- Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener
Infobox Military Person
name=Field Marshal The Earl Kitchener
24 June 1850– 5 June 1916
Ballylongford, County Kerry, Ireland
placeofdeath= HMS "Hampshire", sunk west of the
Orkney Islands, Scotland(aged 65)
allegiance= flagicon|United Kingdom
commands=Mahdist War (1884-1899)
Second Boer War (1900–1902)
Commander-in-Chief, India (1902–1909)
Franco-Prussian War; Mahdist War:
Battle of Ferkeh
Battle of Atbara
Battle of Omdurman Second Boer War;
Battle of Paardeberg World War I
Order of the Garter Order of St Patrick Order of the Bath Order of Merit Order of the Star of India Order of St Michael and St George Order of the Indian Empire Aide-de-camp Privy Council of the United Kingdom
Henry Kitchener, 2nd Earl Kitchener
Frederick Walter Kitchener
laterwork=British Consul-General in Egypt (1911-1914)
Secretary of State for War, United Kingdom (1914–1916)
Kitchener was born in
Listowel, County Kerryin Ireland, son of Lt. Col. Henry Horatio Kitchener (1805 – 1894) and Frances Anne Chevallier-Cole (d. 1864; daughter of Rev John Chevallier and his third wife, Elizabeth, "née" Cole). The family were English, not Anglo-Irish: his father had only recently bought land in Ireland. The year his mother died of tuberculosis, they had moved to Switzerlandin an effort to improve her condition; the young Kitchener was educated there and at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. Pro-French and eager to see action, he joined a French field ambulance unit in the Franco-Prussian War; his father took him back to England after he caught pneumonia after ascending in a balloon to see the French Army of the Loire in action. He was commissioned into the Royal Engineerson 4 January 1871. His service in France had violated British neutrality, and he was reprimanded by the Duke of Cambridge, the commander-in-chief. He served in Palestine, Egypt, and Cyprusas a surveyor, learned Arabic, and prepared detailed topographical maps of the areas. [Neilson, Keith, [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/34341 ‘Kitchener, Horatio Herbert, Earl Kitchener of Khartoum (1850–1916)’] , " Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Jan 2008, doi|10.1093/ref:odnb/34341 Retrieved 9 June 2008]
urvey of Western Palestine
In 1874, at age 24, Kitchener was assigned by the
Palestine Exploration Fundto a mapping-survey of the Holy Land, replacing Charles Tyrwhitt-Drake, who had died of malaria.Neil Asher Silberman, "Digging for God and Country: Exploration, Archaeology and the Secret Struggle for the Holy Land 1799–1917" (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982). ISBN 0-394-51139-5] Kitchener, then an officer in the Royal Engineers, joined fellow Royal Engineer Claude R. Conderand between 1874 and 1877, they surveyed what is today Israel, the West Bankand Gaza, returning to Englandonly briefly in 1875 after an attack by locals in the Galilee, at Safed.
Conder and Kitchener’s expedition became known as the
Survey of Western Palestinebecause it was largely confined to the area west of the Jordan River(Hodson 1997). The survey collected data on the topography and toponymy of the area, as well as local flora and fauna. [cite book|title=Mount Seir, Sinai and Western Palestine|authour=Edward Hull|date=1885|publisher=Richard Bentley and sons|url=http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&id=9e88L7DVTq8C&dq=Mount+Seir&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=RacTPScuSb&sig=XYKbKLCFIuI9SK8UbTGfjCmMfaE&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result#PPA161,M1] The results of the survey were published in an eight volume series, with Kitchener’s contribution in the first three tomes (Conder and Kitchener 1881-1885).
This survey has had a lasting effect on the
Middle Eastfor several reasons:
*The ordnance survey serves as the basis for the
grid systemused in the modern maps of Israeland Palestine.
*The collection of data compiled by Conder and Kitchener are still consulted by archaeologists and geographers working in the southern
*The survey itself effectively delineated and defined the political borders of the southern Levant. For instance, the modern border between
Israeland Lebanonis established at the point in the upper Galilee where Conder and Kitchener’s survey stopped.
