- Maithili language
Maithili मैथिली, মৈথিলী ,maithilī Spoken in India, Nepal Region Bihar, Jharkhand, parts of West Bengal in India, Terai Region in Nepal Native speakers 34.7 million (2000) Language family Writing system Kaithi, Mithilakshar Official status Regulated by No official regulation Language codes ISO 639-1 bh (Bihari) ISO 639-2 mai ISO 639-3 mai This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...
Maithili language (मैथिली, মৈথিলী, Maithilī) is spoken in the eastern region of India and South-eastern region of Nepal. The native speakers of Maithili reside in Bihar, Jharkhand,parts of West Bengal and South-east Nepal. The cultural and linguistic centers of Maithili in Bihar are the districts of Madhubani, Supaul, Araria, Darbhanga, Sitamarhi, Saharsa, Begusarai, Muzaffarpur, Sheohar, Samastipur, and Vaishali . Maithili is also spoken in the Terai region of Nepal, mainly in Narayani Zone, Janakpur Zone, Koshi Zone, and Sagarmatha Zone of Nepal. It is the second largest spoken language of Nepal (around 12%).
Linguists have classified Maithili as one of the Indo-Aryan languages. It is an offshoot of the Indo-Aryan languages, which is a branch of the Indo-European languages. Early Indo-Aryan languages(2500 BC to 500 BC)developed from Vedic Samskrit to Laukik Samskrit. Middle Indo-Aryan Languages (500 BC to 1000 AD) developed from Pali (early Prakrit, 500 BC to 100 BC)to Prakrit (middle Prakrit, 100 BC to 500 AD), Apbhramsha (neo Prakrit, 500 AD to 900 AD) and Avhattha (neo regional Prakrit, 900 AD to 1100 AD). From neo Magadhi Prakrit and its Variant Maithil Avahattha came Maithili Language(1000 AD). It is in the category of Modern Indo-Aryan Language (1000 AD to till date). Linguists consider Maithili to be an Eastern Indic language.
According to the 2001 census in India, 12,179,122 people speak Maithili. Maithili has 35 million (2000) native speakers in the world. In 2003, Maithili was included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution, which allows the language to be used in education, government, and other official contexts. Maithili has a rich literary and cultural heritage.
The first grammar of Maithili was written in the year 1880–81. A. F. Rudolf Hoernle published a Grammar of the Eastern Hindi from London in 1880 and compared with the other Gaudian Languages. In this Grammar, Dr. Hoernle recognized Maithili as a dialect distinct from Hindi. He was able to give some specimens of its grammatical forms, but no published materials were then available. The mis-classification by early linguists led to language politics in respect of Maithili.Beames (1872/reprint 1966: 84-85) considered Maithili as a dialect of Bengali. Grierson, however, adopted the notional term "Bihari" language for the language used in Bihar; it has since been shown to be a misnomer for Maithili.
Maithili is derived from Avahattha, the Maithil Apabhramsha, which is derived from Magadhi Apbhramsha. Maithili was traditionally written in the Maithili script (also known by the names Tirhuta ,i.e., Mithilakshar) and Kaithi script. The ISO of Unicode Technical Committee has approved the encoding of Kaithi and Tirhuta scripts. Nowadays, Devanagari script is most commonly used. An effort is underway to preserve the Maithili script and to develop it for use in digital media by encoding the script in the Unicode standard, for which proposals have been submitted by Sh. Anshuman Pandey (now it has been approved by the ISO, the Unicode Technical Committee).
The term Maithili comes from Mithila, which was an independent state in ancient times. Mithila is important in Hindu mythology, since it is regarded as the birth place of Goddess Sita, the daughter of King Janak of Mithila, who eventually gets married to Lord Rama.
The most famous literary figure in Maithili is poet Vidyapati(1350-1450), who wrote his poems in the language of the people, i.e. Maithili, at a time when state's official language used to be Sanskrit and Sanskrit was still being used as a literary language. The use of Maithili,instead of Sanskrit, in literature became more common after Vidyapati.
