James E. | authorlink =James E. West (Scouting)|James E. West | coauthors =Peter O. Lamb, illustrated by Lord Baden-Powell | title =He-who-sees-in-the-dark; the boys' story of Frederick Burnham, the American scout | publisher =Brewer, Warren and Putnam | year =1932 |oclc= 1710834
*cite web | last = van Wyk | first =Peter | | year = 2003| url =http://www.burnhamkingofscouts.com/| title =Burnham: King of Scouts | publisher =Trafford Publishing | ISBN=1-412200-28-8 | accessdate=2007-03-30
*cite book | last =Wilson | first =James Grant | authorlink = | coauthors =John Fiske | title =
Appleton's Cyclopædia of American Biography|publisher =Gale Research| year =1900 | location =New York | pages =249 | id = ISBN 1855069571
*cite book | last =Homans | first =James Edward| authorlink = | coauthors = | title =The Cyclopaedia of American Biography. New Enlarged Edition of Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography. Volume VIII. |publisher =The Press Association Compilers, inc | year =1918 | location =New York | pages =249-251 | oclc = 81277904
*cite journal |last=Hammond |first=John Hays |authorlink=John Hays Hammond|coauthors= |year=1921 |month=January-June |title=South African Memories: Rhodes - Barnato - Burnham |journal=
Scribner's Magazine|volume=LXIX |issue= |pages=257–277
*cite book | last =Britt| first =Albert | authorlink = | coauthors =| title =The Boys' Own Book of Adventurers |publisher =The Macmillan company| year =1923 | location =New York | pages =A chapter on "Burnham, the Last of the Scouts" | oclc=4585632
*cite journal |last=Ehrenclou |first=V. L. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1925 |month=May-June |title=Major Burnham - The Scout |journal=Union Oil Bulletin |volume= |issue= |pages=1–11, 19 |oclc=12064434
*cite book | last=Haggard| first=H. Rider| authorlink =Henry Rider Haggard | coauthors =| title =The Days of My Life Volume II |url=http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks03/0300141.txt |publisher =Longmans, Green and Co| year =1926 | location =London, New York| pages =Chapter XVII is on Major Burnham; Letters in chapter XIII dedicated to Burnham's daughter, Nada | oclc=476006
*cite book | last=Banning| first=William| authorlink = | coauthors =George Hugh Banning | title =Six Horses |url= |publisher =Century| year =1930 | location =New York| pages =Foreword by Frederick Russell Burnham | oclc=1744707
*cite book | last=Shippey | first=Lee | authorlink = | coauthors =A. L. Ewing | title =Folks Ushud Know; Interspersed with Songs of Courage |url= |publisher =Sierra Madre Press| year =1930 | location =Sierra Madre, Calif| pages =pp. 23; Chapter on Major Burnham | oclc=2846678
*cite book | last =Grant | first =Madison | authorlink= Madison Grant| coauthors =Charles Stewart Davison | title =The alien in our midst; or, "Selling our birthright for a mess of pottage"; the written views of a number of Americans (present and former) on immigration and its results | publisher =Galton Pub. Co. | year =1930 | location =New York | pages=Essay by Major Burnham titled, "The howl for cheap Mexican labor", pp. 44-48| oclc= 3040493
*cite book | last=West | first=James E. | authorlink =James E. West (Scouting) | coauthors = | title =The Boy Scout's Book of True Adventure: their own story of famous exploits and adventures told by honorary scouts |url= |publisher =Putman| year =1931 | location =New York| pages =Essay by Major Burnham titled "Scouting Against the Apache"; foreword by
Theodore Roosevelt| oclc=8484128
*cite book | last=Grinnell | first=George Bird Grinnell | authorlink =George Bird Grinnell | coauthors =
Kermit Roosevelt, W. Redmond Cross, and Prentiss N. Gray (editors) | title =Hunting trails on three continents; a book of the Boone and Crockett Club|url= |publisher = The Derrydale Press| year =1933 | location =New York| pages =Essay by Major Burnham titled, "Taps for the Great Selous" | oclc=1624738
*cite journal |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1951 |month=May-June |title=In my fathers house are many mansions |journal=Sunset Club Yearbook |volume= |issue= |pages= |id=EPH.061.9494.11
*cite book | last=American Council of Learned Societies | first= | authorlink = | coauthors =| title =Dictionary of American Biography |url= |publisher =Scribner| date =1928-58 | location =New York| pages =| oclc=4171403
*cite journal |last=Money |first=R. R. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1962 |month=January |title=Greatest Scout |journal=
Blackwood's Magazine|volume=v291 |issue= |pages=p.42–52 |issn=0006-436X
*cite journal |last=Lott |first=J.P. "Jack" |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1976 |month=September |title=Major Burnham of the Shangani Patrol |journal=Rhodesiana Magazine |volume= |issue= |pages= |issn=0006-436X
*cite journal |last=Bradford |first=Richard H. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1984 |month= |title=Frederick Russell Burnham, the British Empire's American Scout |journal=Paper presented at the American Historical Society Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C. |volume= |issue= |pages=
* [http://www.pinetreeweb.com/burnham.htm Major Burnham on Pine Tree Web scouting site] .
* [http://www.howardburnham.com Frederick Howard Russell Burnham (great grand nephew)]
* [http://www.goldiproductions.com/BoerWar_Museum/Boer90i_pastdis_burnham.html The Canadian Anglo Boer War Museum] Boer War "Discovery of the Month" (December 2003)
NAME=Burnham, Frederick Russell
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Burnham, Frederick; Burnham, Major
SHORT DESCRIPTION=father of scouting; military scout; soldier of fortune; oil man; writer; rancher
DATE OF BIRTH=May 11, 1861
PLACE OF BIRTH=Tivoli (Mankato), Minnesota, USA
DATE OF DEATH=September 01, 1947
PLACE OF DEATH=Santa Barbara, California, USA
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