Egypt, Sudan and Khartoum
Kitchener later served as a Vice-Consul in
Anatolia, and in 1883, as a British captain but with the Turkish rank of bimbashi (major), in the occupation of Egypt (which was to be a British puppet state, its army led by British officers, from 1883 until the early 1950s), and the following year as an Aide de Camp during the failed Gordon relief expedition in the Sudan. At this time his fiancée, and possibly the only female love of his life, Hermione Baker, died of typhoid feverin Cairo; he subsequently had no issue. But he raised his young cousin Bertha Chevallier-Boutell, daughter of Kitchener's first-cousin, Sir Francis Hepburn de Chevallier-Boutell.
Kitchener won national fame on his second tour in
the Sudan(1886–1899), being made Aide de Campto Queen Victoria and appointed a Knight Commander of the Bath(KCB). However, this campaign also made his brutality infamous, an aspect of his tactics that became well known after the Boer War. In 1896 British forces under Horatio Kitchener moved up the Nile, building a railway to supply arms and reinforcements. After victory in the Battle of Omdurman, near Khartoum, Kitchener had the remains of the Mahdiexhumed and scattered, presumably to teach a lesson to his opponents. [Bernard Porter, 'The Lion's Share: A Short History of British Imperialism, 1850-2004 (London: Pearson Longman, 2004)]
In the late 1880s he was Governor of the Red Sea Territories (which in practice consisted of little more than the Port of
Suakin) with the rank of Colonel. Then after becoming Sirdar of the Egyptian Army in 1892, with the rank of major-generalin the British Army, he headed the victorious Anglo-Egyptian army at the Battle of Omdurmanon 2 September 1898, a victory made possible by the massive rail construction programme he had instituted in the area.
He quite possibly prevented war between
Franceand Britain when he dealt firmly but non-violently with the French military expedition to claim Fashoda, in what became known as the Fashoda Incident.
He was created Baron Kitchener, of
Khartoumand of Aspall in the County of Suffolk, on 31 October 1898[LondonGazette|issue=27019|startpage=6375|date= 1 November 1898|accessdate=2008-04-18] as a victory titlecommemorating his successes, and began a programme restoring good governance to the Sudan. The programme had a strong foundation based on education, Gordon Memorial Collegebeing its centrepiece, and not simply for the children of the local elites - children from anywhere could apply to study.
He ordered the
mosques of Khartoum rebuilt and instituted reforms which recognised Friday - the Muslim holy day - as the official day of rest, and guaranteed freedom of religion to all citizens of the Sudan. He attempted to prevent evangelical Christian missionaries from attempting to convert Muslims to Christianity.
Kitchener rescued a substantial charitable fund which had been diverted into the pockets of the
Khediveof Egypt, and put it to use improving the lives of the ordinary Sudanese.
He also reformed the debt laws, preventing rapacious moneylenders from stripping away all assets of impoverished farmers, guaranteeing them five acres (20,000 m²) of land to farm for themselves and the tools to farm with. In 1899 Kitchener was presented with a small island in the
Nileat Aswanas in gratitude for his services; the island was renamed Kitchener's Islandin his honour.
The Boer War
Second Boer War(1899–1902), Kitchener arrived with Lord Roberts on the RMS "Dunottar Castle" and the massive British reinforcements of December 1899. Officially holding the title of chief of staff, he was in practice a second-in-command, and commanded a much-criticised frontal assault at the Battle of Paardebergin February 1900.
Following the defeat of the conventional Boer forces, Kitchener succeeded Roberts as overall commander in November 1900, and after the failure of a reconciliatory peace treaty in February 1901 (due to British cabinet veto) which Kitchener had negotiated with the
Boerleaders, Kitchener inherited and expanded the successful strategies devised by Roberts to crush the Boer guerrillas.
In a brutal campaign, these strategies removed civilian support from the Boers with a
scorched earthpolicy of destroying Boer farms, slaughtering livestock, building blockhouses, and moving women, children and the elderly into concentration camps. Conditions in these camps, which had been conceived by Roberts as a form of controlling the families whose farms he had destroyed, began to degenerate rapidly as the large influx of Boers outstripped the minuscule ability of the British to cope. The camps lacked space, food, sanitation, medicine, and medical care, leading to rampant disease and a staggering 34.4% death rate for those Boers who entered. The biggest critic of the camps was Cornish humanitarian and welfare worker Emily Hobhouse. Despite being largely rectified by late 1901, they led to wide opprobrium in Britain and Europe, and especially amongst South Africans.