The name Maithili is derived from the word Mithila, an ancient kingdom of which King Janaka was the ruler (See Ramayana). Maithili is also one of the names of Sita, the wife of King Rama and daughter of King Janaka. Scholars in Mithila used Sanskrit for their literary work and Maithili was the language of the common folk (Abahatta). The earliest work in Maithili appears to be Varna(n) Ratnakar by Jyotirishwar Thakur dated about 1324.
With the fall of Pala rule, disappearance of Buddhism,establishment of karnāta kings and patronage of Maithili under Harasimhadeva (1226–1324) of karnāta dynasty, Jyotirisvara Thakur (1280–1340) wrote a unique work Varnaratnākara in pure Maithili prose, the earliest specimen of prose available in any Modern Indo-Aryan language.
In 1324, Ghyasuddin Tughluq, the emperor of Delhi invaded Mithila, defeated Harasimhadeva , entrusted Mithila to his family Priest Kameshvar Jha, a Maithil Brahmin of the Oinvar family but disturbed era did not produce any literature in Maithili until Vidyapati Thakur (1360 to 1450), who was an epoch making poet under the patronage of king Shiva Simha and his queen Lakhima Devi. He produced over a thousand immortal songs in Maithili on the theme of erotic sports of Radha and Krishna and the domestic life of Shiva and Parvatias well as on the subject of suffering of migrant labourers of Morang and their families; besides he wrote a number of treaties in Sanskrit on various subjects. His love-songs spread far and wide in no time and enchanted saints, poets and youth in general. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu saw divine light of love behind these songs, and soon these songs became themes of Vaisnava sect of Bengal. Rabindranath Tagore, out of curiosity, imitated these songs under the pseudonym Bhanusimha. Vidyapati influenced the religious literature of Asama, Banga and Utkala.
After the invasion of Mithila by the Sultan of Johnpur, Delhi, and the disappearance of Shivasimha in 1429, Onibar rule grew weaker and the literary activity shifted to present Nepal.
The earliest reference to Maithili or Tirhutiya is in Amaduzzi's preface to Beligatti's Alphabetum Brammhanicum, published in 1771. This contains a list of Indian languages amongst which is 'Tourutiana.' Colebrooke's essay on the Sanskrit and Prakrit languages, written in 1801, was the first to describe Maithili as a distinct dialect.
U Many devotional songs were written by vaisnava saints, including in the mid-17th century, Vidyapati and Govindadas. mapati Upadhyaya wrote a drama entitled pārijātaharaṇa in Maithili. A number of professional troupes, mostly from dalit classes known as Kirtanias, the singers of bhajan or devotional songs, started to perform this drama in public gatherings and the courts of the nobles. Lochana (Circa. 1575-1660) wrote Rāgatarangni, a significant treatise on the science of music, describing the rāgas, tālas and lyrics prevalent in Mithila.
The Malla dynasty's mother tongue was Maithili, which spread far and wide throughout Nepal from the 16th to the 17th century. During this period, at least 70 Maithili dramas were produced. In the drama Harishchandranrityam by Siddhinarayanadeva (1620–57), some characters speak pure colloquial Maithili, while others speak Bangla, Sanskrit or Prakrit. The Nepal tradition may be linked with the Ankiya Nāta in Assam and Jatra in Orissa.
After the demise of Maheshwar Singh, the ruler of Darbhanga Raj, in 1860, the Raj was taken over by the British Government as regent. The return of the Darbhanga Raj to his successor, Maharaj Lakshmishvar Singh, in 1898. But these happenings has nothing to do with the use of Maithili Language, as the Zamindari Raj has lackadaisical approach towards Maithili Language. The use of Maithili language was revived, however, through personal efforts of MM Parameshvar Mishra, Chanda Jha, Munshi Raghunandan Das and others.
Publication of Maithil Hita Sadhana (1905), Mithila Moda (1906), and Mithila Mihir (1908), further encouraged writers. The first social organization, Maithil Mahasabha was established in 1910 for the development of Mithila and Maithili, but it blocked its membership for people outside from the Maithil Brahmin and Karna Kayastha castes. Maithil Mahasabha campaigned for the official recognition of Maithili as a regional language. Calcutta University recognized Maithili in 1917, and other universities followed suit.
