Lori dialects

Lori dialects
Spoken in Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Germany
Region Southern Zagros (mainly in the Loristan province.)
Ethnicity Lurs
Native speakers ca. 3.4 million  (1999–2001)
Language family
Language codes
ISO 639-3 variously:
lrc – Northern Luri
bqi – Bakhtiari
luz – Southern Luri
zum – Kumzari

Lori or Luri (Lori/Persian: لری, pronounced [loriː], [luriː]) is a collection of Southwestern Iranian languages[2][3] which are mainly spoken by the Lurs and Bakhtiari people in the Iranian provinces of Loristan, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad and parts of Khuzestan and Esfahan province and Fars provinces. Lori is a descendant of a variant of Middle Persian[4] and is lexically similar to modern Persian.[4] According to the linguist Don Stillo: "Persian, Lori-Baḵtiāri and others, are derived directly from Old Persian through Middle Persian/Pahlavi".[5] These dialects are also referred to as the “Persid” southern Zagros group.[6] The special character of the Lori language suggests that its spreading area was Iranicized from Persia and not from Media.[7][8]

"Luri and Bakhtiari are much more closely related to Persian, than Kurdish."[9] And Lori also represents a language continuum between Persian language and Kurdish language varieties, and is itself composed of three distinct languages: Loristani, Bakhtiari and Southern Lori. Traditionally, Lori has been categorised as a single language. Some scholars have stated that Lori is only a highly accented or لهجه (lahjeh) form of Persian. And, on the other hand, some researchers are supporting the division of the Lori continuum into more than one language.[4] There do exist transitional dialects between Southern Kurdish and Lori-Bakhtiāri, and Lori-Bakhtiāri itself may be called a transitional idiom between Kurdish and Persian.[10]

SIL Ethnologue lists four Lori language dialects,

  • Northern Lori [lrc], ca. 1,500,000 speakers as of 2001
  • Bakhtiari [bqi], ca. 2,300,000 speakers as of 2001
  • Southern Lori [luz], ca. 875,000 speakers as of 1999
  • Kumzari [zum], spoken in the Musandam Peninsula of northern Oman, ca. 1,700 speakers as of 1993.

See also


  1. ^ Skjærvø, Prods Oktor (15 December 2006). "IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS". Encyclopaedia Iranica Online. New York: Columbia University. http://www.iranica.com/articles/iran-vi-iranian-languages-and-scripts. Retrieved 2010-05-23. "Lori (in several varieties) and Baḵtiāri... These are also called the “Perside” dialects." 
  2. ^ http://iranica.com/articles/lori-dialects
  3. ^ Lecoq P. Les dialectes du sud-ouest de l'Iran // Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Wiesbaden, 1989.
  4. ^ a b c Erik John Anonby, "Update on Luri: How many languages?" // Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Third Series), Volume 13, Issue 02, Jul 2003, pp 171–197
  5. ^ Don Stillo, "Isfahan-Provincial Dialetcs" in Encyclopedia Iranica, Excerpt: "While the modern SWI languages, for instance, Persian, Lori-Baḵtiāri and others, are derived directly from Old Persian through Middle Persian/Pahlavi"
  6. ^ Bakhtiari tribe and the Bakhtiari dialect, Encyclopedia Iranica
  7. ^ Yar-Shater, Ehsan. 1982. Encyclopaedia Iranica. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. V, p. 617a
  8. ^ Houtsma, M. T., 1987. E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936. Published by BRILL. Lur. p. 41. (and p. 281) ISBN 9004082654, ISBN 9789004082656
  9. ^ Limbert, John: Journal of Iranian Studies Vol. 1, No. 2 at p. 47 (1968) (http://www.kavehfarrokh.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/origins-of-kurds-in-preislamic-iran.pdf), "The Origin and Appearance of Kurds in Pre-Islamic Iran".
  10. ^ kurdish language, Encyclopedia Iranica

External links

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