Treaty of Vereenigingwas signed in 1902 following a tense six months. During this period Kitchener struggled against Sir Alfred Milner, the Governor of the Cape Colonyand the British government. Milner was a hardline conservative and wanted to forcibly anglicise the Afrikaners, and Milner and the British government wanted to assert victory by forcing the Boers to sign a humiliating peace treaty, while Kitchener wanted a more generous compromise peace treaty that would recognise certain rights for the Afrikaners and promise future self-government. Eventually the British government decided the war had gone on long enough and sided with Kitchener against Milner. ( Louis Botha, the Boer leader with whom Kitchener negotiated his aborted peace treaty in 1901, became the first Prime Minister of the self-governing Union of South Africa in 1910.) The Treaty also agreed to pay for reconstruction following the end of hostilities. Six days later Kitchener, who had risen in rank from major-generalto full generalduring the war, was created Viscount Kitchener, of Khartoum and of the Vaal in the Colony of Transvaal and of Aspall in the County of Suffolk.
Court martial of Breaker Morant
The Boer commandos had no uniforms: they fought in their ordinary civilian attire. On long service, as the state of their clothing became progressively worse, many resorted to taking the clothes of captured troops. This was widely perceived by British commanders as an attempt to masquerade as British soldiers in order to gain a tactical advantage in battle; in response, Kitchener ordered that Boers found wearing British uniforms were to be tried on the spot and the sentence, death, confirmed by the commanding officer.
This order - which Kitchener later denied issuing - led to the famous Breaker Morant case, in which several soldiers from Australia were arrested and
court-martialled for summarily executing Boer prisoners and also for the murder of a German missionary believed to be a Boer sympathiser. The celebrated horseman and bush poet Lt. Harry "Breaker" Morant and Lt. Peter Handcockwere found guilty, sentenced to death and shot by firing squadat Pietersburgon 27 February 1902. Their death warrants were personally signed by Kitchener. A third, Lt. George Witton, was reprieved.
India and Egypt
Following this, Kitchener was made Commander-in-Chief in India (1902–1909) - his term of office was extended by two years - where he reconstructed the greatly disorganised Indian Army. He clashed with the Viceroy Lord Curzon of Kedleston, who had originally lobbied for Kitchener's appointment but who now became a passionate and lifelong enemy after being forced to resign as Viceroy. Whilst in India Kitchener broke his leg badly in a horseriding accident, leaving him with a slight limp for the rest of his life.
Kitchener was promoted to the highest Army rank, Field Marshal, in 1910 and went on a tour of the world. He aspired to be Viceroy of India, but the Secretary of State for India,
John Morley, was not keen and hoped to send him instead to Malta as Commander-in-Chief of British forces in the Mediterranean, even to the point of announcing the appointment in the newspapers. Kitchener pushed hard for the Viceroyalty, returning to London to lobby Cabinet ministers and the dying King Edward VII, from whom, whilst collecting his Field-Marshal's baton, Kitchener obtained permission to refuse the Malta job. However, perhaps in part because he was thought to be a Tory (the Liberals were in office at the time) and perhaps due to a Curzon-inspired whispering campaign, but most importantly because Morley, who was a Gladstonian and thus suspicious of imperialism, felt it inappropriate, after the recent grant of limited self-government under the 1909 Indian Councils Act, for a serving soldier to be Viceroy (in the event no serving soldier was appointed Viceroy until Archibald Wavellin 1943), Morley could not be moved. The Prime Minister, H. H. Asquith, was sympathetic but was unwilling to overule Morley, who threatened resignation, so Kitchener was finally turned down for the post of Viceroy of India in 1911.
Kitchener then returned to Egypt as British Agent and Consul-General in Egypt (the job formerly held by Sir Evelyn Baring, Lord Cromer) and of the so-called
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan(1911–1914, during the formal reign of Abbas Hilmi IIas Khedive(nominally Ottoman Viceroy) of Egypt, Sovereign of Nubia, of the Sudan, of Kordofan and of Darfur). Whatever the legal niceties, Egypt was in reality a British puppet state and the Sudan a directly-administered British colony, making Kitchener Viceroy of the region in all but name.
Kitchener was created Earl Kitchener, of Khartoum and of Broome in the County of Kent, on
29 June 1914. Unusually, provision was made for the title to be passed on to his brother and nephew, since Kitchener was not married and had no children.