In 1965, Maithili was officially accepted by Sahitya Academy, an organization dedicated to the promotion of Indian literature.
In 2003 Maithili was recognized on the VIII schedule of the Indian Constitution as a major Indian language; Maithili is now one of the 22 national languages of India.
The main characteristics of Magadhi Prakrit is to corrupt ‘r’ into ‘s’, the ‘n’ for n, of ‘j’ for ‘y’, of ‘b’ for ‘y’ In the edicts of Ashoka the change of ‘r’ to ‘h’ is established. Mahavir and Buddha delivered their sermons in the eastern languages.The secular use of language came mainly from the east as will be evident from the Prakritpainglam, a comprehensive work on Prakrit and Apabhramsa-Avahatta poetry. Jyotirishwar mentions Lorika. Vachaspati II in his Tattvachintamani and Vidyapati in his Danavakyavali have profusely used typical Maithili words of daily use. The Maithili script, Mithilakshara or Tirhuta as it is popularly known, is of a great antiquity.. The Lalitavistara mentions the Vaidehi script. Early in the latter half of the seventh century A. D., we find a marked change in the north-eastern alphabet and the inscriptions of Adityasena exhibit this change for the first time and hence forward the eastern variety develops by itself and becomes the Maithili script—a script which ultimately comes into use in Assam, Bengal and Nepal.The earliest recorded epigraphic evidence of the script is to be found in the Mandar Hill Stone inscriptions of Adityasena (c. 7th century A. D.), now fixed in the Baidyanath temple, Deoghar.
The Kamrupa dialect was originally a variety of eastern Maithili and it was, no doubt, the spoken Aryan language throughout the kingdom which then included the whole of Assam valley and whole of North Bengal with the addition of the district of Purnea. The language of the Buddhist Dohas is described as belonging to the mixed Maithili—Kamrupi language.
Early Maithili Literature (C. 700-1350 A.D.)-The period was of ballads, songs, and dohas. Some important Maithili writers of of this era were:
- Sarahapad (700 AD-780 AD)
- Jyotirishwar Thakur (1290 to 1350) whose 'Varnartnakar' is a the first prose and encyclopedia in any north Indian language;
Middle Maithili Literature (C. 1350-1830 A.D.)-The period was of theatrical writings. Some important Maithili writers of of this era were:
- Vidyapati (1350 to 1450)
- Srimanta Sankardeva (1449 to 1568)
- Mahesh Thakur
- Karn Jayanand
Modern Maithili Literature (1830 A.D. to date)-
Modern Maithili came into its own after Sir George Abraham Grierson, an Irish linguist and civil servant, tirelessly researched Maithili folklore and transcribed its grammar. Paul R. Brass wrote that "Grierson judged that Maithili and its dialects could fairly be characterized as the language of the entire population of Darbhanga and Bhagalpur districts and of a majority or a significant minority of the populations of Muzaffarpur, Monghyer, Purnia and Santhal Parganas." In April 2010 a translation of the New Testament into Maithili was published by the Bible Society of India under joint copyright with Wycliffe Bible Translators.
The development of Maithili in modern era was due to various magazines and journals. Some notable journals, which led to the resurgence in modern writing, are Maithil Hit Sadhana (Jaipur,1905), Mithila Moda (Varanasi, 1905), Mithila Mihir(Darbhanga and Patna—), ShriMaithili (Laheriasarai—), Mithila (Laheriasarai—), Maithila Bandhu (Ajmer—), Bharati (Laheriasarai—), Bibhuti (Muzaffarpur—) Sahitya Patra (Darbhanga—)Vaidehi (Kasi-) (Sitamarhi—)(Darbhanga—), Satyasandesha (Kasi—), Swadesha(Darbhanga—), Maithila Jyoti (Patna—), Mithilascvaka (Calcutta—), Mithila Darshan (again Maithili Darsana and now again Mithila Darshan)(Calcutta—), Chaupadi (Patna—), Mithila (Darbhanga—), Pallava (Nehra), Abhivyanjana (Patna,Saharsa), Dainik Swadesha (Darbhanga), Sanjiwani (Laheriasarai), Akhar (Calcutta), Mithilabani (Darbhanga—), Mithila Mitra (Sultanganj), Tatka (Jamshedpur), Batuk (Allahabad), Dhiyaputa (Lohna), Sishu (Darbhanga), Ijot (Darbhanga), Janak (Darbhanga)Nirman (Laheriasarai) Matribani (Tharhi)Matribani (Darbhanga)Nutan Vishwa (Laheriasarai), Maithili Samachar (Allahabad), Mithila Amar(Aligarh), Mithila Doot (Kanpur), Mithili Alok (Ferozabad), Sonamatl (Patna), Swadeshvani (Deoghar), Anama (Patna), Sannipata (Patna), Maithili (Biratnagar), Foolpat (Kathmandu), Agnipatra (Calcutta), Maithili Prakash (Calcutta), Mithila Bharati (Patna), Apan Desha (Laheriasarai), Mithila Bhumi (Latheriasari), Mithila Times (Darbhanga), Changur (Saharsa), Sakti Bhumi Maithili Kavita (Calcutta), Ego Rahathi Raja Lai Dhuan (Shivanagar), Bhumhar (Laheriasarai), Shikha (Calcutta), Mahur Darbhanga), LokemanchFarak (Patna), Karnamrit (Calcutta), Desil Bayana (Calcutta), Desh kosh (Calcutta), Aarumbha (Patna) ,Matipani (Patna), Videha ejournal, Videha-Sadeha (Delhi), Antika (Ghaziabad), Mithila srijan (Madhubani), Samay saal (Patna), Ghar Bahar (Patna), Vidyapati Times (Darbhanga), Gamghar (Janakpur), Purvottar Maithil(Guwahati, Assam, by Satyanand pathak), Purvottar Maithil samaj(Guwahati, Assam), Hilkor (Khagaria), Dachhin Mithila (Begusarai), Maithili Sandesh(Ranchi,1994),Mithila Samad (Daily Newspaper,Kolkata, 31st Aug 2008 to till date).
Some important writers of this era are:
- Chanda Jha (1831–1907)
- Lal Das (1856–1921)
- MM Parmeshwar Jha (1856–1924)
- Munshi Raghunandan Das (1860–1945)
- Rasbihari Lal Das (1872–1940)
- Dinbandhu Jha (1878–1955)
- Pt. Ramji Chaudhary (1878–1952)
- Acharya Ramlochan Saran (1889–1971)
- Sitaram Jha (1891–1975)
- Badrinath Jha (1893–1973)
- Babu Dhanushdhari Lal Das (1895–1965)
- Bhola Lal Das (1897–1977)
- Kumar Ganganand Singh (1898–1971)
- Damodar Lal Das Visharad (1904–1981)
- Babuaji Jha "Agyat" (1904–1996)
- Ramanath Jha (1906–1971)
- Kashikant Mishra "Madhup" (1906–1987)
- Kanchinath Jha 'Kiran'(1906–1988)
- Isnath Jha(1907–1965)
- Bhuvneshwar Singh "Bhuwan"(1907–1944)
- Hari Mohan Jha (1908–1984) published the collection Khattar kaka
- Subhadra Jha(1909–2000)
- Tantranath Jha(1909–1984)
- Surendra Jha 'Suman' (1910–2002) represented Maithili in the Sahitya Akademi
- Baidyanath Mishra 'Yatri' (June 30, 1911 – November 4, 1998) wrote Hindi as Nagarjun, was conferred Sahitya Akademi, Delhi Fellowship (India's top literary honour) as a Hindi and Maithili Poet in 1994
- Arsi Prasad Singh(1911–1996)
- Vaidyanath Mallik "Vidhu"(1912–1987)
- Upendra Thakur "Mohan(1913-1980)
- Ramcharitra Pandey "Anu"(1917–2010)
- Upendra Nath Jha "Vyas" (1917–2002), an engineer by profession, "Doo Patra", his most famous work, exhibited the goods and the evils of the Maithili society.