World War I
At the outset of
World War I, the Prime Minister, H. H. Asquith, quickly had Lord Kitchener appointed Secretary of State for War; Asquith had been filling the job himself as a stopgap following the resignation of Colonel Seeley over the Curragh Incidentearlier in 1914, and Kitchener was by chance briefly in Britain on leave when war was declared. Against cabinet opinion, Kitchener correctly predicted a long war that would last at least three years, require huge new armies to defeat Germany, and suffer huge casualties before the end would come. Kitchener stated that the conflict would plumb the depths of manpower "to the last million."A massive recruitment campaign began, which soon featured a distinctive poster of himself, taken from a magazine front cover. It may have encouraged large numbers of volunteers and has proven to be one of the most enduring images of the war, having been copied and parodied many times since.
In an effort to find a way to relieve pressure on the Western front, Lord Kitchener proposed an invasion of
İskenderunwith Australian and New Zealand Army Corps(ANZAC), New Army, and Indian troops. Alexandretta was an area with a large Christian population and was the strategic centre of the Ottoman Empire's railway network - its capture would have cut the empire in two. Yet he was instead eventually persuaded to support Winston Churchill's disastrous Gallipolicampaign in 1915–1916. That failure, combined with the Shell Crisis of 1915, was to deal Kitchener's political reputation a heavy blow; Kitchener was popular with the public, so Asquith retained him in office in the new coalition government, but responsibility for munitions was moved to a new ministry headed by David Lloyd George. Later in 1915 Kitchener was sent on a tour of inspection of Gallipoli and the Near East, in the hope that he could be persuaded to remain in the region as commander-in-chief.
At the end of 1915, the new
Chief of the Imperial General Staff, Sir William Robertson, took office only on condition that he was granted the right to speak for the Army to the Cabinet in matters of strategy, leaving Kitchener solely with responsibility for manpower and recruitment. Whereas Kitchener had hoped to hold his armies in reserve to administer the coup de grace to Germany after the other warring nations had exhausted themselves, Robertson was suspicious of efforts in the Balkans and Near East, and was instead committed to major British offensives against Germany on the Western Front - the first of these was to be the Somme in 1916.
In May 1916, preparations were made for Kitchener and Lloyd George to visit Russia on a diplomatic mission. Lloyd George was otherwise engaged with his new Ministry and so it was decided to send Kitchener alone.
A week before his death, Kitchener confided to Lord Derby that he intended to press relentlessly for a peace of reconciliation, regardless of his position, when the war was over, as he feared that the politicians would make a bad peace. Fact|date=July 2007
4 June 1916, Lord Kitchener personally answered questions asked by politicians about his running of the war effort; at the start of hostilities Kitchener had ordered two million rifles with various US arms manufacturers. Only 480 of these rifles had arrived in the UK by 4 June 1916. The numbers of shells supplied were no less paltry. Kitchener explained the efforts he had made in order to secure alternative supplies. He received a resounding vote of thanks from the 200+ Members of Parliament who had arrived to question him, both for his candour and for his efforts to keep the troops armed; Sir Ivor Herbert, who, a week before, had introduced the failed vote of censure in the House of Commons against Kitchener's running of the War Department, personally seconded the motion.
In addition to his military work, Lord Kitchener contributed to efforts on the home front. The knitted sock patterns of the day used a seam up the toe, that could rub uncomfortably against the toes. Kitchener encouraged British and American women to knit for the war effort, and contributed a sock pattern featuring a new technique for a seamless join of the toe, still known as Kitchener stitch. [ [http://www.whatalovelywar.co.uk/war/2004/10/kitchener_stitc.html Kitchener Stitch] ] [ [http://techknitting.blogspot.com/2007/05/easier-way-to-kitchener-stitch-also.html An easier way to Kitchener Stitch (also called "grafting seams" or "weaving seams")] ] [ Leigh Ann Barry, "Basic Knitting: All the Skills and Tools You Need to Get Started" (n.c.: Stackpole Books, 2004), 82.]
and France where, eventually, and despite numerous setbacks, they helped to defeat Germany in 1918.
Not everyone mourned Kitchener's loss.
C. P. Scott, editor of the " Manchester Guardian" is said to have remarked that "as for the old man, he could not have done better than to have gone down, as he was a great impediment lately."
The suddenness of Kitchener's death, combined with his great fame and the fact that his body was never recovered, almost immediately gave rise to conspiracy theories that have continued almost to this day.