- Manmohan Jha(1918–2009)
- Brajkishor Varma "Manipadm"(1918–1986)
- Budhidhari Singh "Ramakar"(1919–1991)
- Radha Krishna Choudhary (1921–1985)
- Sudhanshu Shekhar Chaudhari (1922–1990)
- Jaykant Mishra (20.12.1922 – 3.2.2009) represented Maithili in the Sahitya Akademi
- Chandrabhanu Singh(1922- )
- Govind Jha(1923- )
- Yoganand Jha(1923–1986)
- Ramkrishna Jha "Kishun"(1923–1970)
- Umanath Jha(1923–2009)
- Prabodh Narayan Singh(1924–2005)
- Anima Singh(1924- )
- Jayamant Mishra (15.10.1925 – 7.9.2010)
- Chandranath Mishra "Amar" (1925- )was conferred Sahitya Akademi, Delhi's Fellowship (India's top literary honour) as a Maithili writer in 2010
- Anant Bihari Lal das "Indu"(1928–2010)
- Rajkamal Chaudhary (1929–1967)
- Durganath Jha "Sreesh(1929- )
- Shailendra Mohan Jha(1929-1994)
- Gopaljee Jha "Gopesh" (1931–2008)
- Lili Rey(1933- )
- Kalikant Jha "Buch" (1934–2009)
- Rajmohan Jha(1934- )
- Dr. Dhirendra(1934–2004)
- Mayanand Mishra(1934- )
- Somdev(1934- )
- Ramanand Renu(1934- )
- Rambhadra(1935- )
- Kedarnath Chaudhary(1936- )
- Jeevkant(1936- )
- Pt. Tarakant Jha
- Shri Tarakant Jha - Editor "Mithila Samad"
- Ramdev Jha(1936- )
- Binod Bihari Verma (1937–2003)
- Birendra Mallik(1937- )
- Kirtinarayan Mishra(1937- )
- Praphulla Kumar Singh "Maun"(1938- )
- Kulanand Mishra(1940–2000)
- Bilat Paswan "Vihangam"(1940- )
- Fazlur Rahman "Hashmi"(1940- )
- Saketanand(1940- )
- Prabhas Kumar Chaudhary(1941–1998), was conferred Sahitya Akademi Award in 1990(Prabhasak Katha-Maithili)
- Gangesh Gunjan(1942- )
- Premshankar Singh(1942- )
- Markandey Pravasi(1942–2010)
- Dr.Devendra Jha(1943- )
- Dr Bina Thakur
- '''Dr.Raman Jha'''-(1957- )
- Shanti Suman(1942- )
- Upendra Doshi(1943–2001)
- Uday Chandra Jha "Vinod"(1943- )
- Revati Raman Lal(1943- )
- Mohan Bhardvaj(1943- )
- Shefalika Varma(1943- )
- Mantreshwar Jha(1944- )
- Bhimnath Jha(1945- )
- Prabhavati Jha(1945–1999)
- Ilarani Singh(1945–1993)
- Ushakiran Khan(1945- )
- Nirja Renu(1945- )
- Mahendra Malangia(1946- )
- Veena Karn(1946- )
- Mahaprakash(1946- )
- Jagdish Prasad Mandal (1947 – )
- Subhash Chandra Yadav(1948- )
- Siyaram Jha Saras(1948- )
- Agnipushp(1948- )
- Ramanand Jha "Raman"(1949- )
- Ramlochan Thakur(1949- )
- Vidyanath Jha "Vidit"
- Naresh Kumar Vikal(1950- )
- Harekrishna Jha(1950- )
- Sukant Som (1950- )
- Udaya Narayana singh "Nachiketa"(1951- )
- Rambharos Kapari Bhramar(1951- )
- Kunal(1951- )
- Dr. Chandramani Jha(1952- )
- Shailendra Kumar Jha(1952- )
- Shivshankar Sriniwas(1953- )
- Ashok(1953- )
- Vibhuti Anand(1953- )
- Kamla Chaudhary(1953- )
- Laxman Jha Sagar(1953- )
- Arvind Thakur(1954- )
- Shyam Darihare(1954- )
- Yoganand Jha(1955- )
- Narayanji(1956- )
- Kumar Pawan(1958- )
- Maneshwar Manuj(1958- )
- Vibha Rani(1959- )
- Kedar Kanan(1959- )
- Ramesh(1961- )
- Meghan Prasad(1961- )
- Satyanand pathak(1961- )
- Susmita Pathak(1962- )
- Devshankar Navin(1962- )
- Jyotsna Chandram(1963- )
- Pradip Bihari(1963- )
- Vidyanand Jha(1965- )
- Taranand Viyogi(1966- )
- Ramesh Ranjan(1966- )
- Dhirendra Premarshi(1967- )
- Sunil Kumar Mallick (1968- )
- Krishna Mohan Jha(1968- )
- Analkant(1969- )
- Daman Kumar Jha(1969- )
- Anmol Jha(1970- )
- Gajendra Thakur (1971 – )
- Munnaji (1971- )
- Shiv Kumar Jha(1973- )
- Sri Dharam(1974- )
- Anand Kumar Jha(1977- )
- Vinit Utpal(1978- )
- Umesh Mandal(1980- )
- Amarendra Yadav
- Shankardeo Jha
- Roshan Janakpuri
- Rajdeo Mandal
- Bechan Thakur
- Prity Thakur
- Ashish Anchinhar
- Rupesh Kumar Jha 'Teoth'
- Durganand Mandal
- Rabi Bhushan Pathak
- Jyoti Sunit Chaudhary
- '''Sumit Anand'''-(1992- )
Kavishwar Chanda Jha was famous as "Kavichandra", he wrote Ramayan in Maithili (Mithila bhasha Ramayan), Geeti Sudha, Maheshvani Samgraha,Chandra Padavali,Laxmishwar Vilas,Ahilya Charit and he translated from Samskrit into Maithili the Purush ParikSha of Vidyapati. Mahakavi Laldas wrote Rameshwar Charit Ramayan, strishiksha,savitri satyavan, chandi charit and virudavali.
Some other modern Maithili writers and their works are: Dhirendra (Bhorukba, Kado Aa Koila), Sudhansu Sekhar Chaudhary (Tarpatta upper Patta, E Bataha Sansar), Somadeva (Hotel Anarkali/Chano Dai), Manipadma (Vidyapati, Ardhanariswara, Raja Salhesa, Lorika Vijaya, Naika-Banjara, winner of Akademy award, Dulara Dayal, Kobra Girl, Kanki, Analapatha), Prabhas Kumar Choudhary (Abhispta/ Yugapurusha/ Hamara Lag Rahab), Jivakant (Du Kuhesa Ka Bat, Panipata, Aginaban, Piar Gulab Chhal, Nahi, Katahu Nahi), Ramanand Renu (Dudh-Phool ) , Lalit (Prithviputra), Raj Kamal (Andolana), Mayanand Mishra (Khota Aa Chirai), Shashikant (Girahkatta, Akasadeepa), Trilokanath Mishra (Ranjana), Bindeshwar Mandal (Bat Ka Bhent, Jindagi Ka Genth), Gangesa Gunjan (Appana Loka), Gauri Mishra (Chingi), Laliteshwar Mallik (Dain), Gajendra Thakur (Sahasrabadhani, Sahasrashirsha, Sahasrabdik Chaupar Par, Tvanchahanch, Asanjati Man,Sankarshan), Jagdish Prasad Mandal (Gamak Jingi), Kalikant Jha Buch (Kalanidhi), RasBihari Lal das (Sumati), Nachiketa (No etrt :maa pravish, pratyavartan), Bechan Thakur (Betik Apman aa Chhinardevi), Umesh Mandal (Nistuki), Shankardeo Jha (Sandhi samas), Ravi Bhushan Pathak (Rehearshal), Shiv Kumar Jha (Anshu, Kshanprabha), Prity Thakur (Gonu Jha aa aan Maithili Chitrakatha,2008, Maithili Chitrakatha, 2009 and Mithilak Lokdevta, 2010), Devanshu Vatsha (Natasha, 2009), Subhash Chandra Yadava (Ghardekhia, Banait-Bigrait), Kedarnath Chaudhary (Chamelirani), Dhoomketu (Mor par), Saketanand (Sarvashvant),Vibha Rani (Bhagrau aa Balchanda), Taranand viyogi (Tumi chir sarathi, Karmdharay, Pralaya Rahasya), Narendra Jha (Vikas o Arthatantra), Panna Jha (Anubhuti), Vinit Utpal (Ham Puchhait Chhi), Jyoti Sunit Chaudhary (Archis), Nagendra Kumar (Sasarphani), Prabodh Narayan Singh (Hathik daant), Gopalji Jha Gopesh (Makhanak paat, Gumma Bhel tharh chhi), DeoShankar navin (Aadhunik Sahityak Paridrishya),Satyanand Pathak (Hamar Gaam), Madaneshwar Mishra (Ek Chhalih Maharani), Brikhesh Chandra Lal (Malha) .