Fritz Joubert Duquesne, a Boerand German spy, claimed to have sabotaged and sunk the HMS Hampshire, killing Kitchener and most of the crew. According to German records, Duquesne assumed the identity of Russian Duke Boris Zakrevsky and joined Kitchener in Scotland. En route to Russia, Duquesne signalled a German U-boat to alert them that Kitchener’s ship was approaching. He then escaped on a raft just before the HMS Hampshire was destroyed. Duquesne was awarded the Iron Crossfor this act. In the 1930s and 1940s, he ran the famous " Duquesne Spy Ring" and was captured by the FBIalong with 32 other Nazispies in the largest espionage conviction in U.S. history.
The fact that newly-appointed Minister of Munitions (and future prime minister)
David Lloyd Georgewas supposed to accompany Kitchener on the fatal journey, but cancelled at the last moment, has been given great significance by some. This fact, along with the alleged lethargy of the rescue efforts, has led some to claim that Kitchener was assassinated, or, somewhat more plausibly, that his death would have been convenient for a British establishment that had come to see him as figure from the past who was incompetent to wage modern war. Given that Kitchener's death hit Britain like a thunderclap and was widely perceived as a disaster for the war effort, this interpretation seems far-fetched, to say the least.
After the war, there were a number of conspiracy theories put forward, one by
Lord Alfred Douglas, positing a connection between Kitchener's death, the recent naval Battle of Jutland, Winston Churchilland a Jewish conspiracy. (Churchill successfully sued Douglas for criminal libel and the latter spent six months in prison.) Another claimed that the Hampshire did not strike a mine at all, but was sunk by explosives secreted in the vessel by Irish Republicans.
Probably the most spectacular Kitchener-related conspiracy was the effort in 1926 by a hoaxer named Frank Power to actually recover and bury Kitchener's body, which he claimed had been found by a Norwegian fisherman. He brought a coffin back from Norway and prepared it for burial in St. Paul's. At this point, however, the authorities intervened and the coffin was opened in the presence of police and a distinguished pathologist. The box was found to contain only tar for weight. There was widespread public outrage at Power, but he was ultimately never prosecuted. [ [http://www.hmshampshire.co.uk/ Hms hampshire ] at www.hmshampshire.co.uk]
The role of Fritz Joubert Duquesne in Kitchener's death has been hypothesised/documented in several books and movies:
*"The man who killed Kitchener; the life of Fritz Joubert Duquesne, 1879-", by Clement Wood. New York, W. Faro, inc., 1932.
*"Sabotage! The Secret War Against America", by Michael Sayers & Albert E. Kahn. Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1942.
*"The House on 92nd Street", won screenwriter Charles G. Booth an
Academy Awardfor the best original motion picture story, 1945.
*"Counterfeit Hero: Fritz Duquesne, Adventurer and Spy", by Art Ronnie. Naval Institute Press, 1995 ISBN 1-55750-733-3
Fräulein Doktor", a Dino DeLaurentisfilm [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0064350/ ""] , 1969.
*"The Man who would kill Kitchener", by
François Verster, a documentary film on the life of Fritz Joubert Duquesne that won six Stone awards, 1999.
* Following his death the town of Berlin,
Ontario, Canada, was renamed Kitchener in his honour. Mount Kitchenerin the Canadian Rockieswas also named in his honour. A memorial to him was erected on the nearby cliffs.
* A popular music-hall song "Kitchener - Gone but not forgotten!" was sung by F V St Clair shortly after his death.
* Earl Kitchener, Elementary School, is a dual-track (English and French) school of approximately 500 students. It is located in the west end of Hamilton, Ontario (Canada) below the Niagara Escarpment. A letter from Lord Kitchener suggests that the motto of this elementary school be "thoroughness."
* Lord Kitchener Elementary School is located on a 2.7–hectare site on the west side of Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). A frame building was constructed in 1914, and a main building in 1924. Both are still in use in 2007, but likely to be replaced after 2008 as they are not suitable for seismic upgrading.
* In the City of
Geelong, Victoria, Australia, the Kitchener Memorial Hospital was named in his honour. It is now known as Geelong Hospital. The original building is still in use although it no longer houses patients.
* A month after his death the Lord Kitchener National Memorial Fund was set up by the Lord Mayor of London to honour his memory. It was used to aid casualties of the war, both practically and financially; following the war's end, the fund was used to enable university educations for soldiers, ex-soldiers and their sons, a function it continues to perform today. [ [http://www.kitchenerscholars.org/pages/fund.htm The History of the Lord Kitchener National Memorial Fund] ]
* The Lord Kitchener Memorial Homes in Chatham were built with funds from public subscription following Kitchener's death. A small terrace of cottages, they are used to provide affordable rented accommodation for servicemen and women who have seen active service or their widows and widowers. [ [http://www.housingcorp.gov.uk/server/show/ConRSL.190 Lord Kitchener Memorial Homes Trust] ]
* The Kitchener Memorial on
Mainland, Orkneyis on the cliff edge at Marwick Head, near the spot where Kitchener died at sea. It is a square crenellated stone tower and bears the inscription: "This tower was raised by the people of Orkney in memory of Field Marshal Earl Kitchener of Khartoum on that corner of his country which he had served so faithfully nearest to the place where he died on duty. He and his staff perished along with the officers and nearly all the men of HMS Hampshire on 5th June, 1916." [ [http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/scotgaz/features/featurefirst11005.html Kitchener memorial] ] [ [http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/121054 Inscription on the Kitchener Memorial] ]
Debate on Kitchener's sexuality
Some biographers have concluded that Kitchener was a latent or active homosexual, though this is not universally accepted. Writers that make the case for his homosexuality include Montgomery Hyde, Ronald Hyam, Dennis Judd [Empire: The British Imperial Experience from 1765 to the Present; Dennis Judd, pp.172-176] and Richardson. Biographers who make the case against include Cassar, Pollock, and Warner. Magnus and Royle hint at homosexuality, though Magnus is said to have later recanted.
The proponents of the case point to Kitchener's friend Captain Oswald Fitzgerald, his "constant and inseparable companion," whom he appointed his aide-de-camp. They remained close until they met a common death on their voyage to Russia. [H. Montgomery Hyde, "The Love That Dared not Speak its Name;" p161] From his time in Egypt in 1892, he gathered around him a cadre of eager young and unmarried officers nicknamed "Kitchener's band of boys." He also avoided interviews with women, took a great deal of interest in the Boy Scout movement, and decorated his rose garden with four pairs of sculptured bronze boys. According to Hyam, "there is no evidence that he ever loved a woman". ["Empire and Sexuality: The British Experience," Ronald Hyam; pp.38-39]
A contemporary journalist remarked that Kitchener "has the failing acquired by most of the Egyptian officers, a taste for buggery". [Patrick Barkham [http://www.guardian.co.uk/gayrights/story/0,,1418932,00.html Navy's new message: your country needs you, especially if you are gay] "The Guardian" 21 February 2005] [Niall Ferguson [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=%2Farts%2F2001%2F02%2F17%2Fbokit17.xml A walking, talking ramrod?] 19 February 2001]
According to another writer, his interests were not exclusively homosexual. "When the great field marshal stayed in aristocratic houses, the well informed young would ask servants to sleep across their bedroom threshold to impede his entrance". His compulsive objective was sodomy, regardless of their gender. [
A.N. Wilson, The Victorians(2002) p598] J. B. Priestleynoted in his book on "The Edwardians" that one of Lord Kitchener's personal interests in life included planning and decorating his residences. He was also known to collect delicate china with a passion (such allusions to an 'artistic temperament' were a common code for implying homosexuality at that time).
However, he was apparently in love with, and may have been engaged to, Hermione Baker, the beautiful young daughter of
Valentine Baker, commander of the Egyptian gendarmerie, but she died from typhoid in January 1885, aged eighteen. In 1902 he unsuccessfully courted Lord Londonderry's daughter, Helen Mary Theresa. He was friendly, in her old age, with the courtesan Catherine Walters.
Kitchener in historical films
* In the film "Khartoum", mention is made of "Major Kitchener"'s involvement in the Gordon Relief Expedition of 1884-5.
* In the film "
Young Winston", Kitchener, portrayed by Sir John Mills, is shown disapproving of the young Winston Churchill's attempts to see action in Sudan. He disdainfully sweeps a book by Churchill into the bin, and is astonished when, during the battle of Omdurman, it is Lieutenant Churchill who brings him a message about the speed with which the enemy are approaching. Kitchener is incorrectly shown as wearing the insignia of a full general, a higher rank than he in fact held at that time.