References and further reading
- ^ Maithili language at Ethnologue
- ^ Lewis, M. P. (ed.) (2009) Maithili In: Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International.
- ^ (Grierson, 1883a and 1918; Chatterji, 1926/1970; S. Jha, 1958; G. Jha, 1974; Jeffers, 1976; Mishra, 1976) classification of the Indo-Aryan languages]. Place of Maithili under Indo-European Languages group of the world Languages. :-
- ^ Beames (1872/reprint 1966: 84-85) wrongly says Maithili is a dialect of Bengali; Grierson (e.g. 1881, 1883a, 1885 and 1903/reprint 1968) wrongly grouped it under Bihari Languages! Language Politics. Maithili - a case study of Language Politics
- ^ S. Jha, 1958; Mishra, 1969 and 1976; G. Jha, 1974; R. Yadav, 1979a and 1981 Bihari Language- the term is a myth.
- ^ Chatterji (1926/reprint 1970) says "Maithili belongs to the group of Magdhi¬Apabhransa. Maithili and Magahi Apbhramsha'. Maithili - modern classification
- ^ Pandey, Anshuman, http://anshumanpandey.com/, (2009) Towards an Encoding for the Maithili Script in ISO/IEC 10646. 
- ^ Pandey, A. (2006) Request to Allocate the Maithili Script in the Unicode Roadmap
- ^ ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 N4035 L2/11-175,Proposal to Encode the Maithili Script in ISO/IEC 10646 Anshuman Pandey, Department of History, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A., 2011-05-05, May 5, 2011 http://std.dkuug.dk/JTC1/SC2/WG2/docs/n4035.pdf Figure 11: Excerpt from a Maithili e-journal published as PDF (from Videha 2011: 22; Videha: A fortnightly Maithili e-journal. Issue 80 (April 15, 2011), Gajendra Thakur [ed]. http://www.videha.co.in/ ."Gajendra Thakur of New Delhi graciously met with me and corresponded at length about Maithili, offered valuable specimens of Maithili manuscripts, printed books, and other records, and provided feedback regarding requirements for the encoding of Maithili in the UCS."
- ^ Radhakrishna Chaudhary, 1976; A survey of Maithili Literature, reprint 2010, Shruti Publication, Delhi
- ^ K. L. Barua-Early History of Kamrupa, p. 318
- ^ Brass, P. R. (1974) Language, Religion and Politics in North India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974. page 64
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- http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mai Ethnologue: Maithili]
- Maithili at the Rosetta Project
- National Translation Mission's (NTM) Maithili Pages
- The Linguist List: The Maithili Language
- Videha Ist Maithili ejournal -ISSN 2229-547X
- Maithili Books
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