* In the film "Breaker Morant", he is portrayed by Australian actor
Kitchener in fiction
* In the British
sitcom" Dad's Army", Lance Corporal Jonesrepeatedly tells tales of when he served under General Kitchener against the "Fuzzy Wuzzies" and mentions his involvement in the Battle of Omdurmanin the episode, The Two and a Half Feathers. The rumours about Kitchener's sexuality are briefly touched upon in the episode " Number Engaged": when Pike asked why Jones always put his hand on his hip in a somewhat flamboyant manner when imitating Kitchener, Jones replied that he didn't want to go into it.
* Kitchener was referred to in the novel "
Rilla of Ingleside" of Lucy Maud Montgomery.
* The sinking of the "HMS Hampshire" is portrayed in the 1969 film "
Fräulein Doktor", where Suzy Kendall's character relays information which leads to a U-Boat sinking the ship and killing Kitchener.
* Kitchener is mentioned in part 2 of "
A Star Called Henry" by Roddy Doyle.
* Kitchener makes two brief appearances as a character in the 2008 novel After Omdurman by John Ferry.
Kitchener, Ontario- Canadian city named after Horatio Kitchener, with a population of about 205,000 people
Scapegoats of the Empire
I Was Lord Kitchener's Valet, a clothing Boutique in 1960s swinging London.
Kitchener is a Senior Boys house at the
Duke of York's Royal Military Schoolwhere, like Welbeck college, all houses are named after prominent military figures.
* Ballard, Brigadier General Colin Robert "Kitchener" (Faber and Faber, London, 1930)
* Cassar, George "Kitchener" London: Kimber, 1977
* C. R. Conder and H. H. Kitchener, "Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of Topography, Orography, Hydrography and Archaeology", ed. E. H. Palmer and W. Besant, 3 vols. (London: Palestine Exploration Fund, 1881–1885).
* Fortescue, John William, Sir, 'Kitchener' in "Following the Drum" Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh, 1931, pp185–250.
* Yolande Hodson, "Kitchener, Horatio Herbert," in "The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East", ed. Eric M. Meyers (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997). Pages 300–301 ISBN 0-19-511217-2
* Hutchison, G.S. "Kitchener: The Man" (No imprint. 1943) With a foreword by Field Marshal Lord Birdwood
* King, P "The Viceroy's Fall: How Kitchener destroyed Curzon" S&J, 1986
* Magnus, Philip "Kitchener: Portrait of an Imperialist" 1958 (reissued 1968)
* McCormick D "The Mystery of Lord Kitchener's Death" (Putnam, 1959)
* Montgomery Hyde, Harford "The Other Love: An Historical and Contemporary Survey of Homosexuality in Britain" London: Mayflower Books Ltd, 1972
* Pollock, John "Kitchener: Architect of Victory, Artisan of Peace" Carroll & Graf Publishers (April 27, 2001), ISBN 0-7867-0829-8 [Frank McLynn [http://www.newstatesman.com/200102260041 England needs you. New biographies attempt to rehabilitate two of the most reviled figures from recent British military history - Lord Kitchener and Bomber Harris] "
New Statesman" 26 February 2001]
* Richardson, Major-General Frank M. "Mars Without Venus" 1981
* Royle, Trevor "The Kitchener Enigma" Michael Joseph, 1985
* Warner, Philip "Kitchener: The Man Behind the Legend" Cassell; New Ed edition, May 2006, ISBN 0-304-36720-6
* [http://www.kitchenerscholars.org/pages/fund.htm Kitchener Scholars' Fund]
* [http://www.melik.org.uk The Melik Society]
* [http://www.remuseum.org.uk/rem_his_bio.htm Royal Engineers Museum - Sapper Biographies]
* [http://www.hmshampshire.co.uk/ HMS Hampshire Home Page]
* [http://www.pef.org.uk/Pages/Kitchner.htm| A short biography by the Palestine Exploration Fund]
* [http://www.npg.org.uk/live/search/person.asp?search=ss&sText=Kitchener&LinkID=mp02564 National Portrait Gallery] 112 portraits [NPG site can be erratic.]
* [http://sudancampaign.blogspot.com/2005/11/sirdar.html The Sirdar]
*gutenberg|no=25795|name=Lord Kitchener A short biography written in 1917 by
G. K. Chesterton
NAME=Kitchener, Horatio Kitchener, 1st Earl
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Lord Kitchener, Kitchener, Horatio
SHORT DESCRIPTION=British general and politician
DATE OF BIRTH=
24 June 1850
PLACE OF BIRTH=
Ballylongford, County Kerry, Ireland
DATE OF DEATH=
5 June 1916
PLACE OF DEATH=
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